According to histories written in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries), Otompan was created around 1395 when Techotlalatzin, ruler of Texcoco, settled Otomi refugees there who were fleeing the conquest of Xaltocan by the Tepanecs under Tezozomoc.
- Charlton, Thomas H.; Deborah L. Nichols; Cynthia L. Otis Charlton (2000). "Otumba and its neighbours: Ex oriente lux". Ancient Mesoamerica 11 (02): pp. 247–265. doi:10.1017/S0956536100112088.
- Evans, Susan Toby (2001). "Aztec-period political organization in the Teotihuacan Valley: Otumba as a city-state". Ancient Mesoamerica 12 (01): pp. 89–100. doi:10.1017/S0956536101121139.
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