Otto von Below

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Otto von Below
LJB9 - Otto von Below.jpg
Otto von Below
Born (1857-01-18)18 January 1857
Danzig, Prussia
Died 15 March 1944(1944-03-15) (aged 87)
Danzig, Germany
Allegiance  German Empire
Service/branch Prussian Army
Years of service 1875-1919
Rank General der Infanterie
Commands held
Battles/wars

World War I

Eastern Front
Gumbinnen
Tannenberg
1st Masurian Lakes
2nd Masurian Lakes
Macedonian Front
Monastir Offensive
Italian Campaign
Battle of Caporetto
Western Front
Operation Michael
Awards Pour le Mérite with Oakleaves

Otto Ernst Vincent Leo von Below (18 January 1857 in Danzig (now Gdańsk) – 15 March 1944 also in Danzig)[1] was a Prussian general officer in the Imperial German Army during the First World War. He was most notable for his victory in the Battle of Caporetto.

Pre war[edit]

Before the War broke out, Otto von Below was promoted Generalmajor in 1909 and Generalleutnant in 1912. He was commanding 2nd Infantry Division immediately prior to the outbreak of war.

First World War[edit]

Eastern Front[edit]

On 1 August 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, Below was given command of I Reserve Corps as part of 8th Army on the Eastern Front.[2] He led his Corps in the Battles of Gumbinnen, Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. As a result of his successes, he was promoted to General der Infanterie[3] at the end of August 1914 and to command of 8th Army at the beginning of November.[4]

Below commanded the 8th Army in the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes (February 1915) and the Army of the Niemen (later renamed 8th Army) in the Courland Offensive (May 1915). His forces advanced into Courland and Lithuania as far as the southern reaches of the Western Dvina River.[1]

Macedonia[edit]

In October 1916, Below was appointed to the command of Heeresgruppe Below[5] on the Macedonian Front, consisting of the German 11th Army and the First and Second Bulgarian Armies.[6] In April 1917, he was briefly sent to the Western Front to command 6th Army[7] around Lille.[8]

Italy[edit]

Below next served on the Italian Front from September 1917. Commanding the Austro-German 14th Army[9] (7 German and 10 Austro-Hungarian Divisions) in the Battle of Caporetto, he was able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian army, which had practically no mobile reserves. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army.[10] A breakdown in German logistics brought the battle to a close on the line of the Piave River and the front soon froze again in trench warfare.

Western Front[edit]

If February 1918, Below was brought back to the Western Front to command the newly formed 17th Army[9] for the Kaiserschlacht Offensive. Below was expected to overrun Arras during March 1918 in a repeat of Caporetto; his inability to do so led to the failure of the German campaign to capture the Somme that same month.[8] Attacking the stronger, better prepared British 3rd Army, he had less success than forces further south facing the British 5th Army.

"In January of 1918 he made the following revolutionary proposal to Ludendorff: " Forget about the offensive and shorten the front lines as much as necessary; build Panzers throughout all of 1918 and, with your Panzer squadrons, break through all the way to the Channel coast in the Spring of 1919.""<Frieser, K, The Blitzkrieg Legend, p336>

Below briefly commanded 1st Army.[11] Shortly before war's end, Below was involved in preparations for a possible final battle on German territory (Home Defense Forces West).[3]

Awards[edit]

Below was awarded the Pour le Mérite on 16 February 1915 "for outstanding leadership and distinguished military planning and successful operations", and the Oakleaves (signifying a second award) on 27 April 1917.[12] In addition to the Pour le Mérite, Below was also awarded the Order of the Black Eagle on 1 November 1917[3] and the Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd class.

Post-war[edit]

Below retired in 1919. A post-war attempt by the Allies to try him as war criminal failed.[3] Otto von Below died on 9 March 1944 in Danzig.

Family[edit]

Below was the cousin of Fritz von Below, another German commander during the war. The two Generals are often confused.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Below, Otto von". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York. 
  2. ^ Cron 2002, pp. 322–326
  3. ^ a b c d "Below biography on The Prussian Machine". Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  4. ^ Cron 2002, p. 395
  5. ^ Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander.
  6. ^ Cron 2002, p. 60
  7. ^ Cron 2002, p. 394
  8. ^ a b "Who's Who Fritz von Below". Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Cron 2002, p. 398
  10. ^ Seth 1965, p. 147
  11. ^ Cron 2002, p. 392
  12. ^ "Orden Pour le Mérite". Retrieved 2 November 2012. 

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. 
  • Seth, Ronald (1965). Caporetto: The Scapegoat Battle. Macdonald. 
Military offices
Preceded by
New Formation
Commander, I Reserve Corps
2 August 1914 – 7 November 1914
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Kurt von Morgen
Preceded by
General der Infanterie Hermann von François
Commander, 8th Army
7 November 1914 – 26 May 1915
Succeeded by
General der Artillerie Friedrich von Scholtz
Preceded by
New Formation
Commander, Army of the Niemen
26 May 1915 - 30 December 1915
Succeeded by
renamed 8th Army
Preceded by
Army of the Niemen renamed
Commander, 8th Army
30 December 1915 – 5 October 1916
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Max von Fabeck
Preceded by
Generaloberst Ludwig von Falkenhausen
Commander, 6th Army
23 April 1917 – 9 September 1917
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Ferdinand von Quast
Preceded by
New Formation
Commander, 14th Army
9 September 1917 – 22 January 1918
Succeeded by
Dissolved, became 17th Army
Preceded by
Formed from 14th Army
Commander, 17th Army
1 February 1918 – 12 October 1918
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Bruno von Mudra
Preceded by
General der Infanterie Bruno von Mudra
Commander, 1st Army
12 October 1918 – 8 November 1918
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Magnus von Eberhardt