Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski

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Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski
Ostrowiec Market Square
Ostrowiec Market Square
Coat of arms of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski
Coat of arms
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski is located in Poland
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski
Coordinates: 50°56′N 21°24′E / 50.933°N 21.400°E / 50.933; 21.400
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Świętokrzyskie
County Ostrowiec
Gmina Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski (urban gmina)
Government
 • Mayor Jarosław Wilczyński
Area
 • Total 46.43 km2 (17.93 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 71,959
 • Density 1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 27-400
Area code(s) +48 41
Car plates TOS
Website http://www.um.ostrowiec.pl
Saint Michael's Church
Gromada Hotel
Historic-Archeological Museum
Post office building

Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski Polish pronunciation: [ɔsˈtrɔvʲɛt͡s ɕfʲɛntɔˈkʂɨskʲi] (Ltspkr.png listen) is a town in south-central Poland (historic province of Lesser Poland) with 74,211 inhabitants (2006). The main industry is metallurgy. Ostrowiec is the capital city of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski County, part of Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999), previously it belonged to Kielce Voivodeship (1975–1998). It received town charter in 1613.

Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski (the town is often referred to as Ostrowiec) lies on the Kamienna river. Northern districts are located in the Ilza Foothills, while southern part belongs to the Opatow Upland. Swietokrzyskie Mountains lie a few kilometers away, southwest of Ostrowiec. The town is one of historic centers of Polish industry, and was part of the Old-Polish Industrial Region, the oldest industrial basin of the country. Near Ostrowiec two interesting places are located: the archaeological reserve at Krzemionki and dinosaur park at Baltow.

Ostrowiec is located at the intersection of National Road nr. 9 (part of European route E371), and local roads 751, 754, 755. Furthermore, since 1884 the town has had a rail connection, along electrified line nr. 25, which goes from Łódź Kaliska to Dębica. In the 1960s, Polish government planned construction of a rail line from Kielce to Lublin via Ostrowiec. The area of the town is 46 km2., and it is divided into 20 districts (osiedla).

History[edit]

The oldest testimonies of human habitation date back to the Stone Age (ca 4000 BC). At that time, there were nomadic tribes belonging to, among others, the Lengyel and Globular Amphora cultures. They came here from Danube river region.

The earliest documents about Ostrowiec village, that gave beginning to the contemporary Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski come from 14th century. At that time the village was called Ostrow, and was located on the right bank of the Kamienna. In the early 16th century, a local nobleman Kacper Maciejewski tried to establish here a town, but failed to do so. In 1564 town charter was granted to the settlement of Denkow (also called Wielki Michow), which now is a district of Ostrowiec.

The city itself, at that time part of Sandomierz Voivodeship, was built from scratch in 1597 by Jakub Gawroński of Rawa coat of arms on the left bank of the Kamienna river, situated in the Vistula river basin. It received town privileges in 1613. It became a property of Janusz Ostrogski, a statesman and one of the richest magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Later it belonged to many Polish aristocratic families: Tarnowski family, Czartoryski family, Lubomirski family, Radziwiłł family, Zasławski family, Sanguszko family, Wielopolski family, Dobrzański family, Łubieński family.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Ostrowiec emerged as a main center of Polish industry. Following the idea of Stanislaw Staszic, who promoted industrialization of the Kamienna river valley, based on local deposits of coal and iron ore, numerous plants were opened in the area. In 1837 - 1839, the Klimkiewicz Steelworks was opened (named after its founder Antoni Klimkiewicz), which later came to be known as the Ostrowiec Works (Zaklady Ostrowieckie). The plant became the second largest in Congress Poland, and in its vicinity, various enterprises were opened, together with workers establishment.

Ostrowiec was one of main centers of the Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905–1907). On December 27, 1905, the so-called Ostrowiec Republic was established, and for two weeks, the town and the county were ruled by the Polish Socialist Party, headed by Ignacy Boerner. The Republic was ended after the arrival of two infantry regiments of the Imperial Russian Army. The Ostrowiec Works was severely damaged during World War I, and on November 3, 1918, newly established Polish authorities took control over Ostrowiec. In the Second Polish Republic Ostrowiec developed, due to its location in Central Industrial Area. The town belonged to Opatow County, and before World War II its population was app. 30,000. In 1937 it was officially named Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski. Earlier on, the names Ostrowiec Kielecki and Ostrowiec nad Kamienna had been used.

The Wehrmacht captured the town on September 8, 1939. Most of its Jewish community of app. 11,000 was murdered in the Holocaust, in 1943-1944. During the Second World War, Ostrowiec was a lively centre of resistance activity against the Nazi occupation. There was underground weapons production and an independent underground press. German troops withdraw westwards on January 16, 1945.

Ostrowiec continued its development in the postwar period. In 1954, several villages were annexed, including Denkow, which itself had once been a town. In the 1970s, a new metallurgical plant was opened. In the 1990s, the metallurgical industry experienced a big crisis. The steel plant was bought then by Spanish CELSA Group.

Points of interest[edit]

  • Collegiate church of Michael (archangel) (early 17th century, remodelled in neo-Baroque style in 1924-1938),
  • St. Stanislaus church in Denkow (1700, with an 1806 bell tower),
  • Wielopolski family park and palace in the district of Czestocice (1887-1899),
  • Wielopolski family hunting palace,
  • Mountain style wooden church (1932),
  • Remnants of a Jewish cemetery on a park hill,
  • Late 19th century rail station,
  • Post office (1925-1927),
  • St. Florian roadside figure at St. Florian square (1776).

Culture[edit]

Inhabitants of Ostrowiec are known to be involved in many culture and arts activities. The town has a variety of cultural institutions including:

  • Municipal Cultural Centre
  • Office of Artistic Exhibitions
  • The Museum of History and Anthropology with the forest reserve in Krzemionki
  • Public Library- has locations in different parts of the town
  • Houses of Culture - children can get involved in the dance classes, drama classes, classes of art and modelling etc., literature and general knowledge competitions are also organized.

Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski also boasts a musical school and the State Artistic Centre, both of which have had an important influence upon the cultural development of the town.

Education[edit]

Sports[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski is twinned with the following cities:

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°56′N 21°24′E / 50.933°N 21.400°E / 50.933; 21.400