Orthobunyavirus

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Orthobunyavirus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Orthobunyavirus
Type species
Bunyamwera virus
Species

Acara virus
Akabane virus
Alajuela virus
Anopheles A virus
Anopheles B virus
Bakau virus
Batai virus
Batama virus
Benevides virus
Bertioga virus
Bimiti virus
Botambi virus
Bunyamwera virus
Bushbush virus
Bwamba virus
California encephalitis virus
Capim virus
Caraparu virus
Catu virus
Estero Real virus
Gamboa virus
Guajara virus
Guama virus
Guaroa virus
Jatobal virus
Kaeng Khoi virus
Kairi virus
Koongol virus
Kowanyama virus
La Crosse virus
M'Poko virus
Madrid virus
Main Drain virus
Manzanilla virus
Marituba virus
Minatitlan virus
Nyando virus
Olifantsvlei virus
Oriboca virus
Oropouche virus
Patois virus
Sathuperi virus
Schmallenberg virus"[1]
Shamonda virus
Shuni virus
Simbu virus
South River virus
Tacaiuma virus
Tahyna virus
Tete virus
Thimiri virus
Timboteua virus
Turlock virus
Wyeomyia virus
Zegla virus

Orthobunyavirus is a genus of the Bunyaviridae family. There are currently ~170 viruses recognised in this genus. These have been assembled into 48 species and 19 serogroups.

The type species is Bunyamwera virus.

Epidemiology[edit]

The genus is most diverse in Africa, Australia and Oceania, but occurs almost world-wide. Most orthobunyavirus species are transmitted by gnats and cause diseases of cattle; on the other hand, the California encephalitis virus and the La Crosse virus, are North American species that cause encephalitis in humans.

Virology[edit]

  • The type species is the Bunyamwera Virus.[2]
  • The virus is spherical, diameter 80 nm to 120 nm, and comprises three single stranded RNA molecules encapsulated in a ribonucleocapsid.[3]
  • The three RNAs are described as S, M and L (for Small, Medium and Large) and are circa 1kb (kilobases), 4.5kb and 6.5kb in length[4][5]
  • The S RNA encodes the Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) and a non structural protein (NS Protein).[6]
  • The M RNA encodes a polyprotein which is cleaved by host protease into Gn, NSm and Gc proteins.[7]
  • The L RNA encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA Polymerase or L Protein[8]

Life cycle[edit]

Serogroups[edit]

The taxonomy remains somewhat fluid as relatively few viral genomes in this genus have been sequenced. Several of the viruses listed have been shown to be recombinants of other viruses and may be reclassified.

18 serogroups have been recognized on the basis of the results of cross-hemagglutination inhibition and antibody neutralization relationships. Another - Wyeomyia - has since been recognised. Several viruses have not yet been classified into one of the serogroups.

The Simbu serogroup is the largest and contains at least 25 members. There are at least 13 members in the Group C serogroup.

Medically important viruses belong to the Bwamba, Bunyamwera, California, Group C and Simbu serogroups.

Anopheles A serogroup[edit]

Anopheles A virus
Tacaiuma virus
Virgin River virus

Trombetas complex

  • Arumateua virus
  • Caraipé virus
  • Trombetas virus
  • Tucuruí virus

Anopheles B serogroup[edit]

Anopheles B virus
Boraceia virus
Naranjal virus

Bakau serogroup[edit]

Bakau virus
Nola virus

Bunyamwera serogroup[edit]

Birao virus
Bozo virus
Bunyamwera virus
Cache Valley virus
Fort Sherman virus
Germiston virus
Guaroa virus
Ilesha virus
Kairi virus
Main Drain virus
Northway virus
Playas virus
Potosi virus
Shokwe virus
Stanfield virus
Tensaw virus
Xingu virus

Batai complex

  • Batai virus
  • Chittoor virus

Ngari complex

  • Garissa virus
  • KV-141 virus
  • Ngari virus

Bwamba serogroup[edit]

Bwamba virus
Pongola virus

California serogroup[edit]

California encephalitis virus
Chatanga virus
Inkoo virus
Jamestown Canyon virus
Jerry Slough virus
Keystone virus
Khatanga virus
La Crosse virus
Lumbo virus
Melao virus
Morro Bay virus
San Angelo virus
Serra do Navio virus
Snowshoe hare virus
South River virus
Tahyna virus virus
Trivittatus virus

Capim serogroup[edit]

Acara virus
Benevides virus
Capim virus

Gamboa serogroup[edit]

Alajuela virus
Gamboa virus
Pueblo Viejo virus
San Juan virus

Group C serogroup[edit]

Bruconha virus
Ossa virus

Caraparu complex

  • Apeu virus
  • Bruconha virus
  • Caraparu virus
  • Vinces virus

Madrid complex

  • Madrid virus
  • Marituba complex
  • Gumbo limbo virus
  • Marituba virus
  • Murutucu virus
  • Nepuyo virus
  • Restan virus

Oriboca complex

  • Itaqui virus
  • Oriboca virus

Guama serogroup[edit]

Bertioga virus
Bimiti virus
Cananeia virus
Guama virus
Guaratuba virus
Itimirim virus
Mirim virus

Koongol serogroup[edit]

Koongol virus
Wongal virus

Minatitlan serogroup[edit]

Minatitlan virus
Palestina virus

Nyando serogroup[edit]

Eretmapodites virus
Nyamdo virus

Olifanstlei serogroup[edit]

Botambi virus
Olifanstlei virus

Patois serogroup[edit]

Abras virus
Babahoyo virus
Pahayokee virus
Patois virus
Shark River virus

Simbu serogroup[edit]

Iquitos virus
Jatobal virus
Leanyer virus
Oropouche virus
Oya virus
Thimiri virus

Akabane serocomplex

  • Akabane virus
  • Tinaroo virus

Sathuperi serocomplex

  • Douglas virus
  • Sathuperi virus

Shuni serocomplex

  • Aino virus
  • Shuni virus

Shamonda serocomplex

  • Peaton virus
  • Shamonda virus

Simbu complex

  • Schmallenberg virus
  • Simbu virus

Tete serogroup[edit]

Batama virus
Tete virus

Turlock serogroup[edit]

M'€™Poko virus
Turlock virus
Umbre virus

Wyeomyia serogroup[edit]

Anhembi virus
Cachoeira Porteira virus
Iaco virus
Macaua virus
Sororoca virus
Taiassui virus
Tucunduba virus
Wyeomyia virus

Unclassified[edit]

Batama virus
Belmont virus
Enseada virus
Estero Real virus
Jurona virus
Kaeng Khei virus
Kowanyama virus

References[edit]

External links[edit]