Ottoman Turkish alphabet
|Ottoman Turkish alphabet
|Languages||Ottoman Turkish language|
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (Ottoman Turkish: الفبا elifbâ) was a version of the Arabic alphabet, with Persian additions, that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language during the Ottoman Empire and into the early years of the Republic of Turkey, through 1928.
The earliest known Turkish alphabet is the Orkhon script. The various Turkic languages have been written in a number of different alphabets, including Cyrillic, Arabic, Greek, Latin, and some other Asiatic writing systems.
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet was a Turkish form of the Arabic script in use for over a thousand years. It was well suited to write Ottoman Turkish which incorporated a great deal of Arabic and Persian vocabulary. However, it was poorly suited to the Turkish part of the vocabulary. Whereas Arabic is rich in consonants but poor in vowels, Turkish is exactly the opposite. The script was thus inadequate at representing Turkish phonemes. Some could be expressed using four different Arabic signs; others could not be expressed at all. The introduction of the telegraph and printing press in the 19th century exposed further weaknesses in the Arabic script.
Some Turkish reformists promoted the adoption of the Latin script well before Atatürk's reforms. In 1862, during an earlier period of reform, the statesman Münuf Pasha advocated a reform of the alphabet. At the start of the 20th century similar proposals were made by several writers associated with the Young Turks movement, including Hüseyin Cahit, Abdullah Cevdet and Celâl Nuri.
The issue was raised again in 1923 during the first Economic Congress of the newly founded Turkish Republic, sparking a public debate that was to continue for several years. A move away from the Arabic script was strongly opposed by conservative and religious elements. It was argued that Romanization of the script would detach Turkey from the wider Islamic world, substituting a foreign (i.e. European) concept of national identity for the traditional sacred community. Others opposed Romanization on practical grounds; at that time there was no suitable adaptation of the Latin script that could be used for Turkish phonemes. Some suggested that a better alternative might be to modify the Arabic script to introduce extra characters to better represent Turkish vowels.
Ottoman Turkish script was replaced by the Latin-based new Turkish alphabet, whose use became compulsory in all public communications in 1929. The change was formalized by the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, passed on November 1, 1928, and effective on January 1, 1929.
As with Arabic and Persian, texts in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet are written right-to-left. The appearance of a letter changes depending on its position in a word:
- isolated (in a one-letter word);
- final (in which case it is joined on the right to the preceding letter);
- medial (joined on both sides); and
- initial (joined on the left to the following letter).
Some letters cannot be joined to the left and do therefore not possess separate medial and initial forms; in medial position the final form is used, and in initial position the isolated form is used.
|ا||ـا||—||elif||a, e||—, ā||a, e|
|ع||ـع||ـعـ||عـ||ayn||', h (or omitted)||‘||ʔ|
|غ||ـغ||ـغـ||غـ||gayn||g, ğ||ġ||ɡ, ɣ|
|ك||ـك||ـكـ||كـ||kef||k, g, ğ, n||k||k|
|گ||ـگ||ـگـ||گـ||gef (1)||g, ğ||g||ɡ|
|ڭ||ـڭ||ـڭـ||ڭـ||nef, sağır kef||n||ñ||ŋ|
|و||ـو||—||vav||v, o, ö, u, ü||v, ū, aw, avv, ūv||v, o, œ, u, y|
|ه||ـه||ـهـ||هـ||he||h, e, a||h (2)||h, æ|
|ی||ـی||ـیـ||یـ||ye||y, ı, i||y, ī, ay, á, īy||j, ɯ, i|
Other scripts were sometimes used by non-Muslims to write Ottoman Turkish, since the Arabic alphabet was identified with Islam.
The first novel to be written in the Ottoman Empire was Akabi (1851), written in the Armenian script by Vartan Pasha. Similarly, when the Armenian Düzoğlu family managed the Ottoman mint during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid I (r. 1839–61), they kept records in Ottoman Turkish, written in the Armenian script.
- A correct Ottoman variant of gef will have the "mini-kaf" of ﻙ as well as the doubled upper stroke of گ. This feature is unavailable in Unicode characters.
- The Library of Congress recommends he (هـ) in a word in the construct state be romanized t and when a word ending in he is used adverbially, it should be romanized tan.
|Arabic form||Number||Ottoman Turkish||Modern Turkish|
- Zürcher, Erik Jan. Turkey: a modern history, p. 188. I.B.Tauris, 2004. ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6
- Gürçağlar, Şehnaz Tahir. The politics and poetics of translation in Turkey, 1923-1960, pp. 53-54. Rodopi, 2008. ISBN 978-90-420-2329-1
- Dil Derneği, Yazım Kılavuzu, 2002 (the writing guide of the Turkish language)
- Nationalist Notes, Time, July 23, 1928
- "Tūrk Harflerinin Kabul ve Tatbiki Hakkında Kanun" [Acceptance and Application of Turkish Letters LAW] (in Turkish). Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Erik Jan Zürcher (2004), Turkey: a Modern History, pages 188–9. ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6
- PDF (166 KB), Library of Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Mansel, Philip (2011). Constantinople. Hachette UK. ISBN 1848546475.
- Simon Ager, Turkish alphabet, Omniglot