Location of Oshima Province c. 1869.
Oshima Province (渡島国 Oshima-no kuni) was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō. It corresponded to the southern part of today's Oshima and Hiyama Subprefectures
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional administrative subdivisions were identified, including Oshima Province.
- August 15, 1869 Oshima Province established with seven districts
- 1872 Census reports 75,830 inhabitants of the province
- July, 1881 Tsugaru District and Fukushima District merged to form Matsumae District, reducing the number of districts to six.
- 1882 Provinces dissolved in Hokkaidō.