||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2011)|
|Born||Oscar Devereaux Micheaux
January 2, 1884
Metropolis, Illinois, USA
|Died||March 25, 1951
Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
|Spouse(s)||Alice B. Russell (1892–1984)|
|Awards||Directors Guild of America Awards
1986 Golden Jubilee Special Award
Hollywood Walk of Fame
6721 Hollywood Boulevard
Oscar Devereaux Micheaux (January 2, 1884 – March 25, 1951) was an American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 films. Although the short-lived Lincoln Motion Picture Company produced some films, he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent films and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.
Early life and education 
Micheaux was born on a farm in Metropolis, Illinois on January 2, 1884 He was the fifth child born to Calvin S. and Belle Michaux, who had a total of thirteen. In his later years, Micheaux added an “e” to his last name. His father was born a slave in Kentucky. Because of its surname, his father's family appears to have been associated with French-descended settlers. French Huguenot refugees had settled in Virginia in 1700; their descendants took slaves west when they migrated into Kentucky after the American Revolutionary War.
Micheaux was born when African Americans were trying to succeed in a world dominated by whites. Micheaux struggled with social oppression as a young boy, which he reflected in writing in later years. To give their children education, his parents relocated to the city for better schooling. Micheaux attended a well-established school for several years before the family eventually ran into money troubles and were forced to relocate to the farm. Unhappy, Micheaux became rebellious and discontented. His struggles caused internal problems within his family. Micheaux’s father was not happy with him and sent him away to do marketing within the big city. Micheaux found pleasure in this job because he was able to speak to many new people and learned many social skills that he would later reflect within his films.
When Micheaux was 16 years old, he moved to Chicago, Illinois to live with his older brother, then working as a waiter. Micheaux became dissatisfied with what he viewed as his brother’s way of living “the good life.” He rented his own place and found a job in the stockyards, which he found difficult. Micheaux worked many different jobs, moving from the stockyards to the steel mills.
After Micheaux was “swindled out of two dollars” by an employment agency, he decided to become his own boss. His first business was a small shoeshine stand, which he set up at a white suburban barbershop, away from Chicago competition. Micheaux learned the basic strategies of business and started to save money. He became a Pullman porter on the major railroads. At that time, Pullman porters were considered prestigious jobs for African Americans, as they were relatively stable and well-paid, secure and gave freedom of travel and acquaintance. This job was an informal college education for Micheaux. He profited financially, and also gained contacts and knowledge about the world through traveling, as well as a greater understanding for business. When he left the position, Micheaux had seen much of the United States, had a couple thousand dollars saved in his bank account, and made a number of connections with wealthy white people who helped his future endeavors.
Micheaux moved to Dallas, South Dakota, where he bought land and worked as a homesteader. This experience inspired his first novels and films. His neighbors on the frontier were all white. “Some recall that [Micheaux] rarely sate at table with his white neighbors”. Micheaux’s years as a homesteader allowed him to learn more about human relations and farming, a time in his life full of tests and experiments. While farming, Micheaux wrote articles and submitted them to press. The Chicago Defender published one of his earliest articles.
Marriage and family 
In South Dakota, Micheaux married Orlean McCracken. Her family proved to be complex and burdensome for Micheaux. Unhappy with their living arrangements, Orlean felt that Micheaux did not pay enough attention to her. She gave birth while he was away on business. She was reported to have emptied their bank accounts and fled. Orlean’s father sold Micheaux's property and took the money from the sale. After his return, Micheaux tried unsuccessfully to get Orlean and his property back. Although he had saved while working as a Pullman porter, Micheaux lost his money during this time. After many failed attempts to recover some of his assets, he needed to move into his next career and make some money.
Writing and film career 
Micheaux decided to concentrate on writing and, eventually filmmaking, a new industry. He wrote seven novels. In 1913, 1000 copies of his first book, The Conquest: The Story of a Negro Homesteader were printed. He published the book anonymously, for unknown reasons. Based on his experiences as a homesteader and the failure of his first marriage, it was largely autobiographical. Although character names have been changed, the protagonist is named Oscar Devereaux. His theme was about African Americans' realizing their potential and succeeding in areas from which they were previously excluded.
In 1918, his novel The Homesteader, dedicated to Booker T. Washington, attracted the attention of George Johnson, the manager of the Lincoln Motion Picture Company in Los Angeles. After Johnson offered to make The Homesteader into a new feature film, negotiations and paperwork became contentious between him and Micheaux. Micheaux wanted to be directly involved in the adaptation of his book as a movie, but Johnson resisted and never produced the film.
Instead, Micheaux founded the Micheaux Film and Book Company of Sioux City and Chicago; its first project was the production of The Homesteader as a feature film. Micheaux had a major career as a film producer and director: he produced over 40 films, which drew audiences throughout the US as well as internationally. Micheaux contacted wealthy white connections from his earlier career as a porter, and sold stock for his company at $75 to $100 a share. Micheaux hired actors and actresses and decided to premiere as Chicago was celebrating the return of troops from World War I. The film and Micheaux received high praise from film critics. One article credited Micheaux with “a historic breakthrough, a creditable, dignified achievement”. Some members of the Chicago clergy criticized the film as libelous. The Homesteader became widely known as Micheaux’s breakout film; it helped him become widely known as a writer and a filmmaker.
In addition to writing and directing his own films, Micheaux also adapted the works of different writers for his silent pictures. Many of Micheaux’s films were open, blunt and thought-provoking regarding certain racial issues of that time. Micheaux once commented, “It is only by presenting those portions of the race portrayed in my pictures, in the light and background of their true state, that we can raise our people to greater heights”. Financial hardships during the Great Depression eventually made it impossible for Micheaux to keep producing films, and he returned to writing.
Significant films 
Micheaux’s first novel The Conquest was adapted to film and re-titled, The Homesteader. This film, which met with critical and commercial success, was first produced in 1918. This film revolves around a man named Jean Baptiste. Called the Homesteader, Baptiste falls in love with many white women but resists marrying one out of his loyalty to his race - people of ethnic African descent who were classified as black in the society. He sacrifices love to show his masculinity and be a key symbol for his fellow African Americans. Baptiste looks for love among his own people and marries an African-American woman. Their relations deteriorate. Eventually, Baptiste is not allowed to see his wife. She kills her father for keeping them apart and commits suicide. Although Baptiste is accused of the crime, he is ultimately cleared. An old love helps Baptiste through his troubles. After he learns that she is a mulatto and thus part African, they marry. This film deals extensively with race relationships.
Micheaux’s second silent film was Within Our Gates, produced in 1920. Although sometimes considered Micheaux’s response to the film Birth of a Nation, Micheaux said that he created it independently as a response to the widespread social instability following World War I. Within Our Gates revolved around the main character, Sylvia Landry, a mixed-race school teacher. In a flashback, Sylvia is shown growing up as the adopted daughter of a sharecropper. When Sylvia’s father confronts their white landlord over money, a fight ensues. The landlord is shot by another white man, but Sylvia's adoptive father is accused and lynched, along with her adoptive mother.
Sylvia is almost raped by the landowner’s brother but discovers that he is her biological father. Micheaux always depicts African Americans as being serious and reaching for higher education. Before the flashback scene, we see that Sylvia travels to Boston seeking funding for her school, which serves black children. They are underserved by the segregated society. On her journey, she is hit by the car of a rich white woman. Learning about Landry's cause, the woman decides to give her school $50,000.
Within the film, Micheaux depicts educated and professional people in black society as light-skinned, representing the elite status of some of the mixed-race people who comprised the majority of African Americans free before the Civil War. Poor people are represented as dark-skinned and with more undiluted African ancestry. The mixed-race people are also featured as some of the villains. The film is set within the contemporary Jim Crow era. It contrasted the experiences for African Americans who stayed in rural areas and others who had migrated to cities and become urbanized. Micheaux explored the suffering of African Americans in the present day, without explaining how the situation arose in history. Some feared that this film would cause even more unrest within society, while others believed that it would open up the public’s eyes into the unjust treatment by whites of blacks. Protests against the film continued until the day it was released. Because of its controversial status, the film was banned from some theatres.
Micheaux adapted two works by Charles W. Chesnutt, which he released under their original titles: The Conjure Woman (1926) and The House Behind the Cedars. The latter, which dealt with issues of mixed race and passing, created so much controversy when reviewed by the Film Board of Virginia that he was forced to make cuts to have it shown in the state. He remade this in 1932, releasing it as Veiled Aristocrats. Both versions of the film are believed to have been lost.
Micheaux's films featured contemporary black life. He dealt with racial relationships between blacks and whites, and the passage for blacks trying to achieve success in the larger society. His films also reflect his ideologies and life experiences. The journalist Richard Gehr said, “Micheaux appears to have only one story to tell- his own- and he tells it repeatedly”.
Micheaux sought to create films that would counter white portrayals of African Americans, which tended to emphasize inferior stereotypes. Micheaux created complex characters of different classes, and was never interested in simplicity. His own life experiences were the basis for much of his work. Growing up in southern Illinois, which had long been influenced by Southern migrants and culture, he learned about some relationships between African Americans and whites, and their misunderstandings.
The critic Lupack described Micheaux as pursuing moderation with his films and creating a “middle-class cinema”. His works were designed to appeal to both middle- and lower-class audiences.
“My results…might have been narrow at times, due perhaps to certain limited situations, which I endeavored to portray, but in those limited situations, the truth was the predominate characteristic. It is only by presenting those portions of the race portrayed in my pictures, in the light and background of their true state, that we can raise our people to greater heights. I am too imbued with the spirit of Booker T. Washington to engraft false virtues upon ourselves, to make ourselves that which we are not.”
Micheaux died on March 25, 1951 in Charlotte, North Carolina, of heart failure. He is buried in Great Bend Cemetery in Great Bend, Kansas.
Legacy and honors 
- The Oscar Micheaux Award for excellence was established.
- The Oscar Micheaux Sociey at Duke University continues to honor his work and educate about his legacy.
- 1987, Micheaux was recognized with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- 1989 the Directors Guild of America honored Micheaux with a Golden Jubilee Special Award.
- The Producers Guild of America created an annual award in his name.
- 1989, the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame gave him a posthumous award.
- Gregory, South Dakota holds an annual Oscar Micheaux Film Festival.
- 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante included Oscar Micheaux on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.
- On June 22, 2010 the US Postal Service issued a 44-cent, Oscar Micheaux commemorative stamp.
- 2011, the Taubman Museum of Art in Roanoke, Virginia created a category for donors, the Micheaux Society, in honor of Micheaux.
- Midnight Ramble: Oscar Micheaux and the Story of Race Movies (1994) is a documentary whose title refers to the early 20th-century practice of some segregated cinemas of screening films for African-American audiences only at matinees and midnight. The documentary was produced by Pamela Thomas, directed by Pearl Bowser and Bestor Cram, and written by Clyde Taylor. It was first aired on the PBS show The American Experience in 1994, and released in 2004.
- Conquest: The Story of a Negro Pioneer. Lincoln, Nebraska: Woodruff Press. 1913. OCLC 254051406.
- The Forged Note. Lincoln, Nebraska: Western Book Supply Company. 1915. OCLC 2058028.
- The Homesteader: A Novel. Sioux City, Iowa: Western Book Supply Company. 1917. OCLC 10616358.
- The Wind from Nowhere. New York: Book Supply Company. 1941. OCLC 682477.
- The Case of Mrs. Wingate. New York: Book Supply Company. 1944. OCLC 5541463.
- The Story of Dorothy Stanfield. New York: Book Supply Company. 1946. OCLC 300792169.
- Masquerade, a Historical Novel. New York: Book Supply Company. 1947. OCLC 300739700.
- Dan Moos, Outside America: Race, Ethnicity, and the Role of the American West in National Belonging, University Press of New England, 2005, p. 53, accessed 13 March 2011
- "The Lincoln Motion Picture Company a First for Black Cinema". The African American Registry. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-12.[dead link]
- Betti Carol VanEpps-Taylor, Oscar Micheaux, a biography: Dakota homesteader, author, pioneer film maker, Dakota West,
- Link text,
- John W. Ravage, "Micheaux, Oscar.", BlackPast, accessed 14 Dec 2010
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- World Stamp News www.worldstampnews.com
- Allen, Mike (2011-02-21) "Taubman Museum reduces its annual rates", The Roanoke Times. Retrieved 2011-02-21.
Further reading 
- Bowser, Pearl; Gaines, Jane; Musser, Charles, eds. (2001). Oscar Micheaux and His Circle: African-American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253339944.
- Green, Ronald J (2000). Straight Lick: The Cinema of Oscar Micheaux. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP. OCLC 237396790.
- Lupack, Barbara Tepa (2004). "Black Pioneer: Oscar Micheaux." In: Homo Narrans. Texts and Essays in Honor of Jerome Klinkowitz. Ed. Zygmunt Mazur and Richard Utz. Cracow: Jagiellonian University Press. pp. 125–37 ISBN 83-233-1896-4.
- Lupack, Barbara Tepa (2002). Literary Adaptations in Black American Cinema: From Micheaux to Morrison. Rochester: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 1-58046-103-4.
- McGilligan, Patrick (2007). Oscar Micheaux, the Great and Only: The Life of America's First Black Filmmaker. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780061982156.
- VanEpps-Taylor, Betti Carol (1999). Oscar Micheaux: Dakota Homesteader, Author, Pioneer Film Maker: a Biography. Rapid City, SD: Dakota West. OCLC 49260537.
- Yenser, Thomas (1933). Who's Who in Colored America: 1930-1931-1932. Brooklyn: T. Yenser. OCLC 26073112.
- Works by Oscar Micheaux at Project Gutenberg
- Oscar Micheaux at the Internet Movie Database
- Oscar Micheaux web site, Barton County Arts Council in Great Bend, Kansas
- Bibliography of books and articles about Micheaux, UC Berkeley Media Resources Center
- "Black Cinema: Micheaux Must Go On," an article about Micheaux by Time film critic Richard Corliss
- Stace England & The Salt Kings, Original song "Within Our Gates", with Film Clips
- Oscar Micheaux commemorative stamp, USPS