Mathematics of oscillation
The mathematics of oscillation deals with the quantification of the amount that a sequence or function tends to move between extremes. There are several related notions: oscillation of a sequence of real numbers, oscillation of a real valued function at a point, and oscillation of a function on an interval (or open set).
Oscillation of a sequence
If () is a sequence of real numbers, then the oscillation of is defined as the difference (possibly ∞) between the limit superior and limit inferior of :
It is undefined if both are +∞ or both are −∞, that is, if the sequence tends to +∞ or to −∞. The oscillation is zero if and only if the sequence converges.
Oscillation of a function on an open set
Oscillation of a function at a point
The oscillation of a function of a real variable at a point is defined as the limit as of the oscillation of on an -neighborhood of :
This is the same as the difference between the limit superior and limit inferior of the function at , provided the point is not excluded from the limits.
More generally, if is a real-valued function on a metric space, then the oscillation is
- 1/x has oscillation ∞ at x = 0, and oscillation 0 at other finite x and at −∞ and +∞.
- sin (1/x) (the topologist's sine curve) has oscillation 2 at x = 0, and 0 elsewhere.
- sin x has oscillation 0 at every finite x, and 2 at −∞ and +∞.
- The sequence 1, −1, 1, −1, 1, −1, ... has oscillation 2.
In the last example the sequence is periodic, and any sequence that is periodic without being constant will have non-zero oscillation. However, non-zero oscillation does not usually indicate periodicity.
Geometrically, the graph of an oscillating function on the real numbers follows some path in the xy-plane, without settling into ever-smaller regions. In well-behaved cases the path might look like a loop coming back on itself, that is, periodic behaviour; in the worst cases quite irregular movement covering a whole region.
Oscillation can be used to define continuity of a function, and is easily equivalent to the usual ε-δ definition (in the case of functions defined everywhere on the real line): a function ƒ is continuous at a point x0 if and only if the oscillation is zero; in symbols, A benefit of this definition is that it quantifies discontinuity: the oscillation gives how much the function is discontinuous at a point.
For example, in the classification of discontinuities:
- in a removable discontinuity, the distance that the value of the function is off by is the oscillation;
- in a jump discontinuity, the size of the jump is the oscillation (assuming that the value at the point lies between these limits from the two sides);
- in an essential discontinuity, oscillation measures the failure of a limit to exist.
This definition is useful in descriptive set theory to study the set of discontinuities and continuous points – the continuous points are the intersection of the sets where the oscillation is less than ε (hence a Gδ set) – and gives a very quick proof of one direction of the Lebesgue integrability condition.
The oscillation is equivalence to the ε-δ definition by a simple re-arrangement, and by using a limit (lim sup, lim inf) to define oscillation: if (at a given point) for a given ε0 there is no δ that satisfies the ε-δ definition, then the oscillation is at least ε0, and conversely if for every ε there is a desired δ, the oscillation is 0. The oscillation definition can be naturally generalized to maps from a topological space to a metric space.