Ottoman–Persian War (1821–23)

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Ottoman-Qajar War
Part of Ottoman–Persian Wars
A Persian Cavalier smoking (Letters from the Caucasus and Georgia).jpg
Persian cavalry troops at the Caucasus front.
Date 1821–1823
Location Iranian–Turkish Border
Result Stalemate
Treaty of Erzurum
Status quo antebellum[1]
Territorial
changes
Recognition of Pre-War Boundaries.
Belligerents
State Flag of Iran (1924).svg Qajar dynasty Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
State Flag of Iran (1924).svg Abbas Mirza Ottoman Empire Mahmud II

The Ottoman–Qajar War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Empire from 1821 to 1823.[2]

Reasons[edit]

Tensions between the two empires had been rising due to the Ottoman Empire's harboring of rebellious tribesmen from Iranian Azerbaijan. Although secretly, the Russian Empire was attempting to put pressure on the Ottoman Empire, which was at war with the Greeks, who were receiving arms from Russia.[3][dubious ]

War[edit]

Crown Prince Abbas Mirza of Persia, at the instigation of the Russian Empire, invaded Western Armenia and the areas surrounding Iranian Azerbaijan.[4] The governor of Baghdad's invasion of Persia is defeated by Mohammed Ali Mirza who then besieges Baghdad, his untimely death ends the siege.[5] Meanwhile, Abbas Mirza marched into eastern Anatolia with 30,000 troops and met an Ottoman army of 50,000 at the Battle of Erzurum, scoring a crushing defeat over the Ottomans despite being severely outnumbered and the army suffering from a cholera epidemic.[6]

Thanks to the recent modernisations, the so-called "Nezam-i-Jadid" reforms of the Persian army according latest European model made possible by Abbas Mirza's brother, Dowlatshah, it made the army qualitatively far superior over that of their Ottoman Turkish arch rivals, despite being severely outnumbered.

Result[edit]

Peace was not concluded until the Treaty of Erzurum two years later; both sides recognized the previous borders, with no territorial changes. Also included in the treaty, was the guaranteed access for Persian pilgrims to holy sites within the Ottoman Empire.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 1140.
  2. ^ Martin Sicker, The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, (Praeger, 2001), 118.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  3. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140.
  4. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140.
  5. ^ Steven R. Ward, Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces, (Georgetown University Press, 2009), 76.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  6. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140.
  7. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140.