Oryza is a genus of plants in the bamboo subfamily within the grass family. The genus includes the major food crop rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Members of the genus grow as tall, wetland grasses, growing to 1–2 m tall; the genus includes both annual and perennial species.
Oryza is situated within the tribe Oryzeae, which is characterized morphologically by its single-flowered spikelets whose glumes are almost completely suppressed. In Oryza, two sterile lemma simulate glumes. The tribe Oryzeae is within the subfamily Bambusoideae, a group of Poaceae tribes with certain features of internal leaf anatomy in common. The most distinctive leaf characteristics of this subfamily are the arm cells and fusoid cells found in their leaves.
One species, Asian rice (O. sativa), provides 20% of global grain and is a food crop of major global importance. The species are divided into two subgroups within the genus.
Over 300 names have been proposed for species, subspecies, and other infraspecific taxa within the genus. Published sources disagree as to how many of these should be recognized as distinct species. The following follows the World Checklist maintained by Kew Garden in London.
- Oryza australiensis - Australia
- Oryza barthii - tropical Africa
- Oryza brachyantha - tropical Africa
- Oryza coarctata - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar
- Oryza eichingeri - tropical Africa, Sri Lanka
- Oryza glaberrima - tropical Africa
- Oryza grandiglumis - Brazil, Venezuela, Fr Guiana, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia
- Oryza latifolia - Latin America + West Indies from Sinaloa + Cuba to Argentina
- Oryza longiglumis - New Guinea
- Oryza longistaminata - Madagascar, tropical + southern Africa
- Oryza meyeriana - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia
- Oryza minuta - Himalayas, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Northern Territory of Australia
- Oryza neocaledonica - New Caldeonia
- Oryza officinalis - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia
- Oryza punctata - Madagascar, tropical + southern Africa
- Oryza ridleyi - Southeast Asia, New Guinea
- Oryza rufipogon - brownbeard or red rice - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia
- Oryza sativa - Asian rice - China; naturalized many places
- Oryza schlechteri - New Guinea
- formerly included
- Kellogg, Elizabeth A. (30 January 2009). "The Evolutionary History of Ehrhartoideae, Oryzeae, and Oryza". Rice 2: 1–14. doi:10.1007/s12284-009-9022-2. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- lectotype designated by Duistermaat, Blumea 32: 174 (1987)
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
- Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 333. in Latin
- Tropicos, Oryza L.
- Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 182 稻属 dao shu Oryza Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 333. 1753.
- Heywood, V.H. Flowering Plants of the World 1993 Oxford University Press
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