Osmanthus heterophyllus

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"Hiiragi" redirects here. For other uses, see Hiiragi (disambiguation).
holly osmanthus
holly olive
false holly
Osmanthus heterophyllus3.jpg
Hiiragi, in flower in Osaka
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Osmanthus
Species: O. heterophyllus
Binomial name
Osmanthus heterophyllus
(G.Don) P.S.Green
Synonyms[1]
  • Ilex heterophylla G. Don
  • Olea aquifolium Siebold & Zucc.
  • Olea ilicifolia Hassk.
  • Olea rotundifolia (H.Jaeger) Entleutner
  • Osmanthus acutus Masam. & T.Mori
  • Osmanthus aquifolium (Thunb.) Siebold
  • Osmanthus bibracteatus Hayata
  • Osmanthus ilicifolius (Hassk.) Carrière
  • Osmanthus integrifolius Hayata
  • Osmanthus myrtifolius G.Nicholson
  • Osmanthus rotundifolius (H.Jaeger) Dippel

Osmanthus heterophyllus (Chinese:t 柊樹, s 柊树, p zhongshu; Japanese: ヒイラギ, Hiiragi or Hihiragi), variously known as holly osmanthus, holly olive, and false holly, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to eastern Asia in central and southern Japan (Honshū, Kyūshū, Shikoku, and the Ryukyu Islands) and Taiwan.[2][3]

Description[edit]

fruits

It is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 2–8 m (7–26 ft) tall. The bark is brown to grey or blackish, cracking into small plates on old plants. The leaves are opposite, 3–7 cm long and 1.5–4 cm broad with a thick, leathery texture, lustrous dark green above, paler yellow-green below; the margin is entire or with one to four large spine-tipped teeth on each side. Spiny leaves predominate on small, young plants (an adaptation to deter browsing animals), while entire leaves predominate higher on larger mature plants out of the reach of animals. The flowers are very fragrant, white, with a four-lobed corolla, the corolla tube 1–2 mm long and the lobes 2.5–5 mm long; they are dioecious, with flowering in the autumn. The fruit is an ovoid dark purple drupe 1.5 cm long and 1 cm diameter, mature in the following summer about 9 months after flowering.[2][4][5][6]

Varieties[edit]

There are two varieties:[2]

  • Osmanthus heterophyllus var. heterophyllus. Leaves entire or spiny; flowers with short corolla lobes 2.5-3.5 mm long. Throughout the range of the species.
  • Osmanthus heterophyllus var. bibracteatus (Hayata) P.S.Green. Leaves always entire; flowers with long corolla lobes 5 mm long. Endemic to Taiwan.

Nomenclature[edit]

The scientific name heterophyllus, "different leaves", refers to the variation in leaf shape between spiny and entire. The common name holly osmanthus refers to the similarity in leaf shape to that of the holly (Ilex aquifolium), an example of convergent evolution with a common objective of deterring browsing; the two may be distinguished easily by the leaf arrangement, alternate in Ilex aquifolium and opposite in Osmanthus heterophyllus.

Cultivation[edit]

Goshiki False Holly growing in a nursery in Cranford, New Jersey.

It is widely used as a hedge plant.[6][7] Several cultivars have been selected for garden use, including 'Aureus', 'Goshiki', 'Purpureus', 'Rotundifolius', and 'Subangustatus'.[6] The cultivars 'Gulftide'[8] and 'Variegatus'[9] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

The species has been hybridised in cultivation with Osmanthus fragrans; the resulting hybrid is named Osmanthus × fortunei Carr.[6]

Historical mentions[edit]

It is mentioned twice in the Kojiki, the oldest surviving historical record of Japan.[7] The first mention, under the name hihiragi, is in connection with the name of a kami, Hihiragi-no-sono-hana-madzumi-no-kami[10] (translated by Chamberlain as "Deity Waiting-to-see-the-Flowers-of-the-Holly"[11]), with the word madzumi (rarely seen) being used to describe the plant's characteristic of its flowers rarely blossoming, as interpreted by the scholar Tominobu.[7][12] Its second mention occurs during a passage referring to how a holly wood spear, made of material from the tree and spanning "eight fathoms long",[13] was presented to the Prince Yamato-take by the Emperor prior to him being sent to subdue the East.[7] Its prickly and non-prickly variations are sometimes described as "male" and "female" respectively, though this does not equate to its true plant sexuality.[7][14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List". 
  2. ^ a b c Flora of China: Osmanthus heterophyllus
  3. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Osmanthus heterophyllus
  4. ^ Hata Labs Plant Ecology Laboratory: Osmanthus heterophyllus (in Japanese; google translation)
  5. ^ Rokko Mountain guide to trees: Osmanthus heterophyllus (in Japanese; google translation)
  6. ^ a b c d Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  7. ^ a b c d e Sakanishi, Shio (December 1935). "The Magic Holly in Japanese Literature". Journal of the American Oriental Society 55 (4): 444–450. doi:10.2307/594762. JSTOR 594762. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Gulftide'". Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Variegatus'". Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Kojiki. pp. vol. 2, sect. 26. 
  11. ^ Chamberlain, Basil Hall (1932). Kojiki (2nd ed.). p. 100. 
  12. ^ Hosoda, Tominobu. Jindai seigo tokiwa-gusa. 
  13. ^ Chamberlain, Basil Hall (1932). Kojiki (2nd ed.). p. 22. 
  14. ^ Matsuoka, Gentatsu (c. 1800). Honzo ikka gen.