Otodus

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Otodus
Temporal range: PaleoceneEocene
Otodus obliquus multiple 021313.JPG
Otodus obliquus teeth from the Eocene near Khouribga, Morocco.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Superorder: Selachimorpha
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Otodontidae
Genus: Otodus
Agassiz, 1843
Species
  • Otodus aksuaticus
  • Otodus angustidens
  • Otodus auriculatus
  • Otodus hastalis
  • Otodus limhamnensis
  • Otodus minor
  • Otodus minor turkmenicus
  • Otodus naidini
  • Otodus obliquus
  • Otodus obliquus ajatensis
  • Otodus obliquus minor
  • Otodus obliquus mugodzharicus
  • Otodus poseidoni
  • Otodus poseidoni poseidoni
  • Otodus poseidoni turanensis
  • Otodus poseidoni ustyurtensis
  • Otodus sokolovi
  • Otodus sokolovi caspiensis

Otodus is an extinct mackerel shark which lived during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, approximately 60 to 45 million years ago. The name Otodus comes from Greek ὠτ (oûs "ear") and ὀδούς, "odous (tooth)", or "ear-shaped tooth".

Known physiology[edit]

This shark is known from the fossil teeth and fossilized vertebral centra.[1] Like other elasmobranchs, the skeleton of Otodus was composed of cartilage and not bone, resulting in relatively few preserved skeletal structures appearing within the fossil record. The teeth of this shark are large with triangular crown, smooth cutting edges, and visible cusps on the roots. Some Otodus teeth also show signs of evolving serrations.[1][2]

Size estimation[edit]

The fossils of Otodus indicate that it was a very large macro-predatory shark.[2] The largest known teeth measure about 104 millimetres (4.1 in) in height.[3] The vertebral centrum of this shark are over 12.7 cm (5 inch) wide.[2] Scientists suggest that this shark at least approached 9 metres (30 ft) in total length (TL),[2] with a maximum length of 12 metres (39 ft).[4]

Distribution[edit]

Otodus was a widespread species, as its remains have been excavated from Africa,[1] Asia,[1] Europe,[1] and North America.[1]

Diet[edit]

Otodus likely preyed upon marine mammals, large bony fish, and other sharks. It was among the top predators of its time.

Evolution[edit]

Scientists determined that Otodus evolved into the genus Carcharocles, given substantial fossil evidence in the form of transitional teeth.[1][2] Some teeth have been excavated from the sediments of the Potomac River in Maryland, USA, Ypres clay in Belgium, and western Kazakhstan, which are morphologically very similar to Otodus teeth but with lightly serrated cusplets and a serrated cutting edge. These transitional fossils suggest a worldwide evolutionary event, and support the theory that Otodus eventually evolved into Carcharocles aksuaticus and thus initiated the Carcharocles lineage.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Bourdon, Jim, Otodus 
  2. ^ a b c d e Renz, Mark (2002), Megalodon: Hunting the Hunter, PaleoPress, pp. 26–30, ISBN 0-9719477-0-8 
  3. ^ "Huge OTODUS OBLIQUUS shark tooth with pathology". Retrieved May 21, 2011. 
  4. ^ Gordon Hubbel (2006). "Virtual Tour of Private Shark Museum". Retrieved 2014-02-12.