Oshawa

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Oshawa
City
City of Oshawa
Downtown Oshawa
Downtown Oshawa
Coat of arms of Oshawa
Coat of arms
Official logo of Oshawa
Logo
Motto: Prepare To Be Amazed[1]
Location of Oshawa within Durham Region.
Location of Oshawa within Durham Region.
Coordinates: 43°54′N 78°51′W / 43.900°N 78.850°W / 43.900; -78.850Coordinates: 43°54′N 78°51′W / 43.900°N 78.850°W / 43.900; -78.850
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
Region Durham Region
Incorporated 1850
Government
 • Mayor John Henry
 • Governing Body Oshawa City Council
 • MPs seat remains vacant following the death of Jim Flaherty (Whitby—Oshawa)
Colin Carrie (Oshawa)
 • MPPs Jennifer French (Oshawa)
Christine Elliott (Whitby—Oshawa)
Area
 • Total 145.68 km2 (56.25 sq mi)
Elevation 106 m (348 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 157,000 (Ranked 31st)
 • Density 1,027.0/km2 (2,660/sq mi)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC−4)
Area code(s) 289 / 905
Website oshawa.ca

Oshawa (2013 population 157,000;[2] CMA 356,177)[3] is a city in Ontario, Canada, on the Lake Ontario shoreline. It lies in Southern Ontario approximately 60 kilometres east of downtown Toronto. It is commonly viewed as the eastern anchor of the Greater Toronto Area and of the Golden Horseshoe. It is the largest municipality in the Regional Municipality of Durham. The name Oshawa originates from the Ojibwa term aazhaway, meaning "the crossing place" or just "(a)cross".[4][5]

Oshawa is, as of 2011, the sole "Automotive Capital of Canada",[6] having shared the title with Windsor, Ontario in the past. The automobile industry, specifically the Canadian division of General Motors Company, known as General Motors Canada, has always been at the forefront of Oshawa's economy. Founded in 1876 as the McLaughlin Carriage Company, General Motors of Canada's headquarters and major assembly plants are located in the city. The automotive industry was the inspiration for Oshawa's previous mottos: "The City That Motovates Canada", and "The City in Motion". The lavish home of the carriage company's founder, Parkwood Estate, is a National Historic Site of Canada, and a backdrop favoured by numerous film crews, featured in many movies including Studio 54, Billy Madison, Chicago, and X-Men.[7]

History[edit]

Historians believe that the area that would become Oshawa began as a transfer point for the fur trade. Beaver and other animals trapped for their pelts by local natives were traded with the Coureurs des bois (voyagers). Furs were loaded onto canoes by the Mississauga Indians at the Oshawa harbour and transported to the trading posts located to the west at the mouth of the Credit River. Around 1760, the French constructed a trading post near the harbour location; this was abandoned after a few years, but its ruins provided shelter for the first residents of what later became Oshawa. Most notably, one of the fur traders was Moody Farewell, an early resident of the community who was to some extent responsible for its name change.

In the late 18th century a local resident, Roger Conant, started an export business shipping salmon to the United States. His success attracted further migration into the region. A large number of the founding immigrants were United Empire Loyalists, who left the United States to live under British rule. Later Irish and then French Canadian immigration increased as did industrialization. Oshawa and the surrounding Ontario County were also the settling grounds of a disproportionate number of 19th century Cornish immigrants during the Cornish emigration which emptied large tracts of that part of England. As well, the surveys ordered by Governor John Graves Simcoe, and the subsequent land grants, helped populate the area. When Col. Asa Danforth laid out his York-to-Kingston road, it passed through what would later become Oshawa.

In 1822, a "colonization road" (a north-south road to facilitate settlement) known as Simcoe Street was constructed. It more or less followed the path of an old native trail known as the Nonquon Road, and ran from the harbour to the area of Lake Scugog. This intersected the "Kingston Road" at what would become Oshawa's "Four Corners." In 1836, Edward Skae relocated his general store approximately 800 m east to the southeast corner of this intersection; as his store became a popular meeting place (probably because it also served as the Post Office), the corner and the growing settlement that surrounded it, were known as Skae's Corners. In 1842, Skae, the postmaster, applied for official post office status, but was informed the community needed a better name. Moody Farewell was requested to ask his native acquaintances what they called the area; their reply was "Oshawa," which translates to "where we must leave our canoes". Thus, the name of Oshawa, one of the primary "motor cities" of Canada, has a name meaning "where we have to get out and walk". The name "Oshawa" was adopted and the post office named accordingly. In 1849, the requirements for incorporation were eased, and Oshawa was incorporated as a village in 1850.

The newly established village became an industrial centre, and implement works, tanneries, asheries and wagon factories opened (and often closed shortly after, as economic "panics" occurred regularly). In 1876, Robert Samuel McLaughlin, Sr. moved his carriage works to Oshawa from Enniskillen to take advantage of its harbour and of the availability of a rail link not too far away. He constructed a two-storey building, which was soon added to. This building was heavily remodelled in 1929, receiving a new facade and being extended to the north using land where the city's gaol (jail, firehall & townhall) had once stood. The village became a town in 1879, in what was then called East Whitby Township. Around 1890, the carriage works relocated from its Simcoe Street address to an unused furniture factory a couple of blocks to the northeast, and this remained its site until the building burnt in 1899. Offered assistance by the town, McLaughlin chose to stay in Oshawa, building a new factory across Mary Street from the old site. Rail service had been provided in 1890 by the Oshawa Railway; this was originally set up as a streetcar line, but c. 1910 a second "freight line" was built slightly to the east of Simcoe Street.[8] This electric line provided streetcar and freight service, connected central Oshawa with the Grand Trunk (now Canadian National) Railway, and with the Canadian Northern (which ran through the very north of Oshawa) and the Canadian Pacific, built in 1912-13. The Oshawa Railway was acquired by the Grand Trunk operation around 1910, and streetcar service was replaced by buses in 1940. After GM moved its main plants to south Oshawa in 1951, freight traffic fell and most of the tracks were removed in 1963, although a line to the older remaining "north" plant via Ritson Road remained until 2000.

Start of the car industry[edit]

In 1907 the McLaughlin Motor Car Company began to manufacture with Buick automobiles under the McLaughlin name. This resulted from talks between Col. R. S. McLaughlin and "Billy" Durant a 15-year contract in 1907. Durant had created General Motors in the U.S. in 1908. In 1915 the firm acquired the manufacturing rights to the Chevrolet brand. Within three years, his firm and the Chevrolet Motor Car Company of Canada merged, creating General Motors of Canada. Col. McLaughlin became the head of this new operation in 1918. McLaughlin was Director and Vice-President of General Motors Corporation (from GM archives), and his factory expanded rapidly, eventually covering several blocks. The popularity of the automobile in the 1920s generated rapid expansion of Oshawa, which grew in population from 4,000 to 16,000 during this decade, and of its land area. In 1924, Oshawa annexed the area to its south, including the harbour and the community of Cedardale. This growth allowed Oshawa to seek incorporation as a city, which took place March 8, 1924.

With the wealth he gained in his business venture, in 1916 Robert Samuel McLaughlin built one of the most stately homes in Canada, "Parkwood". The 55-room residence was built using inexpensive labour, and designed by Toronto architect John M. Lyle. McLaughlin lived in the house for 55 years with his wife and five children. The house replaced an older mansion, which was about 30 years old when it was demolished; the grounds of the earlier home had been operated as Prospect Park, and this land was acquired by the town and became its first municipal park, Alexandra Park. Parkwood today is open to the public as a National Historic Site. Tours are offered.

Strike: 1937[edit]

On April 8, 1937, disputes between 4000 assembly line workers and General Motors management led to the Oshawa Strike, a salient event in the history of Canadian trade unionism. As the weight of the Great Depression slowly began to lift, demand for automobiles again began to grow. The workers sought higher wages, an eight-hour workday, better working conditions and recognition of their union, the United Auto Workers (Local 222). The then-Liberal government of Mitchell Hepburn, which had been elected on a platform of being the working man's friend, sided with the corporation and brought in armed university students to break up any union agitation. These much-derided "Hepburn's Hussars" and "Sons of Mitches" were never needed as the union refused to be drawn into violent acts. The union and workers had the backing of the local population, other unions and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party, and on April 23, two weeks after the strike started, the company gave in to most of the workers' demands, although — pointedly — it did not recognize the union.[9]

A historic church in Oshawa

Post-war[edit]

In 1950, the city annexed a portion of East Whitby Township west of Park Road. Some of this area had been developed during the 1920s boom period, although it was not within the boundaries of the city. The opening of the Oshawa Shopping Centre (now the Oshawa Centre) fewer than two kilometres west of the "four corners" in 1956 struck a blow to Oshawa's downtown from which it has never been able to recover. The shopping centre was built on land which had been an unproductive farm; when its owner gave up on agriculture, this released a very large area of land for the construction of a mall. The Oshawa Centre is the largest shopping mall in Ontario east of Toronto. The opening of what later became Highway 401, then known as Highway 2A, shortly after World War II sparked increased residential growth in Oshawa and the other lakeshore municipalities of Ontario County, which led to the creation of the Regional Municipality of Durham in 1974. Oshawa was amalgamated with the remaining portions of East Whitby Township and took on its present boundaries, which included the outlying villages of Columbus, Raglan and Kedron. Much of Oshawa's industry has closed over the years; however, it is still the headquarters of GM Canada and its major manufacturing site. Current industries of note include manufacturing of railway maintenance equipment, mining equipment, steel fabrication, and rubber products. Oshawa is also recognized as an official port of entry for immigration and customs services.

Economy[edit]

Oshawa is headquarters to General Motors Canada, which has large-scale manufacturing and administrative operations in the city and employs many thousands both directly and indirectly. Since Windsor, Ontario houses Chrysler Canada headquarters, the two cities have something of a friendly rivalry for the title of "Automotive Capital of Canada", which is now held by Oshawa.[6]

The revenue collection divisions of the Ontario Ministry of Finance occupy one of the few major office buildings in the city's downtown, which continues to struggle despite business improvement efforts. The city's older southern neighbourhoods tend to be considerably less affluent than its more suburban northern sections, which are rapidly expanding as Toronto commuters move in. The southern half of the city consists of industrial zones and compact housing designed for early 20th century industrial workers, while the northern half has a suburban feel more typical of later decades. High wages paid to unionized GM employees have meant that these workers could enjoy a relatively high standard of living, although such jobs are much scarcer today than they once were. During its post-World War II heyday, General Motors offered some of the best manufacturing jobs available in Canada and attracted thousands of workers from economically depressed areas of the country, particularly the Maritimes, Newfoundland, rural Quebec and northern Ontario. The city was also a magnet for European immigrants in the skilled trades, and boasts substantial Polish, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Croatian, German, Slovak and Russian ethnic communities.

Although the workforce at General Motors of Canada has shrunk dramatically in recent years, the company continues to make significant technology and capital investments at its sites in Oshawa. While the company's once essential role in the local economy has diminished, it remains the largest local employer. Many of its operations have been spun off to contractors. In most cases, new owners at the spun off facilities are not bound by the collective bargaining agreements of the Canadian Auto Workers, and wages at such operations tend to be much lower than at General Motors itself.

Oshawa has become one of the fastest growing cities in Canada, although statements to this effect are often in reference to the Census Metropolitan Area, which includes neighbouring Whitby and Clarington. Many commuters have been enticed to Oshawa by comparatively low housing prices and the regular rail service into downtown Toronto provided by GO Transit and Via Rail. The growth of subdivisions to house Toronto commuters will likely accelerate when the long-planned Highway 407 extension is built across the city's northern tier by 2013. The trend suggests major social changes for Oshawa, which has long had a vigorous labour union presence and largely blue collar identity. Rising property values and the emergence of land speculation associated with suburban growth have created new dynamics for the local economy. While unchecked growth was largely accepted (even embraced) in the 1980s and 1990s, concern over urban sprawl has emerged.

In late 2004, the Greater Toronto Airports Authority announced a plan under which the Oshawa Airport would be closed and its traffic diverted to a major new Toronto reliever airport to be constructed in Pickering. The Oshawa airport handles occasional traffic related to General Motors (emergency spare parts and executives); GM has indicated that a move of its air traffic to Pickering would not affect its operations. The airport also handles significant general aviation, two flight training facilities, and numerous other aviation and non-aviation related companies, all of which would need to be diverted or relocated. Significant helicopter support services are also provided for police, military, and HydroOne aircraft. The city has considered ambitious proposals to repurpose the airport lands, and in January 2006, significant upgrade work was being performed on the main terminal building by the city, signalling that the city had no immediate plans to close the busy facility, understanding its importance to the community and local economy (injecting $52 million yearly). Additional aviation related construction was also taking place on the airport lands.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Oshawa (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
11.5
(52.7)
23.5
(74.3)
29.5
(85.1)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
36.5
(97.7)
36.0
(96.8)
31.5
(88.7)
24.4
(75.9)
21.1
(70)
16.5
(61.7)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
0.1
(32.2)
4.2
(39.6)
10.8
(51.4)
16.9
(62.4)
22.3
(72.1)
25.1
(77.2)
24.3
(75.7)
20.2
(68.4)
13.3
(55.9)
7.4
(45.3)
2.1
(35.8)
12.1
(53.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.4
(32.7)
6.6
(43.9)
12.3
(54.1)
17.6
(63.7)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68)
15.9
(60.6)
9.5
(49.1)
4.2
(39.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
8.1
(46.6)
Average low °C (°F) −8.5
(16.7)
−7.3
(18.9)
−3.5
(25.7)
2.5
(36.5)
7.7
(45.9)
12.9
(55.2)
15.9
(60.6)
15.6
(60.1)
11.7
(53.1)
5.6
(42.1)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.4
(24.1)
4.1
(39.4)
Record low °C (°F) −30.5
(−22.9)
−27
(−17)
−24
(−11)
−13.3
(8.1)
−2.8
(27)
1.1
(34)
6.0
(42.8)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−7.8
(18)
−13
(9)
−29
(−20)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 65.6
(2.583)
56.6
(2.228)
54.2
(2.134)
72.7
(2.862)
78.9
(3.106)
73.9
(2.909)
73.1
(2.878)
77.4
(3.047)
94.0
(3.701)
70.1
(2.76)
84.8
(3.339)
70.7
(2.783)
871.9
(34.327)
Rainfall mm (inches) 30.0
(1.181)
31.7
(1.248)
40.7
(1.602)
70.6
(2.78)
78.9
(3.106)
73.9
(2.909)
73.1
(2.878)
77.4
(3.047)
94.0
(3.701)
70.0
(2.756)
80.0
(3.15)
45.8
(1.803)
766.1
(30.161)
Snowfall cm (inches) 35.6
(14.02)
24.9
(9.8)
13.5
(5.31)
2.0
(0.79)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.04)
4.7
(1.85)
24.9
(9.8)
105.8
(41.65)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 13.6 10.4 11.0 12.8 12.8 10.8 10.6 11.2 12.1 13.5 14.4 12.6 145.7
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.7 5.0 7.9 12.4 12.8 10.8 10.6 11.2 12.1 13.4 13.3 7.5 122.7
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 8.7 6.3 3.8 0.85 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.08 1.8 5.9 27.5
Source: Environment Canada[10]

Politics[edit]

The dominant presence of General Motors (and its autoworkers) meant that Oshawa was well known as a bastion of unionist, left-wing support during the decades following the Second World War. The city played an important role in Canada's labour history, including the 1937 "Oshawa Strike" against General Motors and the considerable financial support provided by the city's autoworkers to the New Democratic Party (NDP) and its predecessors.

However, Oshawa was part of the Ontario (County) riding when Michael Starr served; Starr was a high ranking Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) and Cabinet Member during the Diefenbaker era. Starr served the new Oshawa—Whitby riding for one term, before being narrowly defeated by future federal NDP leader Ed Broadbent in 1968. Broadbent then represented the city in the House of Commons until 1989, and in the 1980s led the NDP to its greatest electoral successes.

By the end of the 1990s, the city's changing economy and demographics led many voters to the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario and the Canadian Alliance, a conservative party at the federal level. Conservative candidates have won recent provincial and federal elections, whereas from 1968-93 the city was a safe NDP seat in both the federal and provincial legislatures.

The city's shifting social and political dynamics were seen in the 2004 federal election - the riding of Oshawa (not coterminous with the City of Oshawa, but containing most of it) was the country's most competitive. The candidate of the new Conservative Party of Canada, Colin Carrie, edged out his NDP rival Sid Ryan by several hundred votes; it was an atypical and ideologically stark race that left Louise Parkes of the Liberals in third place.

In 2006, Whitby—Oshawa also became a Conservative seat; Jim Flaherty followed Starr (after over 40 years) into the Cabinet of Canada as Minister of Finance.

Local government[edit]

The council of the City of Oshawa is made up of eleven members - one mayor, seven regional councillors and three city councillors.

The mayor is elected at large by electors throughout the city, heads the council of the City of Oshawa and is also a representative of the city on the council of the Regional Municipality of Durham. Seven regional councillors are elected at large by electors throughout the city to represent the city on both the council of the City of Oshawa and the council of the Regional Municipality of Durham. Three city councillors are elected at large by electors throughout the city to represent the city on the council of the City of Oshawa.

There are four standing committees of council: Finance and Administration Committee, Development Services Committee, Community Services Committee, and the Strategic Initiatives Committee.

Education[edit]

Public education in Oshawa is provided via the Durham District School Board. In late 2006, there were 32 elementary schools and six secondary schools. The Durham Catholic District School Board, which has its headquarters in Oshawa, oversees public Catholic education in Durham Region. There are 14 Catholic elementary schools and two secondary schools. The Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates one French public elementary school, while the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud runs one publicly funded French-language Catholic elementary school. Private schools include Durham Elementary School, Immanuel Christian School, Kingsway College and College Park Elementary School. The Durham Catholic District School Board decided to shut down several Catholic Elementary Schools in Oshawa in June 2008, due to shifting enrolment.[citation needed]

Trent University has a campus in South Oshawa (beside the Oshawa Civic Auditorium) and has been a strong presence in the Oshawa community for over 35 years. Oshawa is home to the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, opened in 2003. The main campus of Durham College is also located in the city. The university and college share a campus and some facilities, but the two institutions are independent. Given the city's industrial heritage, the university's courses emphasize technology, manufacturing and engineering themes. It is the only university in Canada to offer degree programs in Automotive Engineering and Nuclear Engineering. Trent University offers several courses at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in the Humanities to supplement their primarily STEM fields.

Health care[edit]

Oshawa is the site of Lakeridge Health Oshawa, formerly Oshawa General Hospital. This 437-bed facility is the major regional hospital for the area and also houses the R.S. McLaughlin Durham Regional Cancer Centre.

Emergency services[edit]

Policing in Oshawa is provided the Durham Regional Police Service. There are two police stations in Oshawa — one at 77 Centre Street North in the downtown area, and a South Oshawa Community Policing Centre on Cedar Street. EMS/Ambulance services are also operated by the Region of Durham. Oshawa Fire Services - operated by the city - operates from five fire stations located throughout the city.

Oshawa was the first city in Ontario to provide paramedic services. In 1979 a group of 16 ambulance attendants were given specialized training to treat cardiac related problems in the pre-hospital setting. The program was called the "Pre-hospital Cardiac Care" program or PHCC program. From this single service, paramedic training was expanded to Toronto, Hamilton and the Provincial air ambulance service. The program has been the source of all paramedic programs in Ontario. Three of the original paramedics are still certified in 2011.

Media[edit]

Oshawa has few media outlets of its own due to its proximity to Toronto. The city has one AM station, CKDO (1580) which is rebroadcast on 107.7 FM, and one FM station, 94.9 CKGE. Both stations are owned by Durham Radio, which also owns CJKX, which is licenced to the nearby community of Ajax, although all three stations are operated from the same studios at the Oshawa Airport.

Oshawa also has a CBC Television affiliate station, CHEX-TV-2 (Channel 12), which airs a daily supper hour news and current affairs program specially targeted to Durham Region viewers. Although a larger city than Peterborough then and now, Oshawa was not granted a television station in the original 1950s assignments as it was geographically too close to Toronto, since the original spacings were set at 145 km (90 mi). Rogers TV, the local cable provider, serves the community with local television programming.

Oshawa is served by a number of community newspapers, including the Oshawa Express, an independent which is published every Wednesday, and Oshawa This Week, published three times per week by Metroland. The long-standing daily newspaper, the Oshawa Times (also known at various times as the Oshawa Daily Times and Times-Gazette), was closed by its owner Thomson Newspapers, after a lengthy strike in 1994. John Short Larke was the proprietor of the Oshawa Vindicator, a strongly pro-Conservative newspaper, in the late 19th century.[11]

Oshawa is also home to Artsforum Magazine, an award-winning, not-for-profit magazine of arts and ideas launched in Fall 2000 by John Arkelian, its publisher and editor-in-chief. With a wide-ranging writ that runs the gamut from foreign policy to film, Artsforum's readership extends far beyond its home in the Greater Toronto Area, with readers and contributors across Canada, the United States, and Western Europe.[citation needed]

Sports[edit]

Hockey[edit]

Oshawa is home to the Oshawa Generals of the Ontario Hockey League, the top level for players aged 15–20. Famous alumni of this team include Bobby Orr, Alex Delvecchio, Wayne Cashman, Tony Tanti, Dave Andreychuk, Marc Savard, Eric Lindros, and John Tavares. The team moved from the Oshawa Civic Auditorium into the new General Motors Centre in November 2006.

The Oshawa Generals' home arena has been destroyed by fire twice in the franchise history. In June 1928, the Bradley Arena was destroyed by fire. Then, 25 years later, the Hambly Arena was also destroyed by fire.

Basketball[edit]

The Oshawa Power of the National Basketball League of Canada began playing in October 2011. In the Spring of 2013, the Power announced a move to Mississauga, a western suburb of Toronto from Oshawa. The Power played home games at the General Motors Centre.

Lacrosse[edit]

Oshawa was for many years one of the main centres for the sport of lacrosse and home of the Oshawa Green Gaels, one of the most storied teams in the sport. A player of note in the 1920s was Nels Stewart, who became a Hall of Famer in the National Hockey League. During the 1980s, when lacrosse seemed on the edge of oblivion in Canada, (the Green Gaels themselves having folded in the early part of the decade), lacrosse continued to be played in the neighbouring towns of Whitby and Brooklin, and many of the players were from Oshawa. However, since then, Clarington has taken over the Green Gaels association. With the rise of the National Lacrosse League the sport's survival seems assured and again, many players and others involved in the professional league are from the Oshawa area. Former Oshawa Green Gaels captain and Oshawa native, Derek Keenan, is the current coach and general manager of the Edmonton Rush. He was inducted into the Canadian Lacrosse Hall of Fame in 2012.

Rugby[edit]

Oshawa has been the home of Oshawa Vikings Rugby Football Club since 1959. Notable players from the club since its inception include Dave Thompson (Ontario Rugby Hall of Fame) and Dean Van Camp (Rugby Canada Men XV squad). The clubhouse (Thompson Rugby Park) is located in the Oshawa Hamlet of Raglan.

Soccer[edit]

With over 3000 members the Oshawa Kicks Soccer Club[12] is the largest Soccer Club in the City. The Club offers recreational programs for 2000 children, and adult men's and women's leagues. In 2011 the Kicks were the first soccer club to operate children's and adult's winter soccer leagues in the new Civic Fieldhouse. The club has a competitive program for both youth and adults, and won seven Ontario Cup Championship titles from 2000-2010.

Founded in 1967, the Oshawa Turul Soccer Club had a sizeable role in the development of competitive soccer community of Oshawa. The club had two national championship teams, the first in 1978 and again in 1989.[13] The Club was founded by Oshawa Sports Hall Of Fame Member, Nick Springer.

Other[edit]

Oshawa was home to Windfields Farm, a thoroughbred horse breeding operation and birthplace of one of Canada's most famous racehorses, Northern Dancer.[citation needed]

Oshawa will be hosting the boxing, shooting (shotgun) and softball events for the 2015 Pan American Games.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

Highway 401 in Oshawa.
Oshawa Train Station

GO Transit trains connect the city with Toronto, Hamilton and points between. GO Transit buses provide service from Oshawa along the Highway 401 and Highway 2 corridors in Durham Region and to Toronto and York Region. GO Transit bus service is also provided from Oshawa Train station to Clarington and Peterborough via the downtown bus terminal. The Oshawa Station is owned by the national rail carrier Via Rail, which operates a service along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. Other services from the station include GO Buses, and the regional transit system Durham Region Transit provides local bus service, having replaced Oshawa Transit on January 1, 2006.

Private intercity buses are provided by Greyhound Canada (to Toronto, Port Hope, Cobourg and Belleville, as well as to Peterborough and Ottawa, and Can-Ar daily to/from Lindsay and Toronto.

Rail freight is carried on the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways which traverse the city.

Other than Highway 2, which reverted to local jurisdiction (King Street and Bond Street) in 1998, the city had no provincially maintained highways until the original section of Highway 401 opened in 1947 (as Highway 2A). The highway originally terminated at Ritson Road, and was extended east through the remainder of the city to Newcastle in 1952. Oshawa was the only city that Highway 401 was built directly through, rather than bypassing. This resulted in the demolition of several streets and hundreds of homes in the 1930s and 1940s.

The Port of Oshawa is a major stop for the auto and steel industries as well as winter road salt handling and agricultural fertilizer. A marine rescue unit (COMRA) is also stationed at the port. A regional airport with on-site customs and immigration authorities also services the City (see above). On May 21, 2009, Canadian Transportation Minister John Baird announced that the status of Oshawa's port would be changed from a harbour commission to a full-fledged Port Authority. The creation of a federal port authority has caused some controversy as there are others who wish to see the port transferred to municipal ownership and recreational use.

The closest international airport is Toronto Pearson International Airport, located 75 kilometres west by road in Mississauga.

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop.   ±%  
1841 1,000 —    
1871 3,185 +218.5%
1881 3,992 +25.3%
1891 4,063 +1.8%
1901 4,394 +8.1%
1911 7,436 +69.2%
1921 11,940 +60.6%
1931 23,439 +96.3%
1941 26,610 +13.5%
1951 41,545 +56.1%
1961 62,415 +50.2%
1971 91,587 +46.7%
1981 117,519 +28.3%
1991 129,344 +10.1%
1996 134,364 +3.9%
2001 139,051 +3.5%
2006 141,590 +1.8%
2011 149,607 +5.7%
Population by ethnicity
Canada 2006 Census Population  % of Total Population
Ethnicity group
Source:[14]
White 126,355 90.1
Black 4,260 3.0
South Asian 1,905 1.4
First Nations 1,525 1.1
Chinese 1,330 0.9
Métis 775 0.6
Filipino 755 0.5
Latin American 710 0.5
Mixed visible minority 520 0.4
West Asian 505 0.4
Other visible minority 425 0.3
Southeast Asian 280 0.2
Arab 255 0.2
Korean 215 0.2
Japanese 205 0.1
Total population 140,240 100
Ethnic origin
(multiple responses included)
Population Percent
Canadian 117,010 39.86%
English 97,125 33.09%
Scottish 63,380 21.59%
Irish 59,740 20.35%
French 32,085 10.93%
German 22,380 7.62%
Dutch (Netherlands) 15,085 5.14%
Italian 13,985 4.76%
Polish 11,490 3.91%
Ukrainian 11,035 3.76%

According to the 2011 census, the population of Oshawa is 149,607, up from 141,590 (5.7%) in the 2006 census. In 2001, 49.3% of the population was male and 50.7% female. Children under five accounted for approximately 6.5% of the resident population of Oshawa. This compares with 5.8% in Ontario, and almost 5.6% for Canada overall.

In mid-2001, 10.4% of the resident population in Oshawa were of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.2% in Canada, therefore, the average age is 35.8 years of age comparing to 37.6 years of age for all of Canada.

In the five years between 1996 and 2001, the population of Oshawa grew by 10.2%, compared with an increase of 6.1% for Ontario as a whole. Population density of Oshawa averaged 328.0 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 12.6, for Ontario altogether.

According to the 2006 census, the Oshawa Census Metropolitan Area, which includes neighbouring Whitby and Clarington, has a population of 330,594.

The information regarding ethnicities at the left is from the 2001 Canadian Census. The percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses (e.g. "French-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "French" and the category "Canadian".) Groups with greater than 10,000 responses are included.

In 2006, 8.1% of the residents were visible minorities, 37.4% of whom were Black Canadians.[15]

Religious profile

Oshawa is also home to the Canadian headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist church, who for many years maintained a college here, and now operate a high school and elementary school.

According to the 2011 Census[16] English is the mother tongue of 86.7% of the residents of Oshawa. 2.2% of the population have French as their mother tongue, which is one of the highest proportions within the GTA. Polish is the mother tongue of 1.3% of the population, with Italian trailing at 1.0%.

Notable people[edit]

Cultural assets[edit]

  • Artsforum Magazine (an award-winning, not-for-profit magazine of arts and ideas; established in 2000, it has attracted an international readership and many prominent contributors)
  • Cinechats Film Series (a not-for-profit community education collaboration between the Durham Council for the Arts, Artsforum Magazine, the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), and Durham College, which brings the finest films in the world—including several North American premieres—to audiences in the Eastern Greater Toronto Area)
  • Durham Council for the Arts (the region's oldest arts council, established in 1963, a charitable organization devoted to supporting and promoting artistic, cultural, and intellectual excellence throughout Durham Region)
  • Canadian Automotive Museum
  • Durham Philharmonic Choir
  • Oshawa Horseless Carriagemen
  • County Town Singers
  • Oshawa Civic Band
  • Oshawa Art Association
  • Ontario Philharmonic (regarded as one of Canada's finest regional orchestras)
  • Oshawa Fiesta Week
  • Oshawa Aeronautical Military and Industrial Museum
  • The Robert McLaughlin Gallery
  • Oshawa Downtown Murals
  • Oshawa Little Theatre
  • General Motors Centre
  • Legends Centre (North Oshawa Recreation Centre)
  • Heritage Oshawa (sponsors an annual Doors Open event)
  • Oshawa Community Museum & Archives
  • Parkwood Estate
  • Durham Shoestring Performers
  • Regent Theatre (a designated heritage building currently owned by UOIT, but used for performing arts programs on weekends and evenings)
  • Camp Samac
  • Durham Community Choir
  • Driftwood Theatre
  • Oshawa Public Library
  • Oshawa Camera Club

Recreation[edit]

Oshawa has a diverse array of parks, walking trails, conservation areas, public pools (both indoors and outdoors), community centers, and sports facilities. Lakeview Park stretches along the coast of Lake Ontario, complete with a sandy beach. Also, the McLaughlin Bay Wildlife Reserve and Second Marsh Wildlife Area offer protected marshland areas with interpretive trails and viewing platforms. Oshawa Harbour is often a port of call for vessels from the Canadian Navy.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Oshawa: Prepare To Be Amazed". Oshawa homepage. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  2. ^ "Community highlights for Oshawa". 2006 Census of Canada. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  3. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data
  4. ^ Rayburn, Alan, Place Names of Ontario, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997, p. 258.
  5. ^ Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary
  6. ^ a b Macaluso, Grace (February 7, 2012). "Oshawa automotive capital of Canada". Windsor Star online. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  7. ^ Orr, Barbara Ramsay (2011). Day trips from Toronto: Getaway ideas for the local traveler. Kearney, NE: Morris Book Publishing LLC. pp. 82, 83. ISBN 978-0-7627-6462-4. 
  8. ^ "Remembering the Oshawa Railway," by Clayton M. Morgan with Charles D. Taws (ISBN 0968049702).
  9. ^ Abella, Irving (1974). On Strike: Six Key Labour Struggles in Canada 1919-1949. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: James Lorimar and Company. pp. 93–128. ISBN 0-88862-057-8. 
  10. ^ "Oshawa WPCP". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 
  11. ^ The Canadian Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery of Eminent and Self-Made Men, Ontario Volume, 1880.
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2] Oshawa Turul Soccer Club - About Us
  14. ^ [3], Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
  15. ^ 2006 Community Profiles - Census Subdivision
  16. ^ [4]

External links[edit]

Media related to Oshawa at Wikimedia Commons