Ottoman wars in Europe
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The Ottoman wars in Europe, known also as the Ottoman Wars or Turkish Wars for short, were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and a number of European states from the Late Medieval period to the 20th century. Military activities began with the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars from the late 13th century, complemented by the Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars and the Serbian–Ottoman Wars in the 14th century, whereupon the Ottoman Empire rapidly conquered the Balkans. The initial Serbian–Ottoman Wars, Croatian–Ottoman Wars and the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars allowed the further expansion of the Ottomans into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Turkish political domination was nevertheless kept at bay after the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna (1529), and the Ottoman–Habsburg wars. The Europeans, united by Christianity, formed the Holy League which was a group of Christian states. They were able to reverse a number of Ottoman conquests during the so-called "Great Turkish War" of the late 17th century, and this resulted in the removal of the foreign and alien influence of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottomans were much slower to modernize their military compared to the much more powerful and financially wealthy Christian nations in the European Holy League, led directly to the internal rebellion of the Christian peoples the Ottomans had managed to subjugate, such as Serbians and the Greeks. The Europeans unified in their need to eliminate the possibly destructive influence of a nation such as the lien Islamic Ottoman Empire led directly to the partially successful Serbian revolution (1804–1817) and the completely successful Greek War of Independence (1821–1832). This conflict was coupled with the frequent and mostly successful contention with the Russian Empire and mostly-to-completely successful contention with Poland, which destructively weakened the Ottoman Empire, and also led to the European aim of collapsing the Ottomans at the conclusion of World War I, with the signing of the Treaty of Sevres.
The Treaty of Sèvres, however, was not well received by all of Christendom. Among the other Allied powers, Greece did not accept the borders as drawn and never ratified it. The Armenians, just recovering after the barbaric and near complete annihilation of their people, caused by the Armenian Genocide of 1915–1918, managed to successfully beat the Turks and sent Avetis Aharonian, the President of the Delegation of the First Republic of Armenia, who grudgingly signed the Treaty of Sèvres. During the making of the Treaty of Sèvres, the President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, on the fourth of June 1918, personally promised to the Armenians an Armenia which would had access to the Black Sea. The Armenians, happy that their nation was restored nearly a millennium after falling to the Turks, were shocked after realising that the territorial change was not going to happen. The lack of unity of the newly formed League of Nations led to political infighting within the organization itself.
The aftermath was obviously not good for the Christian Armenians, as the Muslim Turks did not accept the Treaty of Sèvres due to the teachings of Islam, and broke it almost immediately with the invasion of Armenia in 1918, which carried on to a war between the two countries until 1923. The Armenians were then promised that by joining the Soviet Union it would provide a guaranteed security to their nation, but instead they were forced to accept the much less beneficial Treaty of Batum. To this day the Armenians do not accept the treaty and consider that, due to the fact it was negotiated exclusively by the Soviet Union, it is an illegal document and therefore the borders should be redrawn once more.
- 1 Rise (1299–1453)
- 2 Growth and Stagnation (1453–1683)
- 2.1 Wars in Albania
- 2.2 Conquest of Bosnia
- 2.3 Croatia
- 2.4 Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom
- 2.5 Conquest of Serbia and the Vojvodina rebellion
- 2.6 1463–1503: Wars with Venice
- 2.7 1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns
- 2.8 1526–1566: Conquest of the Hungarian Kingdom
- 2.9 1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League
- 2.10 1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus
- 2.11 1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia
- 2.12 1620–1621: Poland
- 2.13 1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs
- 2.14 1672–1676: Poland
- 2.15 1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea
- 3 Stagnation (1699–1828)
- 4 Ottoman decline (1828–1908)
- 5 Dissolution (1908–1922)
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356 (it is disputed that the year may have been 1358 due to a change in the Byzantine calendar), (see Suleyman Pasha) which provided it a basis for operations in Europe, the Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century.
In the latter half of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire proceeded to advance north and west in the Balkans, completely subordinating Thrace and much of Macedonia after the Battle of Maritsa in 1371. Sofia fell in 1382, followed by the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire Tarnovgrad in 1393, and the northwest remnants of the state after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.
A significant opponent was the young Serbian Empire, which was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, and which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and beginning of bad luck for Serbia. Much of Serbia fell to the Ottomans by 1459, the Kingdom of Hungary made a partial reconquest in 1480, but it fell again by 1499. Territories of Serbian Empire were divided between Ottoman Empire, Republic of Venice and Royal Hungary, with remaining territories being in some sort of a vassal status towards Hungary, until its own conquest.
Growth and Stagnation (1453–1683)
The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480–1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria.
Wars in Albania
The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra. The 1444 League of Lezhë briefly restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.
The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, George Castriot, son of a feudal nobleman, and managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79. It has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481, merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched an Italian campaign.
Conquest of Bosnia
Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileca and then were forced to retreat. After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success. Bosnians resisted strongly in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce, where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered it after a few months of the siege of Jajce, in 1463, and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending the Medieval Bosnia.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of which was left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense. The Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and having conquered Herzegovina (Rama) in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field shook all of Croatia. However, it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the superior Ottoman forces. After almost two hundred years of Croatian resistance against the Ottoman Empire, the victory in the Battle of Sisak marked the end of Ottoman rule and the Hundred Years' Croatian-Ottoman War. The Viceroy's army, chasing the fleeing remnants at Petrinja in 1595, sealed the victory.
Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom
The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely threatened by Ottoman advances. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)
Conquest of Serbia and the Vojvodina rebellion
As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459 following the siege, the temporary Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Montenegro was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Vojvodina rebellion between 1526 and 1528 saw the proclamation of the Second Serbian Empire in Vojvodina, which was among the last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1540, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.
1463–1503: Wars with Venice
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The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463, until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto. War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Which is resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza, fought between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in 1538.
1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns
In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad's success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained his first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II.[clarification needed] During the war, Vlad was killed and, according to some sources, his head was sent to Constantinople to discourage the other rebellions.
The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II's armies at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, which was one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman Empire until that time. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand" - as he put it in a letter.
In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands.
1526–1566: Conquest of the Hungarian Kingdom
After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered, but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research[who?]), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle. The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.
In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.
In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research[who?]), which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.
The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year's push for Vienna.
1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League
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Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes). The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.
After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22000 to 48000 Ottoman forces against 6000 to 8500 Maltese forces, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining about 10000 losses, including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.
The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League's victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.
1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus
In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.
The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.
In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.
1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia
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- Long War (15-Year War with Austria, 1593–1606) ends with status quo.
- War with Venice 1645–1669 and the conquest of Crete (see Cretan War (1645–1669)).
- Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664) : failed Ottoman attempt to defeat and invade Austria.
- Michael the Brave campaign against the Ottoman Empire (1593–1601)
Was fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.
1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs
In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire's vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire itself, that came to the Tatars' defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683.
1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea
The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside and partially destroying it.
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The second Russo-Turkish War took place 1710–1711 near Prut. It was instigated by Charles XII of Sweden after the defeat at the Battle of Poltava, in order to tie down Russia with the Ottoman Empire and gain some breathing space in the increasingly unsuccessful Great Northern War. The Russians were severely beaten but not annihilated, and after the Treaty of Prut was signed the Ottoman Empire disengaged, allowing Russia to refocus its energies on the defeat of Sweden.
Another war with Austria and Venice started in 1714. Austria conquered the remaining areas of the former Hungarian Kingdom, ending with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.
The fourth Russo-Turkish War started in 1768 and ended in 1774 with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji.
Napoleon's capture of Malta on his way to Egypt resulted in the unusual alliance of Russia and the Ottomans resulting in a joint naval expedition to the Ionian Islands. Their successful capture of these islands led to the setting up of the Septinsular Republic.
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The Greek War of Independence, taking place from 1821 to 1832, in which the Great Powers intervened from 1827, including Russia (seventh Russo–Turkish war, 1828–1829), achieved independence for Greece; the Treaty of Adrianople ended the war.
Ottoman decline (1828–1908)
Ottoman Wars with Bosnia 1831–1836, 1836–1837, 1841.
War with Albania 1820–1822, 1830–1835, 1847.
War with Montenegro 1852–1853.
Second war with Montenegro in 1858–1859.
War with Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia in 1862.
Cretan Uprising in 1866.
Bulgarian Rebellion in 1876.
The ninth and final Russo–Turkish war started in 1877, the same year the Ottomans withdrew from the Conference of Constantinople. Romania then declared its independence and waged war on Turkey, joined by Serbians and Bulgarians and finally the Russians (see also Russian Foreign Affairs after the Crimean War). Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. The Russians and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano in early 1878. After deliberations at the Congress of Berlin, which was attended by all the Great Powers of the time, the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 recognized several territorial changes.
Eastern Rumelia was granted some autonomy in 1878, rebelled and joined Bulgaria in 1885. Thessalia ceded to Greece in 1881, but after Greece attacked the Ottoman Empire to help the Second Cretan Uprising in 1897, Greece was broken in Thessalia.
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1912–1913: Balkan Wars
Two Balkan Wars, in 1912 and 1913, involved further action against the Ottoman Empire in Europe. The Balkan League first conquered Macedonia and most of Thrace from the Ottoman Empire, and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, after several rebellions and uprisings. This reduced Turkey's possessions in Europe (Rumelia) to their present borders in Eastern Thrace.
World War I
World War I was the ultimate cause of the collapse of the Empire, which was no more. However, during the operations the Empire prevented the British Royal Navy from passing to Istanbul in the famous Battle of Gallipoli. Nevertheless, Turkey lost most of the rest of what it had left in Europe, leading ultimately to the fall of the empire.
- Byzantine-Ottoman wars
- Ottoman Navy
- Military of the Ottoman Empire
- Russo-Ottoman Wars
- Russo-Crimean Wars
- Rise of the Ottoman Empire
- Fall of the Ottoman Empire
- Timeline of Turkish history
- History of the Republic of Venice
- Crimean Khanate
- Moldavian Magnate Wars
- Ottoman–Habsburg wars
- Ottoman–Persian Wars
- Greco-Turkish Wars
- Polish–Ottoman Wars
- Ottoman-Hungarian Wars
- Ottoman–Venetian Wars
- Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars
- History of the Serbian-Turkish wars
- Ottoman wars in the Near East
- The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors
- The End of Europe's Middle Ages - Ottoman Turks
- Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2004), 20.
- Ottoman Empire on the Offensive, 1300 - 1600
- The Battle of Mohacs, 1526
- Castles and History in Northern Transdanubia
- Hungary - Drégelypalánk
- Timeline: 1501 to 1600
- The years 1300 and later
- 1683 Siege of Vienna
- The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire - Alan Palmer
- Habsburg-Ottoman War, 1683–1699
- Decline of Islamaic and Ottoman Power