Ottoman Vardar Macedonia
In the Battle of Maritsa of 1371, the King of Lordship of Prilep Vukašin Mrnjavčević and his brother Jovan Uglješa led 70,000 men against the Ottomans. Despite having smaller numbers, the Ottomans managed to kill Vukašin and his brother and win the Battle of Maritsa.
After the battle, most of Serbia broke into smaller principalities. One of those principalities is known as the Kingdom of Prilep, led by Vukašin's son Marko. Like most regional rulers in Macedonia, Marko accepted vassalage under Sultan Murad I to preserve his position.
The Battle of Kosovo of 1389 sealed the fate of Macedonia for the next 500 years. While both armies lost leaders and large numbers of soldiers, the Ottomans could easily assemble another army just as large while the locals could not.
Five hundred years of Ottoman rule
During the Ottoman rule of the Balkans, cities experienced many changes with regards to the demographic makeup of their population and the look of their cityscapes. With laws that prohibited Christian buildings from being higher than Islamic ones, the skylines of cities like Skopje and Bitola were dominated by minarets.
Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi visited the city of Bitola in 1661. He wrote that of the seven mosques in the city at the time, six were built in the 16th century. Most of the mosques constructed on the territory of today's Republic of Macedonia were square in shape with a three-domed portico and a minaret on the building's right side.
Macedonian cities under Ottoman rule
The Balkan Wars consisted of two wars that occurred in 1912 and 1913. The first began on 8 October 1912 when the nations of the Balkan League, who had large parts of their ethnic populations under Ottoman rule, attacked the Ottoman Empire. It lasted seven months with the Balkan League nations coming up victorious, ending 500 years of Ottoman rule in the Balkans.
The northern part of Macedonia was located in the Kosovo vilayet. Sanjaks located in this vilayet that contained territory now within the Republic of Macedonia were:
- Sanjak of Skopje, which included Skopje, Kumanova (Kumanovo), İştip (Štip), Kratova (Kratovo), and Koçana (Kočani)
- Sanjak of Prizren, which included Kalkandelen (Tetovo)
The southwestern part of the region was located in the Monastir vilayet. Sanjaks located in this vilayet that contained territory now within the Republic of Macedonia were:
- Sanjak of Monastir, which included Bitola, Ohri (Ohrid), Resne (Resen), and Pirlepe (Prilep)
- Sanjak of Dibra, which included Debar and Kiçevo (Kičevo)
The southeastern part of Macedonia was located in the Salonika vilayet. Sanjaks located in this vilayet that contained territory now within the Republic of Macedonia were:
- Sanjak of Selanik, which included Tikveş (Kavadarci), Usturumca (Strumica), Köprülü (Veles), Doyran (Dojran), and Gevgili (Gevgelija)
- History of the Republic of Macedonia
- History of the Balkans
- Old Bazaar, Skopje
- Ottoman era in the history of Bulgaria
- "Macedonia :: The Ottoman Empire". Britannica. 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "AN OUTLINE OF MACEDONIAN HISTORY FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO 1991". Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia London. 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010. "The period of expansion of medieval states on the Balkan and in Macedonia was followed by the occupation of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century. Macedonia remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for 500 years, i.e. until 1912"
- Sedlar, Jean W., East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, (University of Washington Press, 1994), 385.
- The last centuries of Byzantium, (1261-1453) by Donald MacGillivray Nicol
- Stojanovski, Aleksandar (1989), Makedonija vo turskoto srednovekovie : od krajot na XIV--početokot na XVIII vek (in Macedonian), Skopje: Kultura, p. 49, OCLC 21875410, retrieved 24. December 2011, "ОХРИДСКИ САНЏАК (Liva i Ohri): Овој санџак исто така е еден од најстарите санџаци во Румелискиот беглербеглак. Се смета дека бил создаден по загинувањето на крал Марко (1395),.."
- Šabanović, Hazim (1959), Bosanski pašaluk : postanak i upravna podjela (in Croatian), Sarajevo: Oslobođenje, p. 20, OCLC 10236383, retrieved 26. December 2011, "Poslije pogibije kralja Marka i Konstantina Dejanovića na Rovinama (1394) pretvorene su njihove oblasti u turske sandžake, Ćustelndilski i Ohridski."
- "A brief account of the history of Skopje". skopje.mk. 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010. "A monk at the Saint Theodor Monastery on Mt. Vodno briefly recorded the date of the town's capture by the Turks: "In the 69th year (1392) the Turks took Skopje on the 6th day of the month (January 19, 1392 according to the new calendar)."
- "The Church of St Spas - Skopje". National Tourism Portal of Macedonia. 2005-07. Retrieved August 27, 2010. "...half of it was constructed underground, due to the 17th century edict of the Turkish Sultan that prohibited Christian structures from being higher than mosques."
- "The Sixteenth Century Mosques of Bitola / Toli Manastır1". Kalamus. 20??. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- The book on Marko Kraljevic - Marko, The King's Son - Hero of The Serbs by Clarence A. Manning, O. Muiriel Fuller, illustrated by Alexander Key