Ornithomimosauria

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Ornithomimosaurs
Temporal range: Early - Late Cretaceous, 140–66Ma
[1]
Struthiomimus ROM.jpg
Cast of an ornithomimid (Struthiomimus altus) skeleton, Royal Tyrrell Museum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Theropoda
Clade: Maniraptoriformes
Clade: Ornithomimosauria
Barsbold, 1976
Subgroups[1]

Beishanlong
Deinocheirus
Garudimimus
Harpymimus
Hexing[2]
Kinnareemimus
Nqwebasaurus[3]
Pelecanimimus
Shenzhousaurus
Thecocoelurus[4]
Valdoraptor[4]
Ornithomimidae

Synonyms
  • Arctometatarsalia Holtz, 1994

The Ornithomimosauria, ornithomimosaurs ("bird-mimic lizards") or ostrich dinosaurs[5] were theropod dinosaurs which bore a superficial resemblance to modern ostriches. They were fast, omnivorous or herbivorous dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period of Laurasia (now Asia, Europe and North America), as well as Africa.[6] The group first appeared in the Early Cretaceous and persisted until the Late Cretaceous. Primitive members of the group include Nqwebasaurus, Pelecanimimus, Shenzhousaurus, Hexing and probably the huge Deinocheirus, the arms of which reached 2.4 m (8 feet) in length. More advanced species, members of the family Ornithomimidae, include Gallimimus, Struthiomimus, and Ornithomimus. Some paleontologists, like Paul Sereno, consider the enigmatic alvarezsaurids to be close relatives of the ornithomimosaurs and place them together in the superfamily Ornithomimoidea (see classification below).

Description[edit]

The skulls of ornithomimosaurs were small, with large eyes, above relatively long and slender necks. Some primitive species (such as Pelecanimimus and Harpymimus) had teeth, but most had toothless beaks.

Struthiomimus sedens forelimb, showing claws (OUMNH)

The fore limbs ("arms") were long and slender and bore powerful claws. The hind limbs were long and powerful, with a long foot and short, strong toes terminating in hooflike claws. Ornithomimosaurs were probably among the fastest of all dinosaurs. Like other coelurosaurs, the ornithomimosaurian hide was feathered rather than scaly.

Biology[edit]

Ornithomimosaurs probably acquired most of their calories from plants. Many ornithomimosaurs, including primitive species, have been found with numerous gastroliths in their stomachs, characteristic of herbivores. Henry Fairfield Osborn suggested that the long, sloth-like "arms" of ornithomimosaurs may have been used to pull down branches on which to feed, an idea supported by further study of their strange, hook-like hands.[7] The sheer abundance of ornithomimids — they are the most common small dinosaurs in North America — is consistent with the idea that they were plant eaters, as herbivores usually outnumber carnivores in an ecosystem. However, they may have been omnivores that ate both plants and small animal prey.

Comparisons between the scleral rings of two ornithomimosaur genera (Garudimimus and Ornithomimus) and modern birds and reptiles indicate that they may have been cathemeral, active throughout the day at short intervals.[8]

Classification[edit]

Named by O.C. Marsh in 1890, the family Ornithomimidae was originally classified as a group of "megalosaurs" (a "wastebasket taxon" containing any medium to large sized theropod dinosaurs), but as more theropod diversity was uncovered, their true relationships to other theropods started to resolve, and they were moved to the Coelurosauria. Recognizing the distinctiveness of ornithomimids compared to other dinosaurs, Rinchen Barsbold placed ornithomimids within their own infraorder, Ornithomimosauria, in 1976. The contents of Ornithomimidae and Ornithomimosauria varied from author to author as cladistic definitions began to appear for the groups in the 1990s.

In the early 1990s, prominent paleontologists such as Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. proposed a close relationship between theropods with an arctometatarsalian foot; that is, bipedal dinosaurs in which the upper foot bones were 'pinched' together, an adaptation for running. Holtz (1994) defined the clade Arctometatarsalia as "the first theropod to develop the arctometatarsalian pes and all of its descendants." This group included the Troodontidae, Tyrannosauroidea, and Ornithomimosauria. Holtz (1996, 2000) later refined this definition to the branch-based "Ornithomimus and all theropods sharing a more recent common ancestor with Ornithomimus than with birds." Subsequently, the idea that all arctometatarsalian dinosaurs formed a natural group was abandoned by most paleontologists, including Holtz, as studies began to demonstrate that tyrannosaurids and troodontids were more closely related to other groups of coelurosaurs than they were to ornithomimosaurs. Since the strict definition of Arctometatarsalia was based on Ornithomimus, it became redundant with the name Ornithomimosauria under broad definitions of that clade, and the name Arctometatarsalia was mostly abandoned.

The paleontologist Paul Sereno, in 2005, proposed the clade "Ornithomimiformes", defining them as all species closer to Ornithomimus edmontonicus than to Passer domesticus. Because he had redefined Ornithomimosauria in a much narrower sense, a new term was made necessary within his preferred terminology to denote the clade containing the sistergroups Ornithomimosauria and Alvarezsauridae — previously the latter had been contained within the former. However, this concept only appeared on Sereno's Web site and has not yet been officially published as a valid name.[9]

"Ornithomimiformes" was identical in content to Holtz's Arctometatarsalia, as it has a very similar definition. While "Ornithomimiformes" is the newer group, Sereno rejected the idea that Arctometatarsalia should take precedence, because the meaning of the former name has been changed very radically by Holtz.[9]

21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology Valdoraptor Thecocoelurus Struthiomimus Sinornithomimus Qiupalong Ornithomimus Gallimimus Archaeornithomimus Anserimimus Shenzhousaurus Pelecanimimus Nqwebasaurus Kinnareemimus Hexing Harpymimus Garudimimus Deinocheirus Beishanlong 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology

Phylogeny[edit]

Restoration of Beishanlong grandis

Ornithomimosauria has variously been used for the branch-based group of all dinosaurs closer to Ornithomimus than to birds, and in more restrictive senses. The more exclusive sense began to grow in popularity when the possibility arose that alvarezsaurids might fall under Ornithomimosauria if an inclusive definition were adopted. Another clade, Ornithomimiformes, was defined by Sereno (2005) as (Ornithomimus velox > Passer domesticus) and replaces the more inclusive use of Ornithomimosauria when alvarezsaurids or some other group are found to be closer relatives of ornithomimosaurs than maniraptorans, with Ornithomimosauria redefined to include dinosaurs closer to Ornithomimus than to alvarezsaurids. Gregory S. Paul has proposed that Ornithomimosauria might be a group of primitive, flightless birds, more advanced than Deinonychosauria and Oviraptorosauria.[10]

The cladogram presented here follows the one recovered by Turner, Clarke, Ericson and Norell, 2007.[11] Clade names follow definitions provided by Sereno, 2005.[12]

Ornithomimosauria

Pelecanimimus


unnamed

Archaeornithomimus



Shenzhousaurus


unnamed

Harpymimus


unnamed

Garudimimus


Ornithomimidae

Struthiomimus



Gallimimus


unnamed

Ornithomimus



Anserimimus








The cladogram below follows an analysis by Jin Liyong, Chen Jun and Pascal Godefroit (2012).[2]

Ornithomimosauria

Pelecanimimus


unnamed

Hexing



Shenzhousaurus


unnamed

Beishanlong



Harpymimus


edentulous clade

Garudimimus



Ornithomimidae






Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2012) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages, Winter 2011 Appendix.
  2. ^ a b Jin Liyong, Chen Jun and Pascal Godefroit (2012). "A New Basal Ornithomimosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation, Northeast China". In Godefroit, P. (eds). Bernissart Dinosaurs and Early Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. Indiana University Press. pp. 467–487. 
  3. ^ Choiniere, J. N.; Forster, C. A.; De Klerk, W. J. (2012). "New information on Nqwebasaurus thwazi, a coelurosaurian theropod from the Early Cretaceous (Hauteriverian?) Kirkwood Formation in South Africa". Journal of African Earth Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2012.05.005.  edit
  4. ^ a b R. Allain, R. Vullo, J. Le loeuff & J.-F. Tournepiche (2014) European ornithomimosaurs (Dinosauria, Theropoda): an undetected record. Geologica Acta 12(2) (advance online publication) June 2014.
  5. ^ British Museum (Natural History): Ostrich Dinosaurs
  6. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1464343X12001082?v=s5
  7. ^ Nicholls and Russell (1985).
  8. ^ Schmitz and Motani (2011)
  9. ^ a b Sereno, P. C. (2005). Stem Archosauria—TaxonSearch [version 1.0, 2005 November 7]
  10. ^ Paul, G.S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  11. ^ Turner, et al. (2007).
  12. ^ Stem Archosauria—TaxonSearch Sereno (2005).

References[edit]

  • Barrett, P. M. (2005). "The diet of ostrich dinosaurs (Theropoda: Ornithomimosauria)." Palaeontology, 48: 347-358.
  • British Museum (Natural History): Ostrich Dinosaurs
  • Jacobsen, A.R. 2001. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: An extremely rare trace. p. 58-63. In: Mesozioc Vertebrate Life. Ed.s Tanke, D. H., Carpenter, K., Skrepnick, M. W. Indiana University Press.
  • Li Xu, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Junchang Lü, Yuong-Nam Lee, Yongqing Liu, Kohei Tanaka, Xingliao Zhang, Songhai Jia and Jiming Zhang (2011). "A new ornithomimid dinosaur with North American affinities from the Late Cretaceous Qiupa Formation in Henan Province of China". Cretaceous Research 32 (2): 213–222. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.12.004. 
  • Molnar, R. E., 2001, Theropod paleopathology: a literature survey: In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, edited by Tanke, D. H., and Carpenter, K., Indiana University Press, p. 337-363.
  • Nicholls, E. L., and Russell, A. P. (1985). "Structure and function of the pectoral girdle and forelimb of Struthiomimus altus (Theropoda: Ornithomimidae)." Palaeontology, 28: 643-677.
  • Norell, M. A., Makovicky, P., and Currie, P. J. (2001). "The beaks of ostrich dinosaurs." Nature, 412: 873-874.
  • Schmitz, L. and Motani, R. (2011). "Nocturnality in Dinosaurs Inferred from Scleral Ring and Orbit Morphology". Science 332. doi:10.1126/science.1200043. PMID 21493820. 
  • Sereno, P. C. 2005. Stem Archosauria—TaxonSearch [version 1.0, 2005 November 7]
  • Tanke, D.H. and Brett-Surman, M.K. 2001. Evidence of Hatchling and Nestling-Size Hadrosaurs (Reptilia:Ornithischia) from Dinosaur Provincial Park (Dinosaur Park Formation: Campanian), Alberta, Canada. pp. 206–218. In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life—New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Edited by D.H. Tanke and K. Carpenter. Indiana University Press: Bloomington. xviii + 577 pp.
  • Turner, A.H., Pol, D., Clarke, J.A., Erickson, G.M., and Norell, M. (2007). "Supporting online material for: A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight". Science, 317: 1378-1381. doi:10.1126/science.1144066 (supplement)

External links[edit]