Horchata (//; Spanish: [orˈtʃata] ( )), or Orxata (Valencian: [oɾˈtʃata]), is the name of several kinds of traditional beverages, made of ground almonds, sesame seeds, rice, barley, or tigernuts (chufas).
The name derives from Catalan orxata, probably from ordiata, made from ordi (barley) (Latin *hordeata < hordeum). The Italian orzata, the French and English 'orgeat' and the Surinamese Dutch orgeade have the same origin, though the beverages themselves have diverged, and are generally no longer made from barley.
Various false etymologies exist – one legend links the origins of the name to James I of Aragon, who after being given the drink for the first time by a local in Alboraia, was said to have exclaimed in Catalan "Açò és or, xata!" ("That's gold, darling!")
It has a regulating council to ensure the quality of the product and the villages where it can come from, with the Denomination of Origin. The village of Alboraia is well known for the quality of its horchata.
Horchata varies in taste across Latin America. Although the drinks may share the same name, the flavor of each is unique to its country of origin.
While in some countries the drink is usually tan and "milky", some recipes call for milk, and others do not. Other ingredients often include sugar, cinnamon, and vanilla. Though horchata was once typically homemade, it is now available in both ready-to-drink (shelf-stable or refrigerated) and powdered form in grocery stores. Horchata, together with tamarindo and jamaica, are the three typical drink flavors of Mexican agua frescas.
- In Mexico and Guatemala, horchata is made of rice, sometimes with vanilla and always with cinnamon.
- The horchata found in south of Honduras and in El Salvador is primarily made from morro seeds, not rice. Other common ingredients include ground cocoa, cinnamon, sesame seeds, nutmeg, tigernuts and vanilla. Other nuts that may also be used include peanuts, almonds and cashews. Because of these ingredients, the horchata is usually strained before serving.
- In Nicaragua and Honduras, horchata refers to the drink known as semilla de jicaro, made from the jicaro seeds ground with rice and spices. The drink is made with cold milk and sugar, and is very popular nationally. Recently, Nicaragua has begun exporting this product, primarily to the United States.
- In Puerto Rico, horchata is called horchata de ajonjolí and made with ground sesame seeds. Water is boiled with sugar, vanilla, and cinnamon sticks. When done the water is poured over the ground sesame seeds and left over night. The water is then squeezed through a cheese cloth, when done evaporated milk or milk is added. Some recipes call for added ground rice, ground almonds, coconut milk, allspice and rum. Horchata with barley and lime zest is also popular but mainly in homes.
- In Venezuela, horchata is made with sesame seeds, water and sugar in the western area, Zulia. There is also chicha made with rice flour, milk and sugar, and the alcoholic variant is called chicha andina which is made with fermented corn flour.
- In Ecuador, horchata is a clear red infusion of 18 herbs, and is most famous in the province of Loja.
- In the U.S., rice-based or morro horchata is served in many Latin restaurants, and the horchata de chufas (tigernut) is virtually unknown. Rice-based horchata is also sometimes available in U.S. grocery and convenience stores.
- Some smoothie shops as well as cafés in the U.S. have been experimenting with Horchata Frappes.
- Lobscouse & Spotted Dog: Which It's a Gastronomic Companion to the Aubrey/Maturin Novels : Grossman, Anne Chotzinoff; Thomas, Lisa Grossman ISBN 0-393-04559-5
- Valencia & the Costa Blanca, Miles Roddis, Lonely Planet, 2002, ISBN 1-74059-032-5 Google Books
- MTV Spain, Fernando Gayesky, Elizabeth Gorman, Kristin Luna, Andre Legaspi, Frommer's, 2007, ISBN 0-7645-8772-2 Google Books
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|Database entry Q1587937 on Wikidata|
- The Regulating Council of Denomination of Origin "Chufa de Valencia": Quality council regulating tigernut horchata in Valencia
- Article about Horxata, Ltd.: Valencian Horchata in New York City