Ormosia

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For the chioneine crane fly genus, see Ormosia (insect).
Ormosia
Ormosia minor - Jardim Botânico de São Paulo - IMG 0302.jpg
Seeds of Ormosia minor
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Ormosieae[1]
Genus: Ormosia
Jacks. nom. cons.
Species

129–154; see text

Synonyms[2]
  • Anatropostylia (Plitmann) Kupicha
  • Fedorouia (lapsus)
  • Fedorovia Yakovlev
  • Layia Hook. & Arn. (non Hook. & Arn. ex DC.: nom. rej.)
  • Macrotropis DC.
  • Macroule Pierce
  • Ormosiopsis Ducke
  • Placolobium Miq.
  • Podopetalum F.Muell.
  • Ruddia Yakovlev
  • Toulichiba Adans. nom. rej.
  • Trichocyamos Yakovlev

Ormosia is a genus of legumes (family Fabaceae). The more than 100 living species, mostly trees or large shrubs, are distributed throughout the tropical regions of the world, some extending into temperate zones, especially in East Asia. A few species are threatened by habitat destruction, while the Hainan Ormosia (Ormosia howii) is probably extinct already.

Plants in this genus are commonly known as horse-eye beans or simply ormosias, and in Spanish by the somewhat ambiguous term "chocho". The scientific name Ormosia is a nomen conservandum, overruling Toulichiba which is formally rejected under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.[2]

The seeds of these plants are poisonous if eaten, but often look pretty, with bright colors and decorative patterns reminiscent of an eye; the common name "horse-eye beans" refers to these seeds. They resemble the seeds of Abrus, snoutbeans (Rhynchosia), and Adenanthera, but are much larger than the former two. In particular those of Ormosia coccinea are often used for jewelry and other decorative purposes, or as good luck charms. The seeds float and are occasionally found as "sea beans".

Otherwise, Ormosia wood is used as timber or firewood. Some species, for example Ormosia nobilis, are also used in folk medicine.[3]

Species[edit]

Ormosia comprises the following species:[4][5][6]

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status[edit]

The status of the following species is unresolved:[6][verification needed]

  • Ormosia apiculata H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia carinata N.Zamora
  • Ormosia clementis Merr.
  • Ormosia dubia Prain
  • Ormosia esquirolii H.Lév.
  • Ormosia floribunda Wall.
  • Ormosia friburgensis Taub. ex Harms
  • Ormosia galericulata C.H. Stirt.
  • Ormosia howii Merr. & Chun
  • Ormosia indurata H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia inflata Merr. & Chun
  • Ormosia longipes H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia microphylla Merr.
  • Ormosia monophylla (Harms) Stapf
  • Ormosia nanningensis H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia olivacea H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia pachyptera H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia panamensis Benth. ex Seem.
  • Ormosia pingbianensis M. Cheng & R.H. Chang
  • Ormosia purpureiflora H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia ridleyi King
  • Ormosia sericeolucida H.Y. Chen
  • Ormosia simplicifolia Merr. & Chun
  • Ormosia vagraja C.H. Stirt.
  • Ormosia xylocarpa Chun ex Merr. & H.Y. Chen
  • Placolobium ellipticum N.D. Khoi & Yakovlev[11]
  • Placolobium vietnamense N.D. Khoi & Yakovlev[11]
  • Placolobium watsonii (C. Fischer) Yakovlev[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  2. ^ a b USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (5 Oct 2007). "GRIN record for genus Ormosia". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 24 Dec 2008. 
  3. ^ Marín-Corba C, Cárdenas-López D, Suárez-Suárez S. (2005). "Utilidad del valor de uso en etnobotánica. Estudio en el departamento de Putumayo (Colombia)" [Use Value usefulness in ethnobotany. Case study in Putumayo department (Colombia)]. Caldasia 27 (1): 89–101. 
  4. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Ormosia". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 22 May 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Ormosia". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "The Plant List entry for Ormosia". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  7. ^ Meireles JE, de Lima HC. (2013). "A new species of Ormosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest". Phytotaxa 143 (1): 54–60. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.143.1.3. 
  8. ^ Cardoso DBOS, de Queiroz LP. (2010). "Ormosia limae (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae): A New Species from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil". Syst Bot 35 (2): 272–276. doi:10.1600/036364410791638441. 
  9. ^ Aymard GA, Sanoja E. (2012). "A New Species of Ormosia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, Sophoreae) from the Guayana Shield, Bolivar State, Venezuela". Harvard Pap Bot 17 (2): 275–279. doi:10.3100/025.017.0206. 
  10. ^ Cardoso DBOS, Meireles JE, de Lima HC. (2009). "A remarkable new species of Ormosia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae) from Bahian Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil". Brittonia 61 (1): 22–27. doi:10.1007/s12228-008-9051-y. 
  11. ^ a b c These three are accepted species, but have yet to be formally transferred to Ormosia.