Orionides

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Orionides
Temporal range: Middle Jurassic-Holocene, 170–0Ma
Piatnitzkysaurus.jpg
Skeleton of a piatnitzkysaurid (Piatnitzkysaurus floresi)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Clade: Theropoda
Clade: Tetanurae
Clade: Orionides
Carrano, Benson & Sampson, 2012
Clades
Synonyms

Orionides is a clade of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic to the Present. The clade includes most theropod dinosaurs, including birds.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Although many phylogenetic analyses found basal tetanurans that were outside both Megalosauroidea and Avetheropoda, the core dichotomy was named only in 2012. Carrano, Benson and Sampson (2012) named that clade Orionides, and defined it as the node comprising Megalosauroidea, Avetheropoda, their most recent common ancestor, and all its descendants. The cladogram presented below follows their phylogenetic analysis after the exclusion of the three "wildcard" taxa Poekilopleuron, Xuanhanosaurus and Streptospondylus.[1]

Neotheropoda

Coelophysoidea


Averostra

Ceratosauria


Tetanurae

Cryolophosaurus



"Dilophosaurus" sinensis




Chuandongocoelurus



Monolophosaurus


Orionides
Megalosauroidea
1

Marshosaurus




Condorraptor



Piatnitzkysaurus




2
3


Baryonyx



Suchomimus





Angaturama



Irritator



Spinosaurus




4


Eustreptospondylus






Duriavenator




Megalosaurus



Torvosaurus






Afrovenator




Dubreuillosaurus



Magnosaurus





Leshansaurus



Piveteausaurus








Avetheropoda
Coelurosauria

Lourinhanosaurus



Other coelurosaurians



Allosauroidea
5


Yangchuanosaurus zigongensis




CV 00214



Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis






Shidaisaurus




Metriacanthosaurus




"Sinraptor" hepingensis




Sinraptor dongi



Siamotyrannus







6
7

Allosaurus



Saurophaganax



8
9

Neovenator




Chilantaisaurus





Australovenator



Fukuiraptor





Aerosteon



Megaraptor






10


Eocarcharia



Concavenator





Acrocanthosaurus




Shaochilong




Carcharodontosaurus



Tyrannotitan




Giganotosaurus



Mapusaurus
















1 Piatnitzkysauridae, 2 Megalosauria, 3 Spinosauridae, 4 Megalosauridae, 5 Metriacanthosauridae, 6 Allosauria, 7 Allosauridae, 8 Carcharodontosauria, 9 Neovenatoridae, 10 Carcharodontosauridae

Range[edit]

Large, predatory spinosaurids and allosaurids flourished during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, especially in Gondwana, but seem to have died out before the end of the Cretaceous, possibly due to competition from abelisaurid ceratosaurs and tyrannosaurid coelurosaurs. The diverse coelurosaurs persisted until the end of the Mesozoic Era, when all except for crown clade avians died out. Modern birds are the only living representatives of the clade Tetanurae.

Etymology[edit]

The clade name "Orionides" was first established by Matthew T. Carrano, Roger B. J. Benson and Scott D. Sampson in 2012. It is derived from Orion, the giant hunter of Greek mythology in references to the large size and carnivorism of basal orionidans. The name also refers to the alternate name for the constellation of Orion, Alektropodion, meaning "chicken foot".[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Carrano, M. T.; Benson, R. B. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2012). "The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (2): 211–300. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.630927.  edit