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The Ortenau, originally called Mortenau, was an early medieval county (Gau) in the Duchy of Swabia. It was first mentioned in 763. In 1007, the Ortenau was given to the Bishopric of Bamberg. In the late 13th century, the county disintegrated, and several smaller states formed in its place. Parts fell to the Bishopric of Strasbourg; the territories that remained in the possession of the king formed a Landvogtei, the Landvogtei Ortenau. Between 1803 and 1819, the Ortenau became part of Baden.