and on an amount fraction basis by:
where is the chemical potential of the pure solvent and is the chemical potential of the solvent in a solution, MA is its molar mass, xA its amount fraction, R the gas constant and T the temperature in kelvins. The latter osmotic coefficient is sometimes called the rational osmotic coefficient. The values for the two definitions are different, but since
the two definitions are similar, and in fact both approach 1 as the concentration goes to zero.
In a single solute solution, the (molality based) osmotic coefficient and the solute activity coefficient are related to the excess Gibbs free energy by the relations:
and there is thus a differential relationship between them (temperature and pressure held constant):
In ionic solutions, Debye-Hückel theory implies that is asymptotic to , where I is ionic strength and A is the Debye-Hückel constant (equal to about 1.17 for water at 25 °C). This means that, at least at low concentrations, the vapor pressure of the solvent will be greater than that predicted by Raoult's law. For instance, for solutions of magnesium chloride, the vapor pressure is slightly greater than that predicted by Raoult's law up to a concentration of 0.7 mol/kg, after which the vapor pressure is lower than Raoult's law predicts.
- "Gold book definition".
- I. Grenthe and H. Wanner, Guidelines for the extrapolation to zero ionic strength, http://www.nea.fr/html/dbtdb/guidelines/tdb2.pdf
- X. Ge, X. Wang, M. Zhang, S. Seetharaman. Correlation and Prediction of Activity and Osmotic Coefficients of Aqueous Electrolytes at 298.15 K by the Modified TCPC Model. J. Chem. Eng. data. 52 (2007) 538-547.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je060451k
- X. Ge, M. Zhang, M. Guo, X. Wang, Correlation and Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Non-aqueous Electrolytes by the Modified TCPC Model. J. Chem. Eng. data. 53 (2008)149-159.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je700446q
- X. Ge, M. Zhang, M. Guo, X. Wang. Correlation and Prediction of thermodynamic properties of Some Complex Aqueous Electrolytes by the Modified Three-Characteristic-Parameter Correlation Model. J. Chem. Eng. Data. 53(2008)950-958.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je7006499
- X. Ge, X. Wang. A Simple Two-Parameter Correlation Model for Aqueous Electrolyte across a wide range of temperature. J. Chem. Eng. Data. 54(2009)179-186.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je800483q