Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Otto I the Great)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Otto I" redirects here. For other uses, see Otto I (disambiguation).
Otto the Great
Otto the Great.jpg
The Magdeburger Reiter: a tinted sandstone equestrian monument, c. 1240, traditionally intended as a portrait of Otto I, Magdeburg
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign 2 February 962 – 7 May 973
Coronation 2 February 962
Old St. Peter's Basilica, Rome
Predecessor Berengar of Friuli
Successor Otto II
King of Italy
Reign 25 December 961 – 7 May 973
Coronation 10 October 951[a]
Pavia
Predecessor Berengar II
Successor Otto II
King of Germany
Reign 2 July 936 – 7 May 973
Coronation 7 August 936
Aachen Cathedral
Predecessor Henry the Fowler
Successor Otto II
Duke of Saxony
Reign 2 July 936 – 7 May 973
Predecessor Henry the Fowler
Successor Bernard I
Consort Eadgyth of England (929–946)
Adelaide of Italy (951–973)
Issue illegitimate
William, Archbishop of Mainz
with Eadgyth
Liutgarde of Saxony
Liudolf, Duke of Swabia
with Adelaide
Matilda, Abbess of Quedlinburg
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor
Dynasty Ottonian
Father Henry the Fowler
Mother Matilda of Ringelheim
Born 23 November 912
Wallhausen, East Francia
Died 7 May 973(973-05-07) (aged 60)
Memleben, Holy Roman Empire
Burial Magdeburg Cathedral
Religion Roman Catholicism

Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), also known as Otto the Great, was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, reigning as German king from 936 until his death in 973. The oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, Otto was "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy".[1]

Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936. He continued his father's work to unify all German tribes into a single kingdom and greatly expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his own family to the kingdom's most important duchies. This reduced the various dukes, who had previously been co-equals with the king, into royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen the royal office and subjected its clergy to his personal control.

After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe.[2] The victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto the reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy and extended his realm's borders to the north, east, and south. In control of much of central and southern Europe, the patronage of Otto and his immediate successors caused a limited cultural renaissance of the arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome.

Otto's later years were marked by conflicts with the Papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son, Otto II, in April 972. Otto finally returned to Germany in August 972 and died of natural causes in 973. Otto II succeeded him as Emperor.

Early life and family[edit]

Otto was born on 23 November 912, the oldest son of the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda of Ringelheim, the daughter of the Saxon count Dietrich of Ringelheim (in Westphalia). Henry had previously married Hatheburg, also a daughter of a Saxon count, in 906, but this "marriage" was annulled,[3] probably in 909 after she had given birth to Henry's first son and Otto's half-brother Thankmar. His father Henry was the great-grandson of Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious. This gave Otto a claim to be Holy Roman Emperor as he was the great-great-great grandson of Louis the Pious. Otto had four full siblings: Hedwig (born 910), Gerberga (born 913), Henry (born 919),[b] and Bruno (born 925). Little else is known about his youth and education.

Background[edit]

On 23 December 918 King Conrad I of East Francia and Duke of Franconia died. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad persuaded his younger brother Duke Eberhard of Franconia, the presumptive heir, to offer the crown to Otto's father Henry on his deathbed.[4] Although Conrad and Henry had been at odds with one another since 912, Conrad considered him to be the only German duke capable of holding the Kingdom together in the face of internal rivalries among the dukes and continuous Hungarian raids. After several months of hesitation, Eberhard and the other Frankish and Saxon nobles elected Henry as king at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in May 919. For the first time a Saxon instead of a Frank reigned over the Kingdom.[5]

Burchard II, Duke of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new King,[6] but Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria did not recognize Henry's position. According to the Annales Iuvavenses, Arnulf was elected king by the Bavarians in opposition to Henry, but his "reign" was short-lived; Henry defeated him in two campaigns. In 921, Henry besieged Arnulf's residence at Ratisbon (Regensburg) and forced him into submission. Arnulf had to accept Henry's sovereignty; Bavaria retained some autonomy and the right to invest bishops in the Bavarian church.[7]

Heir apparent[edit]

Otto first gained experience as a military commander when the German kingdom fought against Slavic tribes on its eastern border. While campaigning against the Slavs in 929, Otto's illegitimate son William, the future Archbishop of Mainz, was born to a Slavic mother. With Henry's dominion over the entire kingdom secured by 929, his family was given the right of sole succession over the kingdom. Henry had the arrangement for his succession ratified by an Imperial Diet at Erfurt. After his death, his lands and wealth were to be divided between his four sons: Thankmar, Otto, Henry, and Bruno.[8] Departing from customary Carolingian inheritance, the King designated Otto as the sole heir apparent without a prior formal election by the various dukes.

While Henry consolidated power within Germany, he prepared for an alliance with Anglo-Saxon England by finding a bride for Otto. Association with another royal house would give Henry additional legitimacy and strengthen the bonds between the two Saxon kingdoms. To seal the alliance, King Æthelstan of England sent Henry his two half sisters Eadgyth and Ælfgifu so he could choose the one which best pleased him. Henry selected Eadgyth as Otto's bride and the two were married in 929.

Reign as King[edit]

Coronation[edit]

Side view of the Throne of Charlemagne at Aachen Cathedral, where Otto was crowned King of Germany in 936.

Henry died from the effects of a cerebral stroke on 2 July 936 at his palace, the Kaiserpfalz in Memleben, and was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey.[9] At the time of his death, all of the various German tribes were united in a single realm. At age 23, Otto assumed his father's position as Duke of Saxony and King of Germany. His coronation was held on 7 August 936 in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen, where he was anointed and crowned by Hildebert, the Archbishop of Mainz.[10] Though he was a Saxon by birth, Otto appeared at the coronation in Frankish dress in an attempt to demonstrate his sovereignty over the Duchy of Lotharingia and his role as true successor to Charlemagne, whose last heirs in East Francia had died out in 911.

According to Widukind of Corvey, at his coronation banquet, Otto had the four other dukes of the kingdom (from the duchies of Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria and Lorraine) act as his personal attendants: Arnulf I of Bavaria as marshal (or stablemaster), Herman I, Duke of Swabia as cupbearer, Eberhard of Franconia as steward (or seneschal) and Gilbert of Lorraine as Chamberlain.[c][11] By performing this traditional service, the dukes signaled cooperation with the new king, and clearly showed their submission to his reign.[12]

Despite his peaceful transition, the royal family was not harmonious during his early reign. Otto's younger brother, Henry, also claimed the throne, contrary to his father's wishes. According to his biography, Vita Mathildis reginae posterior, their mother had favored Henry as king: in contrast to Otto, Henry had been "born in the purple" during his father's reign and shared his name.[13]

Otto also faced internal opposition from various local aristocrats. According to Widukind of Corvey, in 936, Otto appointed Hermann Billung as Margrave, granting him authority over a march north of the Elbe River between the Limes Saxoniae and Peene Rivers. As military governor, Hermann extracted tribute from the Polabian Slavs inhabiting the area and often fought against the Western Slavic tribes of the Lutici, Obotrites, and Wagri. Hermann's appointment angered his brother, Count Wichmann the Elder. As the elder and wealthier of the two, Wichmann believed his claim to the office was superior to his brother's. Additionally, Wichmann was related by marriage to the dowager queen Matilda.[14] In 937, Otto further offended the nobility through his appointment of Gero to succeed his older brother, Siegfried, as Count and Margrave of a border region abutting the Wends on the lower Saale. His decision frustrated Thankmar, Otto's half-brother and Siegfried's cousin, who felt that he held a greater right to the appointment.[15]

Rebellion of the dukes[edit]

Central Europe, 919–1125. The Kingdom of Germany included the duchies of Saxony (yellow), Franconia (blue), Bavaria (green), Swabia (orange) and Lorraine (pink left). Various dukes rebelled against Otto's rule in 937 and again in 939.

Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, died in 937 and was succeeded by his son Eberhard. The new duke quickly came into conflict with Otto, as Eberhard opposed the Kings's sovereignty over Bavaria as part of the peace treaty between the former King Henry and Arnulf. Refusing to recognize Otto's supremacy, Eberhard rebelled against the King. In two campaigns in the spring and fall of 938, Otto defeated and exiled Eberhard from the kingdom and stripped him of his titles. In his place, Otto appointed Eberhard's uncle Berthold, margrave[clarification needed] of the March of Carinthia, as the new Duke of Bavaria on the condition that Berthold would recognize Otto as the sole authority to appoint bishops and to administer royal property within the duchy.[11]

At the same time, Otto had to settle a dispute with Duke Eberhard of Franconia, the brother of the former king Conrad I of Germany. On his deathbed, in December 918, King Conrad persuaded Eberhard to forgo any ambition for the German crown and to support Henry the Fowler as his successor. Conrad considered this the only way to end the long-standing feud between Saxons and Franks and to prevent the dissolution of the German kingdom into individual states based around the German tribal duchies. Though Eberhard remained loyal to King Henry I, Eberhard used the transition to Otto as an opportunity to increase his own power by besieging Helmern castle near Peckelsheim. Though the fortress was located within the Duchy of Franconia, near the border of the Duchy of Saxony, it was under the control of a Saxon commander who refused to swear fealty to any non-Saxon ruler. Otto called the feuding parties to his court at Magdeburg, where Eberhard was ordered to pay a fine, and his lieutenants were sentenced to carry dead dogs in public, a particularly dishonoring punishment.[16]

Infuriated with Otto's actions, Eberhard joined Otto's half-brother Thankmar, Count Wichmann, and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz and rebelled against the King in 938.[17] They besieged Warstein in the Arnsberg Forest and freed Otto's brother, Henry, from imprisonment there. Duke Herman I of Swabia, one of Otto's closest advisors, warned him of the rebellion and the King moved quickly to put down the revolt. Wichmann was soon reconciled with Otto and joined the King's forces against his former compatriots.[d] Otto besieged Thankmar at Eresburg and had him killed at the altar of the church of Saint Peter. Following their defeats, Eberhard and Frederick sought reconciliation with the King. Otto pardoned both after a brief exile in Hildesheim and restored them to their former positions.[19]

War with France[edit]

Shortly after his reconciliation, Eberhard prepared a second rebellion against Otto. He promised to assist Otto's younger brother Henry in claiming the throne and recruited Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine to join his rebellion. Gilbert was married to Otto's sister, Gerberga of Saxony, but had sworn fealty to King Louis IV of France. Otto exiled Henry from Germany, and he fled to the court of King Louis. The West Frankish King, in hopes of regaining dominion over Lorraine once again, joined forces with Henry and Gilbert. In response, Otto allied with Louis' chief antagonist, Hugh the Great, Count of Paris and husband of Otto's sister Hedwige.[20] Henry marched on and captured Merseburg and planned to join Gilbert in Lorraine, but Otto besieged them at Chevremont near Liege. Before he could defeat them, he was forced to abandon the siege and moved against Louis, who had marched on and captured Verdun. Otto subsequently drove Louis back to his capital at Laon.

While Otto gained some initial victories against the rebels, he was unable to capture the conspirators and end the rebellion. Archbishop Frederick sought to mediate a peace between the combatants but Otto rejected his proposal. Under Otto's direction, Duke Herman of Swabia led an army against the conspirators into Franconia and Lorraine. Otto recruited allies from the Duchy of Alsace who crossed the Rhine River and surprised Eberhard and Gilbert at the Battle of Andernach on 2 October 939. Otto's forces claimed an overwhelming victory: Eberhard was killed in battle, and Gilbert drowned in the Rhine while attempting to escape. Left alone to face his brother, Henry submitted to Otto and the rebellion ended. With Eberhard dead, Otto assumed direct rule over the Duchy of Franconia and dissolved it into smaller counties and bishoprics answered directly to him. The same year, Otto made peace with Louis IV, whereby Louis recognized his suzerainty over Lorraine. In return, Otto withdrew his army from France and arranged for his sister Gerberga of Saxony (the widow of Gilbert) to marry Louis IV. As a reward for Duke Herman's loyalty during the rebellion, Otto arranged for his son Liudolf to marry Herman's only daughter, Ida.

In 940, Otto and Henry were reconciled through the efforts of their mother.[11] Henry returned to Germany, and Otto appointed him as the new Duke of Lorraine to succeed Gilbert. Henry hadn't dropped his ambitions for the German throne and initiated another conspiracy against his older brother. With the assistance of Archbishop Frederick of Mainz, Henry planned to have Otto assassinated on Easter Day, 941, at Quedlinburg Abbey. Otto discovered the plot and had the conspirators arrested and imprisoned at Ingelheim. The King later released and pardoned both men only after they publicly performed penance on Christmas Day that same year.

Consolidation of power[edit]

The decade between 941 and 951 is marked by Otto's exercise of undisputed domestic power. Through the subordination of the dukes under his authority, Otto asserted his power to make decisions without their prior agreement. He deliberately ignored the claims and ranks of the nobility, who wanted dynastic succession in the assignment of office, by freely appointing individuals of his choice to the kingdom's offices. Loyalty to Otto, not lineage, was the pathway towards advancement under his rule. His mother Matilda disapproved of this policy and was accused by Otto's royal advisers of undermining his authority. After Otto briefly exiled her to her Westphalian manors at Enger in 947, Matilda was brought back to court at the urging of his wife Eadgyth.

The nobility found it difficult to adapt to Otto, as the kingdom had never before followed individual succession to the throne. Whereas tradition dictated that all the sons of the former king were to receive a portion of the kingdom, Henry's succession plan placed Otto at the head of a united kingdom at the expense of his brothers. Otto's authoritarian style was in stark contrast to that of his father. Henry had purposely waived Church anointment at coronation as a symbol of his election by his people and governing his kingdom on the basis of "friendship pacts" (amitica). Henry regarded the kingdom as a confederation of duchies and saw himself as a first among equals. Instead of seeking to administer the kingdom through royal representatives, as Charlemagne had done, Henry allowed the dukes to maintain complete internal control of their holdings as long as his superior status was recognized. Otto, on the other hand, had accepted Church anointment and regarded his kingdom as a feudal monarchy with himself holding the "divine right" to rule it, allowing him to reign without concern for the internal hierarchy of the various kingdoms' noble families.

This new policy ensured Otto's position as undisputed master of the kingdom. Members of his family and other aristocrats who rebelled against Otto were forced to publicly confess their guilt and unconditionally surrender to him, hoping for a pardon from their king. For nobles and other high-ranking officials, Otto's punishments were typically mild and the punished were usually restored to a position of authority afterwards. A notable example of this is in the case of his brother, Henry: Henry rebelled twice and was pardoned twice after his surrenders. He was even appointed as Duke of Lorraine and later Duke of Bavaria. Rebellious commoners were treated far more harshly, as Otto usually had them executed.

Otto continued to reward loyal vassals for their service throughout his tenure as king. Although appointments were still gained and held at his discretion, they were increasingly intertwined with dynastic politics. Where Henry relied upon "friendship pacts", Otto relied upon family ties. Otto refused to accept uncrowned rulers as his equal. Under Otto, the integration of important vassals took place through marriage connections. King Louis IV of France had married Otto's sister, Gerberga of Saxony in 939, and Otto's son Liudolf had married Ida, the daughter of Hermann I, Duke of Swabia in 947. The former dynastically tied the royal house of West Francia to that of East Francia, and the latter secured his son's succession to the Duchy of Swabia as Hermann had no sons. Otto's plans came to fruition when, in 950, Liudolf became Duke of Swabia, and in 954 Otto's nephew Lothair of France became King of France.

In 944, Otto appointed Conrad the Red as Duke of Lorraine and brought him into his extended family through his marriage to Otto's daughter Liutgarde in 947. A Salian Frank by birth, Conrad was a nephew of former king Conrad I of Germany. Following the death of Otto's uncle Berthold, Duke of Bavaria in 947, Otto satisfied his brother Henry's ambition through his marriage to Judith of Bavaria, daughter of Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, and appointed him as the new Duke of Bavaria in 948. This arrangement finally achieved peace between the brothers as Henry thereafter abandoned his claims to the throne. Through his familial ties to the dukes, Otto had strengthened the sovereignty of the crown and the overall cohesiveness of the kingdom.[21]

On 29 January 946, Eadgyth died suddenly at the age of 35, and Otto buried his wife in the Cathedral of Magdeburg. The union had lasted seventeen years and produced two children; with Eadgyth's death, Otto began to make arrangements for his own succession. Like his father before him, Otto intended to transfer sole rule of the kingdom to his son Liudolf upon his death. Unlike his own succession, Liudolf's sole right to the throne would not have been militarily enforced. Otto called together all the dukes of the kingdom and had them swear an oath of allegiance to Liudolf, thereby promising to recognize his sole claim to the throne as Otto's heir apparent.

Foreign relations[edit]

France[edit]

From the beginning of his reign, relations of the German king with the Carolingian king of West Francia were strained by their conflicting interests. Otto viewed himself as the true heir to Charlemagne and had himself crowned at the Aachen Cathedral, within the Duchy of Lorraine. The West Frankish Kings had lost considerable royal power after internal struggles with their aristocracy, but still held a formal claim of authority over this duchy. By holding his coronation at Aachen, Otto was directly challenging their position. In 938, King Louis IV of France attempted a military invasion but was defeated by Otto's army. The German king was supported by Louis IV's chief domestic rival, Hugh the Great, who had previously married Otto's sister Hedwig of Saxony in 936. Louis IV's second attempt to reign over Lorraine in 940 was based on his asserted claim to be the rightful Duke of Lorraine due to his marriage to Gerberga of Saxony, Otto's sister and the widow of the fallen Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine. Otto did not recognize Louis IV's claim and appointed his brother Henry as duke instead. Lorraine remained a part of Otto's kingdom as a traditional connection to Charlemagne's former realm.

Despite their rivalry, Louis IV and Hugh were now both tied to Otto's family through marriage bonds. Otto intervened for peace in 942 and announced a formal reconciliation between the two. As a part of the deal, Hugh was to perform an act of submission to Louis IV, and in return Louis IV was to waive any claims to Lorraine. After a short period of peace, the West Frankish kingdom fell into another crisis in 946. Normans captured Louis IV and handed him over to Hugh, who released the King only on condition of the surrender of the fortress of Laon. At the urging of his sister Gerberga, Otto invaded France on behalf of Louis IV, but his armies were not strong enough to take the key cities of Laon, Reims, and Paris. After three months, Otto finally lifted the siege without defeating Hugh, but managed to depose Hugh of Vermandois from his position as Archbishop of Reims, restoring Artald of Reims to his former office.[22]

To settle the issue of control over the Archdiocese of Reims, Otto called for a synod at Ingelheim in 948.[23] The assembly was attended by more than 30 bishops, including all of the archbishops of Germany.[24] In September 948, the synod confirmed Otto's appointment of Artald as Archbishop of Reims, and Hugh was excommunicated until peace was made with Louis IV. It was not until Easter 951 that the powerful vassal restored Laon to Louis IV, and Hugh did not fully reconcile with the King until 953. By calling for the synod to meet in Germany, Otto demonstrated his supremacy over the affairs of East Francia and his dominion over the German Church, further strengthening his claim as Charlemagne's true successor.

Burgundy[edit]

Otto continued the peaceful relationship between Germany and the Kingdom of Burgundy, initiated by his father. King Rudolf II of Burgundy had previously married Bertha of Swabia, the daughter of one of Henry's chief advisers, in 922. Burgundy was originally a part of Middle Francia, the central portion of Charlemagne's empire prior to its division under the Treaty of Verdun in 843. On 11 July 937, Rudolf II died and Hugh of Provence, the King of Italy and Rudolf II's chief domestic opponent, claimed the Burgundian throne. Otto intervened in the succession and with his support Rudolf II's son, Conrad of Burgundy, was able to secure the throne. Burgundy had become an integral, but formally independent, part of Otto's sphere of influence and remained at peace with Germany during his reign.[25]

Bohemia[edit]

Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, assumed the Bohemian throne in 935. The next year, following the death of Otto's father, King Henry the Fowler, Boleslaus stopped paying tribute to the German Kingdom (East Francia), in violation of the peace treaty Henry had established with Boleslaus' brother Saint Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia. Boleslaus attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia in 936 and defeated two of Otto's armies (from Thuringia and Merseburg). After this initial invasion of Bohemia, the war deteriorated to a series of mostly border raids and was not concluded until 950, when Otto besieged a castle owned by Boleslaus' son. Boleslaus decided to sign a peace treaty, promising to resume payment of tribute.[26] Boleslaus became Otto's ally and his Bohemian force helped the German army against the common Magyar threat at the Lech river in 955.[27] Later he went on to crush an uprising of two Slavic dukes (Stojgněv and Nakon) in Mecklenburg, probably to ensure the spreading of Bohemian estates to the east.[28][29]

Byzantine Empire[edit]

Otto developed close relations with Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, who reigned over the Byzantine Empire from 905 until his death in 959; East Francia and Byzantium sent multiple ambassadors to one another during this time. In particular, Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg records that in 945 and again in 949, "twice the Greek [Byzantine] envoys brought gifts to our king [Otto] from their emperor". It was during this time that Otto sought to link himself to the Eastern Empire through marriage negotiations.

Slavic Wars[edit]

Eastern Slavic Wars[edit]

As Otto was finalizing actions to suppress his brother’s rebellion, the Slavs on the Elbe River revolted against German rule. Having been subdued by Otto’s father in 928, the Slavs saw Henry’s rebellion as an opportunity to regain their independence. Otto’s lieutenant in east Saxony, Count Gero, was performing exceptionally well. The Count of Thuringia since 937, Gero had successfully repulsed many Slavic incursions. As reward for his military successes, Otto promoted Gero to the rank of Margrave and granted him command over the entire eastern border theater, named the March of Gero in his honor, in 939, making Gero the most powerful Margrave in Otto’s kingdom.

With his new high command, Otto charged Gero with the subjugation of the pagan Polabian Slavs and their conversion to Catholicism. Under the guise of celebrating his promotion, Gero invited many Slavic chieftains to a banquet. When the chieftains arrived, Gero's soldiers attacked and massacred his unsuspecting guests. One chieftain managed to escape and informed the other Slavs of Gero’s treachery.[30] The Slavs demanded revenge and marched against Gero with an enormous army. Gero’s military resources proved insufficient to stop the increased Slavic assault. When Otto heard news of the invasion, he made peace with his rebellious brother Henry and hurried from Lorraine to the eastern front. The King arrived in Saxony and had some initial success, giving Gero an opportunity to regroup his forces. Henry soon formed a new alliance in rebellion against Otto's rule and the King was forced to return to the west, leaving Gero to face the Slavs alone.

In 941, Gero initiated another plot to subdue the Slavs. He recruited a captive Slav named Tugumir, a Hevelli chieftain, to his cause. Gero promised to support him in claiming the Hevellian throne if Tugumir would later recognize Otto as his overlord. Tugumir agreed and returned to the Slavs. Due to Gero’s previous massacre, few Slavic chieftains had remained, causing the Slavs to quickly proclaim Tugumir as prince. Upon assuming the throne, Tugumir murdered his chief rival and proclaimed his loyalty to Otto, incorporating his territory into the German kingdom. Otto granted Tugumir the title of Duke and allowed Tugumir to rule his people, subject to Otto’s suzerainty, in the same manner as the German dukes.[31] After Gero and Tugumir’s coup, the Slavic federation broke apart. In control of the key Hevelli stronghold of Brandenburg, Gero was able to successfully attack the divided Slavic tribes. The submission of the West Slavs allowed the Germans to extend their control into Eastern Europe, both through military colonization and the establishment of churches.[32]

Northern Slavic Wars[edit]

The Danish Kingdom (in red) and its vassals and allies (in pink), during the Danish-Slavic War

As the Slavs in east Saxony rebelled against German rule, so too did the Slavs in north Saxony. Otto’s lieutenant there, Margrave Hermann Billung of the Billung March, had initial success in driving the Slavs back across the Elbe River, but it remained difficult to hold his position. The northern Wend Slavs were soon joined by the Danes from Jutland under King Gorm the Old. The Danes, like the Slavs, had been subdued by Otto’s father Henry years before. The new Slavic-Danish alliance, under the command of Gorm’s son Harold Bluetooth, pushed deep into Hermann’s territory, ultimately capturing the margrave as a prisoner of war in 947.

Harold’s joint Slavic-Danish army was left unchallenged in northern Saxony for three years until 950, when Otto led an army north to counter their advance. Otto’s powerful army defeated Harold and forced him back into Jutland. Otto pursued Harold and devastated Denmark with a policy of scorched earth. His people starving, Harold sued for peace and agreed to Otto's conditions: Harold had to renounce his German conquests, release Hermann, recognize Otto as his overlord, and convert to Christianity. Without the Danes to aid them, the Wend Slavs’ confederation in north Saxony quickly fell apart. Tribe after tribe submitted to Otto’s rule. The conquered Slavs had to pay heavy tribute, support the building of churches, and submit to military conscription.[33]

Expansion into Italy[edit]

Disputed Italian Throne[edit]

In 888, with the death of Emperor Charles the Fat, the empire of Charlemagne was divided into several territories: East Francia, West Francia, the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Burgundy, and the Kingdom of Italy with each of the realms being ruled by its own king. Though the Pope in Rome continued to appoint the kings of Italy as "Emperor" to rule Charlemagne's empire, these "Italian Emperors" never exercised any authority north of the Alps. With the assassination of Emperor Berengar I of Italy in 924, the last nominal heir to Charlemagne was dead and the title "Emperor" was left unclaimed.[34]

Statues of Otto I, right, and Adelaide in Meissen Cathedral. Otto and Adelaide were married after his annexation of Italy.

King Rudolf II of Upper Burgundy, and Hugh, Count of Provence and effective ruler of Lower Burgundy, held competing claims to the vacant throne of Emperor in Italy. By 926, Hugh forced Rudolf to flee Italy, establishing de facto control over the Italian peninsula. Hugh later induced the Italian nobility to recognise his son Lothair II of Italy as their next king and crowned him in April 931. Hugh and Rudolf II eventually concluded a peace treaty in 933, with Rudolf II renouncing his claims to the Italian throne and Hugh granting control over Lower Burgundy to Rudolf II, which he combined with Upper Burgundy into a new Kingdom of Burgundy. To seal the peace, Rudolf II betrothed his infant daughter Adelaide to Hugh's son Lothair.

In 940, Margrave of Ivrea Berengar II, the grandson of former King Berengar I, led a revolt of Italian nobles against his uncle, Hugh. Forewarned by Lothair, Hugh exiled Berengar II from Italy and Berengar II fled to the protection of Otto's court in 941. In 945, Berengar II returned from exile in Germany and was welcomed by the Italian nobility. With the aid of hired mercenaries, Berengar II defeated Hugh in battle and forced him into permanent retirement in Provence. As part of the peace negotiations, Hugh was allowed to remain nominal king of Italy with Berengar II as the decisive power behind the throne. Lothair finally married the sixteen-year-old Adelaide on 16 December 947.[e] When Hugh died on 10 April 948, his son Lothair succeeded him as nominal king, but Berengar II continued to hold all real power.

Lothair's brief "reign" came to an end with his death on 22 November 950, presumably poisoned by Berengar II, leaving Adelaide widowed before her twentieth birthday. Berengar II crowned himself king with his son Adalbert of Italy as his co-ruler and heir apparent. Failing to receive widespread support for his right to the crown, Berengar II attempted to legitimize his reign and tried to force Adelaide, the respective daughter, daughter-in-law and widow of the last three Italian kings, into marriage with Adalbert. Adelaide fiercely refused and was imprisoned by Berengar II at Garda Lake. With the help of Count Adalbert Atto of Canossa, she managed to escape from imprisonment. Besieged by Berengar II in Canossa, Adelaide sent an emissary across the Alps seeking Otto’s protection and marriage. Otto, widowed since 946, knew a marriage to Adelaide would allow him to fulfill his ambition of ruling Italy and, ultimately, claiming the imperial crown as Charlemagne’s true heir. Knowing of Adelaide’s great beauty and immense wealth, the thirty-eight-year-old Otto accepted nineteen-year-old queen's marriage proposal and prepared for an expedition into Italy.

First Italian Expedition[edit]

Manuscript depiction (c. 1200) of Otto accepting the surrender of Berengar II of Italy. The headline reads Otto I Theutonicorum rex ("Otto the First, King of the Germans")

In the early summer of 951, before his father marched across the Alps, Otto's son Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, invaded Lombardy in northern Italy. From his stronghold in Swabia located just north of the Alps, Liudolf was in closer proximity to the Italian border than his father in Saxony. While the exact reason for Liudolf's actions are unclear, dynastic concerns and family ties to Adelaide may have been a factor. Adelaide's mother, Bertha of Swabia, was a daughter of Regelinda, the mother of Liudolf's wife Ida, from her first marriage to Burchard II, Duke of Swabia. Liudolf, therefore, may have intervened in the Italian campaign at the request of Adelaide's relatives. Additionally, Liudolf, 19 years old himself, did not view the idea of a young step-mother as in his best interests. Though Otto had named him as his successor, Liudolf feared any potential step-brother may usurp his claim to the German throne.

The purpose of Liudolf's Italian campaign was to overthrow Berengar II and therefore render unnecessary Otto's own expedition into Italy, and thus his marriage to Adelaide. While Liudolf was preparing his expedition, the Bavarian Duke Henry, Otto's brother and Liudolf's uncle, conspired against him; Swabia and Bavaria shared a long common border and the two dukes were involved in a border dispute. Henry influenced the Italian aristocrats not to join Liudolf's campaign. When Liudolf arrived in Lombardy, he found no support and was unable to sustain his troops. His army was near destruction until Otto's own army crossed the Alps. The King reluctantly received Liudolf's forces into his command, angry at his son for his inconsiderate and independent actions.

The Iron Crown of the Lombards was passed to Otto in 951 during his first Italian campaign.

Otto and Liudolf arrived in northern Italy in September 951 without opposition from Berengar II. As they descended into the Po River valley, the Italian nobles and clergy withdrew their support for Berengar and provided aid to Otto and his advancing army. Recognizing his weakened position, Berengar II fled from his capital in Pavia. When Otto arrived at Pavia on 23 September 951, the city willingly opened its gate to the German king. In accordance with Lombard tradition, Otto was crowned with the Iron Crown of the Lombards on 10 October. Like Charlemagne before him, Otto was now concurrent King of Germany and King of Italy. Otto sent a message to his brother Henry in Bavaria to escort his bride from Canossa to Pavia, where the two married.

Soon after his father's marriage, Liudolf left Italy and returned to Swabia. Archbishop Frederick of Mainz, the Primate of Germany and Otto's long-time domestic rival, also returned to Germany alongside Liudolf. Despite Otto's plans to claim the imperial title, trouble arose in northern Germany, forcing Otto to return with the majority of his army back across the Alps in 952. Otto did leave a small portion of his army behind in Italy and appointed his son-in-law Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, as his regent and tasked him with subduing Berengar II.

Aftermath[edit]

In a weak military position with few troops, Otto's regent in Italy attempted a diplomatic solution and opened peace negotiations with Berengar II. Conrad recognized that a military confrontation would impose great costs upon Germany, both in manpower and in treasure. At a time when the kingdom was facing invasions from the north by the Danes and from the east by the Slavs and Hungarians, all available resources were required north of the Alps. Conrad believed a client state relationship with Italy would be in Germany’s best interest. He offered a peace treaty, in which Berengar II would remain King of Italy on the condition that he recognized Otto as his overlord.[35] Berengar II agreed and the pair traveled north to meet with Otto to seal the agreement.

Conrad’s treaty was met with disdain from both Adelaide and Henry. Though Adelaide was Burgundian by birth, she was raised as an Italian. Her father Rudolf II of Burgundy was briefly king of Italy prior to being deposed and she herself had briefly been queen of Italy until her husband Lothair II of Italy’s death. Berengar II imprisoned her when she refused to marry his son, Adalbert of Italy. Henry had other reasons to disapprove of the peace treaty. As Duke of Bavaria, he controlled territory on the northern side of the German-Italian border. Henry had hope that, with Berengar II being deposed, his own fiefdom would be greatly expanded by incorporating territory south of the Alps. Conrad and Henry were already not on good terms, and the proposed treaty drove the two dukes further apart. Adelaide and Henry conspired together to persuade Otto to reject Conrad’s treaty.[36]

Conrad and Berengar II arrived at Magdeburg to meet Otto, but Adelaide had them wait three days before an audience was granted. This was a humiliating offense for the man Otto had named his regent. Though Adelaide and Henry urged the treaty's immediate rejection, Otto referred the issue to an Imperial Diet for further debate. Appearing before the Diet in August 952 in Augsburg, Berengar II and his son Adalbert were forced to swear fealty to Otto as his vassals. In return, Otto granted Berengar II Italy as his fief and restored the title "King of Italy" to him. The Italian king had to pay an enormous annual tribute and was required to cede the Duchy of Friuli south of the Alps. Otto reorganized this area into the March of Verona and put it under Henry's control as reward for his loyalty. The Duchy of Bavaria therefore grew to become the most powerful domain in Germany.[37]

Otto and the German Church[edit]

A medieval king investing a bishop with the symbols of office. Otto centralized his control over Germany through the investiture of bishops and abbots, making the clergy-class his personal vassal.

Beginning in the 950s, Otto changed his internal policy and began to use the Catholic Church as a tool of his dominance. He increasingly associated himself with the Church and his "divine right" to rule the kingdom, viewing himself as the protector of the Church. As a key element of this change in domestic structures, Otto sought to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities, chiefly bishops and abbots at the expense of the secular nobility who threatened his own power. Otto controlled the various bishops and abbots by investing them with the symbols of their offices, both spiritual and secular, so the clerics were appointed as his vassals through a commendation ceremony. Historian Norman Cantor concludes: "Under these conditions clerical election became a mere formality in the Ottonian empire, and the king filled up the ranks of the episcopate with his own relatives and with his loyal chancery clerks, who were also appointed to head the great monasteries".[38]

The most prominent member of this blended royal-ecclesiastical service was his own brother Bruno the Great, Otto's Chancellor since 940, who was appointed as Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lorraine in 953. Other important religious officials within Otto’s government included Archbishop William of Mainz (Otto’s illegitimate son), Archbishop Adaldag of Bremen, and Hadamar, the Abbot of Fulda. Otto endowed the bishoprics and abbeys of his kingdom with numerous gifts, including land and royal prerogatives, such as the power to levy taxes and to maintain an army. Over these Church lands, secular authorities had neither the power of taxation nor legal jurisdiction. This raised the Church above the various dukes and committed its clerics to serve as the king's personal vassals.[f] In order to support the Church, Otto made tithing mandatory for all inhabitants of Germany.

Otto granted the various bishops and abbots of the kingdom the rank of count as well as the legal rights of counts within their territory. Because Otto personally appointed all bishops and abbots, these reforms strengthened his central authority, and the upper ranks of the German Church functioned in some respect as an arm of the royal bureaucracy. Otto routinely appointed his personal court chaplains to bishop positions throughout the kingdom. While attached to the royal court, the chaplains would perform the work of the government through services to the royal chancellery. After years within the royal court, Otto would reward their service with promotion to a diocese.

Liudolf’s Civil War[edit]

Rebellion against Otto[edit]

With the humiliating failure of his Italian campaign and Otto's marriage to Adelaide, Liudolf became estranged from his father and planned a rebellion. On Christmas Day 951, he held a grand feast at Saalfeld which was attended by many important figures from across the kingdom, most notably the Primate of Germany, Otto’s chief domestic rival Archbishop Frederick of Mainz. Liudolf was able to recruit his brother-in-law Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, to his rebellion. As Otto’s regent in Italy, Conrad had negotiated a peace agreement and an alliance with Berengar II, and believed Otto would confirm this treaty. Instead of an ally, Berengar II was made Otto’s subject and his kingdom was subsequently reduced. Conrad felt betrayed and insulted over Otto’s decision, especially with the additional empowerment of Henry. Conrad and Liudolf viewed Otto as being controlled by his foreign-born wife and power-hungry brother, and resolved to free the kingdom from their domination.[39]

In winter 952, Adelaide gave birth to a son, whom she named Henry after her brother-in-law and the child’s grandfather, Henry the Fowler. Rumors spread that Otto had been persuaded by his wife and brother to propose this child as his heir instead of Liudolf. For many German nobles, this rumor represented Otto’s final transforming from a policy focused on Germany to an Italian-centered one. The idea that Otto would ask them to revoke the succession rights of Liudolf prompted many nobles into open rebellion. Liudolf and Conrad first led the nobles against Henry, the duke of Bavaria, in spring 953. Henry was unpopular with the Bavarians due to his Saxon heritage, and his vassals quickly rebelled against him.[40]

Word of the rebellion reached Otto at Ingelheim. In order to secure his position, he traveled to his stronghold at Mainz. The city was also the seat of Archbishop Frederick of Mainz, who acted as the spokesman for the rebels and offered himself as a mediator between Otto and the rebels, who quickly arrived in Mainz. Recorded details of the meeting or the negotiated treaty do not exist, but Otto soon left Mainz with a peace treaty favorable to the conspirators, most likely confirming Liudolf as heir apparent and approving Conrad’s original agreement with Berengar II, making the treaty contrary to the desires of Adelaide and Henry.

When Otto returned to Saxony, Adelaide and Henry persuaded the King to void the treaty. Convening the Imperial Diet at Fritzlar, Otto declared Liudolf and Conrad as outlaws in absentia.[41] The King reasserted his desires for dominion over Italy and to claim the imperial title. He sent emissaries to the Duchy of Lorraine and stirred the local nobles against Conrad’s rule. The duke was a Salian Frank by birth and unpopular with the people of Lorraine, thus they pledged their support to Otto.

Otto’s actions at the Diet prompted the people of Swabia and Franconia into civil war against their king. After initial defeats by Otto, Liudolf and Conrad fell back to their headquarters in Mainz. In July 953, Otto and his army laid siege to the city, supported by Henry’s army from Bavaria. After two months of siege the city had not fallen and rebellions against Otto’s rule grew stronger in southern Germany. Faced with these challenges, Otto opened peace negotiations with Liudolf and Conrad. Bruno the Great, Otto’s youngest brother and royal chancellor since 940, accompanied his older brothers and oversaw the arrangements for the negotiations. As the newly appointed Archbishop of Cologne, Bruno was eager to end the civil war in Lorraine, which was in his ecclesiastical territory. The rebels demanded ratification of the treaty they had previously agreed to with Otto, but Henry’s actions[vague] during the meeting caused the negotiations to break down.[42] Conrad and Liudolf left the meeting to continue the civil war. Angered by their actions, Otto stripped both men of their duchies of Swabia and Lorraine, and appointed his brother Bruno, the royal chancellor and archbishop of Cologne, as the new Duke of Lorraine. Never before had an ecclesiastical figure occupied a dukedom.

While on campaign with Otto, Henry appointed the Bavarian Count Palatine, Arnulf II, to govern his duchy in his absence. Arnulf II was a son of Arnulf the Bad, whom Henry had previously displaced as duke, and sought revenge: he deserted Henry and joined the rebellion against Otto. Lifting the siege of Mainz, Otto and Henry marched south to regain control over Bavaria. Without the support of the local nobles, their plan failed and they were forced to retreat to Saxony.[43] The duchies of Bavaria, Swabia, and Franconia were in open civil war against the King, and even in his native Duchy of Saxony, revolts began to spread. By the end of 953, the civil war was threatening to depose Otto and permanently end his claims to be Charlemagne’s successor.

End of the Rebellion[edit]

In early 954, Margrave Hermann Billung, Otto’s long-time loyal vassal in Saxony, was facing increased Slavic movements in the east. Using the civil war as a cover, the Slavs raided deeper and deeper into the adjacent border areas. Meanwhile, the Hungarians began extensive raids into Southern Germany. Though Liudolf and Conrad prepared defenses against the invasions in their territories, the Hungarians devastated Bavaria and Franconia. On Palm Sunday, 954, Liudolf held a great feast at Worms and invited the Hungarian chieftains to join him. There, he presented the invaders with gifts of gold and silver.

Otto’s brother Henry soon spread rumors that Conrad and Liudolf had invited the Hungarians into Germany in hopes of using them against Otto. Public opinion quickly turned against the rebels in these duchies. With this change in opinion and the death of his wife Liutgarde, Otto’s only daughter, Conrad began peace negotiations with Otto, which were eventually joined by Liudolf and Archbishop Frederick.[44] A truce was declared, and Otto called a meeting of the Imperial Diet on 15 June 954 at Langenzenn. Before the assembly convened, Conrad and Frederick were reconciled with Otto. At the Diet tensions flared up again when Henry accused his nephew Liudolf of conspiring with the Hungarians. Though Conrad and Frederick implored the enraged Liudolf to seek peace, Liudolf left the meeting determined to continue the civil war.

Liudolf, with his lieutenant Arnulf II (the effective ruler of Bavaria), took his army south towards Regensburg in Bavaria, quickly followed by Otto. The armies met at Nurnberg and engaged in a deadly, though not decisive, battle. Liudolf retreated to Regensburg, where he was besieged by Otto. Though Otto’s army was unable to break through the city’s walls, after two months of siege, starvation set in within the city. Liudolf sent a message to Otto seeking to open peace negotiations, and the siege ended. Otto demanded unconditional surrender, which Liudolf refused. Fighting continued, eventually claiming the life of Arnulf II. With his lieutenant dead, Liudolf fled from Bavaria for his domain of Swabia, quickly followed by Otto's army. Previously stripped of his ducal title, Liudolf’s allies within Swabia had been persecuted by Otto’s followers. The two armies met near Illertissen near the Swabian-Bavarian border. After a costly battle, Liudolf agreed to end hostilities against Otto. A truce was declared between father and son until an Imperial Diet would be assembled to ratify the peace. Bruno arranged peace negotiations: Otto forgave his son all transgressions and Liudolf agreed to accept any punishment his father felt appropriate.[45]

Soon after this peace agreement, the aging and sick Archbishop Frederick died in October 954. With the surrender of Liudolf, the rebellion had been put down throughout Germany except in Bavaria. Otto convened the Imperial Diet in December 954 at Arnstadt. Before the assembled nobles of the kingdom, Liudolf and Conrad declared their fealty to Otto and yielded control over all territories their armies still occupied. Though Otto did not restore their former ducal title to them, he did allow them to retain their private estates. The Diet ratified Otto’s actions:

  • Liudolf was promised regency over Italy and command of an army to depose Berengar II
  • Conrad was promised military command against the Hungarians
  • Burchard III, son of former Swabian Duke Burchard II, was appointed Duke of Swabia (Liudolf's former duchy)
  • Bruno remained as new Duke of Lorraine (Conrad's former duchy)
  • Henry was confirmed as Duke of Bavaria
  • Otto's oldest son William, an illegitimate child from a Slavic mother, was appointed Archbishop of Mainz and Primate of Germany
  • Otto retained direct rule over the Duchy of Saxony and over the territories of the former Duchy of Franconia

The King’s measures in December 954 finally brought an end to the two-year long civil war. Liudolf’s rebellion, though temporarily weakening, ultimately strengthened Otto’s position as absolute ruler of Germany.

Hungarian Invasions[edit]

Europe shortly after Otto's reign. The Hungarians (orange), located to the east of Otto's realm (blue), invaded Germany in 954 and 955.

The Hungarians (Magyars) invaded Otto’s domain as part of the larger Hungarian invasions of Europe and ravaged much of Southern Germany during Liudolf’s civil war. Though Otto had installed the Margraves Hermann Billung and Gero on his kingdom’s northern and northeastern borders, the Principality of Hungary to the southeast was a permanent threat to German security. The Hungarians knew of the kingdom’s civil war and its internal weaknesses, which gave them an opportunity to invade the Duchy of Bavaria in spring 954. Though Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, and Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, had successfully prevented the Hungarians from invading their own territories in the west, the invaders managed to reach the Rhine River, sacking much of Bavaria and Franconia in the process.

The Hungarians, encouraged by their successful raids, began another invasion into Germany in the spring of 955. Otto’s army, now unhindered by civil war, was able to defeat the invasion, and soon the Hungarians sent an ambassador to seek peace with Otto. The ambassador proved to be a decoy: Otto's brother Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, sent word to Otto that the Hungarians had crossed into his territory from the southeast. The main Hungarian army had camped along the Lech River and besieged Augsburg. While the city was defended by Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg, Otto assembled his army and marched south to face the Hungarians.

Otto and his army fought the Hungarian force on 10 August 955 at the Battle of Lechfeld. Under Otto’s command was his vassal Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, and Burchard III, Duke of Swabia, who had married the daughter of Otto’s brother, Henry. Though outnumbered nearly two to one, Otto was determined to push the Hungarian forces out of his territory. According to Widukind of Corvey, Otto "pitched his camp in the territory of the city of Augsburg and joined there the forces of Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, who was himself lying mortally ill nearby, and by Duke Conrad with a large following of Franconian knights. Conrad's unexpected arrival encouraged the warriors so much that they wished to attack the enemy immediately."[46] Otto carried the Holy Lance, which he inherited from his father, into battle with him.[47]

A 1457 illustration of the Battle of Lechfeld in Sigmund Meisterlin's codex about the history of Nuremberg

The Hungarians crossed the river and immediately attacked the Bohemians under Boleslaus, followed by the Swabian under Burchard, but retreated after a short fight. As Otto received word of the attack, he ordered Conrad to recover the baggage train. Upon the successful completion of his mission, Conrad returned to the main forces and the King launched an immediate attack against the Hungarians. Despite a volley of arrows, Otto's army smashed into the Hungarian lines and was able to fight them in hand-to-hand combat, giving the traditionally nomadic warriors no room to use their preferred shoot-and-run tactics. The Hungarians feigned a retreat in an attempt to lure Otto's men into breaking their line in pursuit, but the German line maintained formation and routed the Hungarians from the field, killing approximately a third of the Hungarian army in the process. On the field of battle, the German lords raised Otto on their shields in the Germanic manner and proclaimed him Emperor.

Though Otto’s son-in-law Conrad was killed during the battle, and Otto’s brother Henry was mortally wounded, Otto’s action at Lechfeld marked a turning point in German-Hungarian relations. While the battle was not a crushing defeat for the Hungarians, as Otto was not able to chase the fleeing army into Hungarian lands, the defeat ended nearly 100 years of Hungarian invasions into Western Europe.[48]

While Otto was fighting the Hungarians with his main army deployed in Southern Germany, the Obotrite Slavs in the north were in a state of insurrection. Count Wichmann the Younger, still Otto's opponent over the King's refusal to grant Wichmann the title of Margrave in 936, marauded through the lands of the Obotrites in the Billung March, causing the followers of Slavic Prince Nako to revolt. The Obotrites invaded Saxony in the fall of 955, killing the men of arms-bearing age and carrying off the women and children into slavery. According to Widukind of Corvey, in the aftermath of the Battle of Lechfeld, Otto rushed to the north and pressed far into Slav territory. Otto razed the Slav population centres and soon had encircled them:[clarification needed] he offered to spare his enemies if they would surrender. A Slav embassy offered to pay annual tribute in return for being allowed self-government under German overlordship instead of direct German rule.[49] Otto refused, and the two sides met on 16 October at the Battle of Recknitz. Otto's forces gained a decisive victory: of the 9000 Slavic soldiers, 4,500 were killed and 2,000 wounded. After the battle, the Slavic commander's head was raised on a pole and hundreds of captured Slavs were executed before sundown.[50]

Celebrations for Otto’s victory over the pagan Hungarians and Slavs were held in churches across the kingdom, with bishops attributing the victory to divine intervention and as proof of Otto’s "divine right" to rule. The battles of Lechfeld and Recknitz mark a turning point in Otto’s reign. The victories over Hungarians and Slavs sealed his hold on power over Germany, with the duchies firmly under royal authority. From 955 on, Otto would not experience another rebellion against his rule and as a result was able to further consolidate his position throughout present-day Central Europe.

Liudolf's rebellion and the Hungarian invasions came at a heavy personal cost for Otto. His son-in-law, Conrad, the former Duke of Lorraine, was killed in the Battle of Lechfeld and his brother Henry I, Duke of Bavaria was mortally wounded, dying a few months later on 1 November of that year. With Henry’s death, Otto appointed his four-year old nephew Henry II, to succeed his father as duke, with his mother Judith of Bavaria as his regent. Otto appointed Liudolf in 956 as the commander of an expedition against King Berengar II of Italy, but he soon died of fever on 6 September 957. Otto buried him at St. Alban’s Abbey in Mainz. The deaths of Henry, Liudolf, and Conrad took from Otto the three most prominent members of his royal family, including his heir apparent. Additionally, his first two sons from his marriage to Adelaide of Italy, Henry (born 952), and Bruno (born 953) had both died by 957. This left Otto’s third son by Adelaide, the two-year old Otto II, as the kingdom’s crown prince and heir apparent.

Reign as Emperor[edit]

Second Italian Expedition and Imperial Coronation[edit]

The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire. Otto was crowned as Emperor on February 2, 962, by Pope John XII.

Liudolf’s death in the fall of 957 deprived Otto of both the kingdom’s crown prince as well as the commander of his expedition against King Berengar II of Italy. Beginning with the unfavorable peace treaty signed in 952 in which he became Otto’s vassal, Berengar II had always been a rebellious subordinate. With the death of Liudolf and Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, and with Otto campaigning in northern Germany, Berengar II attacked the March of Verona in 958, which Otto had stripped from his control under the 952 treaty, and besieged Count Adalbert Atto of Canossa there. Berengar II’s forces also attacked the Papal States and the city of Rome under Pope John XII. In autumn 960, with Italy in political turmoil, the Pope sent word to Otto seeking his aid against Berengar II. Several other influential Italian leaders intervened at Otto's court with similar appeals, including the Archbishop of Milan, the bishops of Como and Novara, and Margrave Otbert of Milan.[51]

After the Pope agreed to crown him as Emperor, Otto assembled his army to march upon Italy. In preparation for his second Italian campaign and the imperial coronation, Otto planned his kingdom’s future. At the Imperial Diet at Worms in May 961, Otto named his seven-year old son Otto II as heir apparent and co-ruler, and had him crowned at Aachen Cathedral on 26 May 961.[52] Otto II was anointed by the Archbishops Bruno I of Cologne, William of Mainz, and Henry I of Trier. The King appointed his brother Bruno and illegitimate son William as Otto II’s co-regents in Germany.

Otto’s army, accompanied by Archbishop Henry, descended into Italy in August 961 through the Brenner Pass at Trento located in northern Italy. The German king moved towards Pavia, the former Lombard capital of Italy, where he celebrated Christmas and assumed the title King of Italy for himself. Berengar II’s armies retreated to their strongholds in order to avoid battle with Otto, allowing him to advance southward unopposed. Otto reached Rome on 31 January 962; three days later, he was crowned at Old St. Peter's Basilica by Pope John XII as Holy Roman Emperor. The Pope also anointed Otto’s wife Adelaide of Italy, who had accompanied Otto on his Italian campaign, as Empress. With Otto’s coronation as Emperor, the Kingdom of Germany and the Kingdom of Italy were unified into the Holy Roman Empire.

Papal politics[edit]

On 12 February 962, Emperor Otto I and Pope John XII called a synod in Rome to finalize their relationship. At the synod, Pope John XII approved Otto’s long-desired Archdiocese of Magdeburg. The Emperor had planned for the establishment of the archdiocese to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Lechfeld over the Hungarians and to further convert the local Slavs to Christianity. To ensure the success of the archdiocese, the Pope named St. Maurice as the archdiocese’s patron saint and called upon the archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne to support the new archdiocese.

The following day, Otto and John XII ratified the Diploma Ottonianum, confirming John XII as the spiritual head of the Church and Otto as its secular protector. In the Diploma, Otto confirmed the earlier Donation of Pepin of 754 between Pepin the Short, King of the Franks and Pope Stephen II. Otto recognized the Pope’s secular control over the Papal States, and expanded his domain to include Rome, the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Duchy of Spoleto and the Duchy of Benevento. Though the Pope had control over these territories, Otto was recognized as the overlord of all Italy. The Diploma granted the clergy and the people of Rome the exclusive right to elect the pontiff. The Pope-elect was required to issue an oath of allegiance to the Emperor before his confirmation as Pope.[53]

With the Diploma signed, the new Emperor marched against Berengar II to reconquer Italy. Being sieged at San Leo, Berengar II surrendered in 963. Upon the successful completion of Otto’s campaign, John XII began to fear the Emperor's rising power in Italy and began negotiations with Berengar II’s son, Adalbert of Italy to depose him. The Pope also sent envoys to the Hungarians and the Byzantine Empire to join him and Adalbert in an alliance against the Emperor. Otto discovered the Pope’s plot and, after defeating and imprisoning Berengar II, marched on Rome. John XII fled from Rome, and Otto, upon his arrival in Rome, summoned a council and deposed John XII as Pope, appointing Leo VIII as his successor.[54]

Otto returned to Germany by the end of 963, confident his rule in Italy and within Rome was secure. The Roman populace, however, considered Leo VIII, a layman with no former ecclesiastical training, unacceptable as Pope. In February 964, at the provokations of John XII, the Roman people forced Leo VIII to flee the city. In his absence, Leo VIII was deposed and John XII was restored to the chair of St. Peter. When John XII died suddenly in May 964, the Romans elected Pope Benedict V as his successor. Upon hearing of the Romans’ actions, Otto mobilized his army and returned to Italy. After marching on Rome and laying siege to the city in June 964, Otto compelled the Romans to accept his appointee Leo VIII as Pope and exiled Benedict V.[55]

Third Italian Expedition[edit]

Italy around 1000, shortly after Otto's reign. Otto's expansion campaigns brought northern and central Italy into the Holy Roman Empire.

Otto returned to Saxony in the fall of 965, believing his affairs in Italy had been settled. Months earlier, Otto’s long-serving lieutenant on the eastern front, Margrave Gero, had died on 20 May 965. At the time of his death, Gero commanded a vast march stretching from the Billung March in the north to the Duchy of Bohemia in the south. Though not popular with the nobles of the Empire, Gero had long been one of Otto’s most trusted lieutenants since the very beginning of his reign in 936; Otto was even the godfather of Gero’s children. Following his death, Gero's huge eastern territory was divided into five separate marches, each ruled by a margrave: the Northern March under Dietrich of Haldensleben, the Eastern March under Odo I, the March of Meissen under Wigbert, the March of Merseburg under Günther, and the March of Zeitz under Wigger I.

Peace in Italy, however, would not last long. Adalbert of Italy, the son of the deposed King Berengar II of Italy, rebelled against Otto’s rule over the Kingdom of Italy. Otto dispatched his nephew-in-law Burchard III, Duke of Swabia, and one of his closest advisors to Italy in 966 to crush the rebellion. Burchard III met Adalbert at the Battle of the Po on 25 June 966, defeating the rebels and restoring Italy to Ottonian control. Pope Leo VIII died on 1 March 965, leaving the chair of St. Peter vacant. The Church elected, with Otto’s approval, John XIII as new Pope on 1 October 966.[56] John XIII’s behavior and foreign backing soon made him disliked among the Roman people, and only ten weeks into his tenure he was taken into custody by the Roman people and imprisoned in Campania. The desperate Pope sent word to Otto begging for help; the Emperor received John XIII’s message and prepared his army for a third expedition into Italy.

In August 966 at Worms, Otto announced his arrangements for the government of Germany in his absence. Otto’s illegitimate son Archbishop William of Mainz would serve as his regent over all of Germany, while Otto’s trusted lieutenant, the Margrave Hermann Billung, would be his personal administrator over the Duchy of Saxony. With preparations completed, Otto led his army to Chur in the Alps; his wife Empress Adelaide and the eleven-year old crown prince, Otto II, accompanied him.

Reign from Rome[edit]

Upon arriving in Italy, the Emperor restored John XIII to his papal throne on 16 November 966 without opposition by the people. Otto captured the twelve leaders of the rebel militia, which had deposed and imprisoned the Pope, and had them tortured and crucified. Taking up permanent residence at Rome, the Emperor travelled, accompanied by the Pope, to Ravenna to celebrate Easter in 967. During the first few months of 968, Otto endured the deaths of his illegitimate son William, the Archbishop of Mainz and regent of Germany, as well as Otto’s mother, the Dowager Queen Matilda of Ringelheim.

With his new permanent capital in Rome, the Emperor continued to expand his realm to the south. Since February 967, the Duke of Benevento, Lombard Pandolf Ironhead, had accepted Otto as his overlord. This decision caused conflict with the Byzantine Empire, which had claimed sovereignty over Benevento. The eastern Empire also objected to Otto’s use of the title Emperor, believing only the Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas was the true successor of the ancient Roman Empire. Otto granted Duke Pandolf control of the vacant Duchy of Spoleto with instruction to wage war against the Byzantine Empire’s possessions on the southern Italian mainland.

The Byzantines opened peace talks with Otto, despite his expansive course. Otto desired both an imperial princess as a bride for his son and successor Otto II as well as the legitimacy and prestige of a connection between the Ottonian dynasty in the West and the Macedonian dynasty in the East. In order to further his dynastic plans, and in preparation for his son's marriage, Otto returned to Rome in the winter of 967 where he had Otto II crowned co-Emperor by Pope John XIII on Christmas Day 967.[57] Although Otto II was now the nominal co-ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, he exercised no real authority until the death of his father.[58]

It would be several more years before Otto received a bride for his son from the East. In 969, John I Tzimiskes assassinated and succeeded Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros in a military revolt. Finally recognizing Otto's imperial title, the new eastern emperor sent his niece Theophanu to Rome in 972, and she married Otto II on 14 April 972.[59] With the marriage between East and West, the conflict over southern Italy between the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire was finally resolved. While the exact terms of this peace are unknown, Otto and John I would jointly rule southern Italy as part of an alliance.

Final years and death[edit]

Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg

With his son’s wedding completed and peace with the Byzantine Empire concluded, Otto led the imperial family back to Germany in August 972. In the spring of 973, the Emperor visited Saxony and celebrated Palm Sunday in Magdeburg. At the same ceremony the previous year, Margrave Hermann Billung, Otto’s trusted lieutenant and personal administrator over Saxony during his years in Italy, had been received like a king by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg – a gesture of protest against the Emperor's prolonged absence from Germany.

Celebrating Easter with a great assembly in Quedlinburg, Emperor Otto was the most powerful man in Europe.[60] According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Otto received "the dukes Miesco [of Poland] and Boleslav [of Bohemia], and legates from the Greeks [Byzantium], the Beneventans [Rome], Magyars, Bulgars, Danes and Slavs".[61] Ambassadors from England and Muslim Spain arrived later the same year.[61] To mark the Rogation Days, Otto travelled to his palace at Memleben, the place where his father had died 37 years earlier. While there, Otto became seriously ill with fever and, after receiving his last sacraments, died on 7 May 973, at the age of 60.[62]

The transition of power to his seventeen-year old son Otto II was seamless. On 8 May 973, the lords of the Empire confirmed Otto II as their new ruler. Otto II arranged for a magnificent thirty-day funeral, finally laying his father to rest beside his first wife Eadgyth in Magdeburg Cathedral.

Family and Children[edit]

Main article: Ottonian Dynasty
German royal dynasties
Ottonian dynasty
Chronology
Henry I 919936
Otto I 936973
Otto II 973983
Otto III 9831002
Henry II 10021024
Family
Family tree of the German monarchs
Succession
Preceded by
Conradine dynasty
Followed by
Salian dynasty

Although never Emperor, Otto's father Henry I the Fowler is considered the founder of the Ottonian dynasty. In relations to the other members of his dynasty, Otto I was the son of Henry I, father of Otto II, grandfather of Otto III, and great-uncle to Henry II. The Ottonians would rule Germany (later the Holy Roman Empire) for over a century from 919 until 1024.

Otto had two wives and at least seven children, one of which was illegitimate.

  • With an unidentified Slavic woman:
  1. William (929 – 2 March 968) – Archbishop of Mainz from 17 December 954 until death
  1. Liudolf (930 – 6 September 957) – Duke of Swabia from 950 to 954, Crown Prince of Germany from 947 until death
  2. Liutgarde (932–953) – married Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, in 947
  1. Henry (952–957)
  2. Bruno (953–957)
  3. Matilda (954–999) – Abbess of Quedlinburg from 966 until death
  4. Otto II (955 – 7 December 983) – Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until death

Titles[edit]

Period Style
936-939 His Royal Highness Otto I, by the Grace of God, King of the Franks, Duke of Saxony
939-961 His Royal Highness Otto I, by the Grace of God, King of the Franks, Duke of Saxony, Duke of Franconia
961-962 His Royal Highness Otto I, by the Grace of God, King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, Duke of Saxony, Duke of Franconia
962-973 His Imperial Highest Otto I, by the Grace of God, August Emperor of the Romans, King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, Duke of Saxony, Duke of Franconia, Protector and Defender of the Roman Church

Legacy[edit]

The Ottonian Renaissance[edit]

Main article: Ottonian Renaissance

A limited renaissance of the arts and architecture depended on the court patronage of Otto and his immediate successors. The "Ottonian Renaissance" was manifest in some revived cathedral schools, such as that of Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne, and in the production of illuminated manuscripts, the major art form of the age, from a handful of elite scriptoria, such as that at Quedlinburg Abbey, founded by Otto in 936. The Imperial abbeys and the Imperial courts became centers of religious and spiritual life, led by the example of the women of the royal family. Scandalized by the state of the liturgy in Rome, Otto commissioned the first ever Pontifical Book, a liturgical book containing both prayers and ritual instruction. The compilation of the Romano-German Pontifical was overseen by Archbishop William of Mainz.

Modern World[edit]

Emperor Otto I was selected as the main motif for a high value commemorative coin, the €100 Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire commemorative coin, issued in 2008 by the Austrian Mint. The obverse shows the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire. The reverse shows Emperor Otto I with Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome in the background, where his coronation took place.[63]

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Berengar II ruled from 952 until 961 as "King of Italy", but as Otto's vasall.
  2. ^ Other sources give 920 or 921 as Henry's year of birth.
  3. ^ Widukind of Corvey, Res gestae saxonicae Book 2, chapter 2: duces vero ministrabant. Lothariorum dux Isilberhtus, ad cuius potestatem locus ille pertinebat, omnia procurabat; Evurhardus mensae preerat, Herimannus Franco pincernis, Arnulfus equestri ordini et eligendis locandisque castris preerat; Sigifridus vero, Saxonum optimus et a rege secundus, gener quondam regis, tunc vero affinitate coniunctus, eo tempore procurabat Saxoniam, ne qua hostium interim irruptio accidisset, nutriensque iuniorem Heinricum secum tenuit. Bibliotheca Augustana.
  4. ^ According to Thompson, Widukind of Corvey was condoning Wichmann's behaviour.[18]
  5. ^ Odilo of Cluny gives her age at her marriage as "in her sixteenth year".
  6. ^ By the reign of Otto’s successor, Otto II, the Church provided two-thirds of the kingdom’s military forces.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Arnulf, Liber gestorum recentium, I.7.
  2. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 254.
  3. ^ "Saint Matilda of Saxony", Saints.SQPN.com, 17 February 2014
  4. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 136.
  5. ^ Reuter 1991, pp. 137–139.
  6. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 140.
  7. ^ Schutz 2010, p. 45.
  8. ^ Bernhardt 1993, p. 3.
  9. ^ Keller & Althoff 2008, pp. 145–146.
  10. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 148.
  11. ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Otto I.". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ Schutz 2010, p. 43.
  13. ^ Vita Mathildis reginae posterior, c. 9.
  14. ^ Keller & Althoff 2008, p. 158.
  15. ^ Keller & Althoff 2008, pp. 159–160.
  16. ^ Keller & Althoff 2008, p. 159.
  17. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 152.
  18. ^ Thompson 1928, pp. 599–600.
  19. ^ Holland, Tom (2009). Millennium: The End of the World and the Forging of Christendom. Abacus. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-349-11972-4. 
  20. ^ Gwatkin et al. 1922, p. 189.
  21. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 154.
  22. ^ McKitterick, Rosamund (1983). The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians. Addison-Wesley Longman. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-582-49005-5. 
  23. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 167.
  24. ^ Keller & Althoff 2008, p. 178.
  25. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 166.
  26. ^ Barraclough 1946, p. 37.
  27. ^ Ruckser, David. "Boleslav I (the Cruel) - c. 935-c. 972" (PDF). Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  28. ^ "Boje polabských Slovanů za nezávislost v letech 928 – 955" (in cz). E-středověk.cz. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  29. ^ "Boleslav I." (in cz). leccos.com. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  30. ^ Howorth 1880, p. 218.
  31. ^ Zimmermann 2010, pp. 713–714.
  32. ^ Zimmermann 2010, pp. 714–715.
  33. ^ Zimmermann 2010, pp. 715–716.
  34. ^ Arnold 1997, p. 83.
  35. ^ Zimmermann 2010, pp. 732–733.
  36. ^ Zimmermann 2010, pp. 733–734.
  37. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 735.
  38. ^ Cantor, Norman F. (1994). The Civilization of the Middle Ages. Harper Perennial. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-06-092553-6. 
  39. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 155.
  40. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 736.
  41. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 738.
  42. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 741.
  43. ^ Zimmermann 2010, pp. 742–743.
  44. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 747.
  45. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 750.
  46. ^ "Otto I Defeats the Hungarians". A Source Book for Medieval History. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1907. Retrieved 30 June 2012 (paid account required). 
  47. ^ Zimmermann 2010, p. 757.
  48. ^ Bóna, István (2000). "A kalandozó magyarság veresége. A Lech-mezei csata valós szerepe" (in Hungarian). Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  49. ^ Reuter 1991, pp. 161–162.
  50. ^ Thompson 1928, p. 489.
  51. ^ Keller & Althoff 2008, p. 207.
  52. ^ Reuter 2000, p. 251.
  53. ^ Schutz 2010, p. 56.
  54. ^ Luttwak, Edward (2009). The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Harvard University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-674-03519-5. 
  55. ^ McBrien 2000, p. 159.
  56. ^ McBrien 2000, p. 160.
  57. ^ Duckett 1968, p. 90.
  58. ^ Reuter 1991, p. 159.
  59. ^ Reuter 2000, p. 254.
  60. ^ Reuter 1991, pp. 144–145.
  61. ^ a b Reuter 1991, p. 145.
  62. ^ Schutz 2010, p. 64.
  63. ^ "100 Euro gold coin - The Crown of the Holy Roman Empire". Austrian Mint. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Arnold, Benjamin (1997). Medieval Germany , 500–1300 A Political Interpretation. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-61091-6. 
  • Barraclough, Geoffrey (1946). The Origins of Modern Germany. Basil Blackwell.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  • Bernhardt, John W. (1993). Itinerant Kingship and Royal Monasteries in Early Medieval Germany, c. 936–1075. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52183-3. 
  • Duckett, Eleanor Shipley (1968). Death and Life in the Tenth Century. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-06172-3. 
  • Gwatkin, H. M.; Whitney, J. P.; Tanner, J. R.; Previté-Orton, C. W., eds. (1922). The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-04534-6. 
  • Howorth, H. H. (1880). "The Spread of the Slaves. Part III. The Northern Serbs or Sorabians and the Obodriti". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 9: 181–232. 
  • Keller, Hagen; Althoff, Gerd (2008). "Die Zeit der späten Karolinger und der Ottonen: 888-1024". Gebhardt Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte Band 3 (in German) (Klett-Cotta). ISBN 978-3-608-60003-2. 
  • McBrien, Richard P. (2000). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-087807-8. 
  • Reuter, Timothy (1991). Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. Addison Wesley Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-49034-5. 
  • Reuter, Timothy (2000). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. III: c. 900–c. 1024. Cambridge University Press. pp. 250–289. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8. 
  • Schutz, Herbert (2010). The Medieval Empire in Central Europe: Dynastic Continuity in the Post-Carolingian Frankish Realm, 900–1300. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 41–70. ISBN 978-1-4438-1966-4. 
  • Thompson, James Westfall (1928). Feudal Germany (2 vols.). University of Chicago Press.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  • Zimmermann, Wilhelm (2010) [1st. pub. 1877]. A Popular History of Germany: From the Earliest Period to the Present Day, Volume II. Henry J. Johnson. ISBN 978-1-145-40896-8. 

Primary sources[edit]

  • Arnulf of Milan (11th century). "Liber gestorum recentium". In Zey, Claudia. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum. Vol. 67 (1994). Translated by W. North. Hahnsche Buchhandlung. 
  • Vita Mathildis reginae posterior (c. 1003, written for her great-grandson Henry II), ed. Bernd Schütte. Die Lebensbeschreibungen der Königin Mathilde. MGH SS rer. Germ. in usum scholarum 66. Hanover, 1994. 143–202. Available from the Digital MGH; ed. Georg Pertz. MGH SS 4: 282–302; tr. in Sean Gilsdorf, Queenship and Sanctity, 88–127.

Further reading[edit]

In German[edit]

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: November 23, 912 Died: May 7, 973
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Berengar
Holy Roman Emperor
962–973
with Otto II (967–973)
Succeeded by
Otto II
Preceded by
Berengar II
King of Italy
961–973
Preceded by
Eberhard
Duke of Franconia
939-973
Preceded by
Henry I
King of Germany
936–973
with Otto II (961–973)
Duke of Saxony
936–973
Succeeded by
Bernard I