|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia. (November 2010)|
Group of Uilta people
|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: ulta, ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia. The Orok language belongs to the Southern group of the Tungusic language family. According to the 2002 Russian census, there were 346 Oroks living in Northern Sakhalin by the Okhotsk Sea and Southern Sakhalin in the district by the city of Poronaysk.
The name Orok is believed to derive from the exonym Oro given by a Tungusic group meaning "a domestic reindeer". The Orok self-designation endonym is Ul'ta, probably from the root Ula (meaning "domestic reindeer" in Orok). Another self-designation is Nani. Occasionally, the Oroks, as well as the Orochs and Udege, are erroneously called Orochons.
Population and settlement
The total number of Oroks in Russia, according to the 2002 Russian Census, is 346 people. They live mostly in Sakhalin Oblast. Most of the Oroks are concentrated in three settlements - Poronaysk, Nogliki and the village of Val, Nogliksky District. A total of 144 Oroks live in Val. Other places in which the Orok people live include: the villages of Gastello and Vakhrushev in Poronaysky District; the village of Viakhtu in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky District; the village of Smirnykh, Smirnykhovsky District; Okhinsky District; and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast.
Orok oral tradition indicates that the Oroks share history with the Ulch people, and that they migrated to Sakhalin from the area of the Amgun River in mainland Russia. Research indicates that this migration probably took place in the 17th century at the latest.
The Russian Empire gained complete control over Orok lands after the 1858 Treaty of Aigun and 1860 Convention of Peking. A penal colony was established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906, bringing large numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer on Oroks and the island's other indigenous people, the Nivkhs and Ainu. Before Soviet collectivization in the 1920s, the Orok were divided into five groups, each with their own migratory zone. However, following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1922, the new government of the Soviet Union altered prior imperial polices towards the Oroks to bring them into line with communist ideology. In 1932, the northern Oroks joined the collective farm of Val, which was specialised in reindeer breeding, together with smaller numbers of Nivkhs, Evenks and Russians.
Following the Russo-Japanese War, southern Sakhalin came under the control of the Empire of Japan, which administered it as Karafuto Prefecture. The Uilta were classified as "Karafuto natives" (樺太土人), and were not entered into Japanese-style family registers, in contrast to the Ainu, who had "mainland Japan" family registers. Like the Karafuto Koreans and the Nivkh, but unlike the Ainu, the Uilta were thus not included in the evacuation of Japanese nationals after the Soviet invasion in 1945. Some Nivkhs and Uilta who served in the Imperial Japanese Army were held in Soviet work camps; after court cases in the late 1950s and 1960s, they were recognised as Japanese nationals and thus permitted to migrate to Japan. Most settled around Abashiri, Hokkaidō. The Uilta Kyokai of Japan was founded to fight for Uilta rights and the preservation of Uilta traditions in 1975 by Dahinien Gendanu.
Language and Culture
The Orok language belongs to the Southern group of the Tungusic language family. At present, 64 people of the Sakhalin Oroks speak the Orok language, and all Oroks also speak Russian. An alphabetic script, based on Cyrillic, was introduced in 2007. A primer has been published, and the language is taught in one school on Sakhalin.
The Oroks share cultural and linguistic links with other Tungusic peoples, but before the arrival of Russians, they differed economically from similar peoples due to their herding of reindeer. Reindeer provided the Oroks, particularly in northern Sakhalin, with food, clothing, and transportation. The Oroks also practiced fishing and hunting. The arrival of Russians has had a major effect on Orok culture, and most Oroks today live sedentary lifestyles. Some northern Oroks still practice semi-nomadic herding alongside vegetable farming and cattle ranching; in the south, the leading occupations are fishing and industrial labor.
- Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (Russian)
- Kolga 2001, pp. 281–284
- Перепись населения в России 2002 года (in Russian; retrieved 2012-08-20.)
- Orok at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Ороки на сайте ассоциации КМНСС и ДВ РФ (in Russian; retrieved 2012-08-20.)
- Коренные народы Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока РФ(in Russian; retrieved 2012-08-20.)
- "Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North, Siberia and Far East" by Arctic Network for the Support of the Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic
- Kolga 2004, p. 270
- Shternberg & Grant 1999, p. xi
- Shternberg & Grant 1999, pp. 184–194
- Weiner 2004, pp. 364–365
- Suzuki 1998, p. 168
- Weiner 2004, pp. 274–275
- Suzuki 2009
- Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 г. Языки России (in Russian; retrieved 2012-08-20.)
- Уилтадаирису (in Russian; retrieved 2011-08-17) ()
- Kolga, Margus (2001), "Nivkhs", The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire, Tallinn, Estonia: NGO Red Book, ISBN ISBN 9985-9369-2-2
- Shternberg, Lev Iakovlevich; Grant, Bruce (1999), The Social Organization of the Gilyak, New York: American Museum of Natural History, ISBN 0-295-97799-X
- Suzuki, Tessa Morris (1998), "Becoming Japanese: Imperial Expansion and Identity Crises in the Early Twentieth Century", in Minichiello, Sharon, Japan's competing modernities: issues in culture and democracy, 1900-1930, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 157–180, ISBN 978-0-8248-2080-0
- 上原善広 [Suzuki Tetsuo], "「平和の島」が「スパイの島」に [From "Peace Island" to "Spy Island"]", Kodansha G2 4 (2)
- Weiner, Michael (2004), Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and imaginary minorities, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-20857-4
- Missonova, Lyudmila I. (2009). The Main Spheres of Activities of Sakhalin Uilta: Survival Experience in the Present-Day Context. Sibirica: Interdisciplinary Journal of Siberian Studies, 8:2, 71–87. Abstract available here (retrieved November 9, 2009).
- Ороки. -- Народы Сибири, Москва—Ленинград 1956.
- Т. Петрова, Язык ороков (ульта), Москва 1967.
- А. В. Смоляк, Южные ороки. -- Советская этнография 1, 1965.
- А. В. Смоляк, Этнические процессы у народов Нижнего Амура и Сахалина, Москва 1975.