Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Hotaki, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed militarily for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia (Iraq).
Among the numerous treaties, the Treaty of Zuhab of 1639 is usually considered as the most important one, as it fixed present Turkey–Iran and Iraq–Iran borders. In later treaties, there were frequent references to Treaty of Zuhab.