Oschersleben is located near the river Bode, 24 miles southwest of Magdeburg in a region called Magdeburger Börde. The river Bode reaches its northernmost point outside the town. Oschersleben is the most important railway station of the Magdeburg–Halberstadt–Thale line.
On November 23, 994 Oschersleben was first mentioned in a document by the Emperor Otto III. In 1235 it was first referred to as a town. In the 17th century most parts of Oschersleben were destroyed by fires. In 1648 it came under Brandenburg's domination. Oschersleben became a district capital in 1816 and was connected to the railway system in 1843.
In the years previous to World War II Oschersleben expanded due to the airplane factory (AGO Flugzeugwerke) that was founded there and needed numerous workers. This armament factory was also the reason why the Allied attacked the town in ten air strikes.
During the period of the German Democratic Republic Oschersleben was a center of agriculture in the region. Besides some industrial establishments settled there, for example the still existing manufacturer of pumps as well as sugar refineries, iron foundries, breweries, machine shops, and brick works.