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Otis William Caldwell (1869, Lebanon, Indiana – 1947) was an American botanist and college football coach.
He was educated at Franklin (Ind.) College, and at the University of Chicago. He was professor of botany at the Eastern Illinois State Normal School from 1899 to 1907. In 1907 he was named associate professor of botany at the University of Chicago. While at Eastern Illinois, Caldwell served as head coach of the school's football team for three seasons, from 1899 to1901. He served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1944-1947.
His publications include:
- A Laboratory Manual of Botany (1901; revised edition, 1902)
- Plant Morphology (1903; revised edition, 1904)
- The High School Course in Botany (1909)
- Practical Botany (1911), with J. Y. Bergen