Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire used anthems since its foundation in the late 13th century, but did not use a specific imperial or national anthem until the 19th century. During the reign of Mahmud II, when the military and imperial band were re-organized along Western lines, Giuseppe Donizetti was invited to head the process. Donizetti Pasha, as he was known in the Ottoman Empire, composed the first Western-style imperial anthem, the Mahmudiye Marşı.
Like in many other monarchies of its time, the anthem of the Ottoman Empire was an imperial anthem, not a national one. Hence it paid homage to a specific ruler and a new anthem was composed at each imperial succession. However, in 1844, with the Tanzimat reforms, the Mecidiye Marşı was recognized as the first official Ottoman national anthem. The first official Ottoman national flag (which was in essence identical to the present-day Turkish flag) was also adopted in 1844.
- Mahmudiye Marşı, March of Mahmud – for Mahmud II (1808–1839 / 1918–1922), by Giuseppe Donizetti
- Mecidiye Marşı, March of Abdülmecid – for Abdülmecid I (1839–1861), by Giuseppe Donizetti
- Aziziye Marşı, March of Abdülaziz – for Abdülaziz (1861–1876), by Callisto Guatelli
- Hamidiye Marşı, March of Abdulhamid – for Abdulhamid II (1876–1909), by Necip Pasha
- Reşadiye Marşı, March of Mehmed Resad – for Mehmed V Resad (1909–1918), by Italo Selvelli
After the start of the imperial anthem tradition, two Sultans did not have specific anthems composed. The first is Murad V, who reigned for 3 months in 1876 and the second is the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI Vahdeddin, who used the Mahmudiye Marşı anthem.
Only the Hamidiye Marşı and Reşadiye Marşı have lyrics, the first three anthems being instrumental.
- İstiklâl Marşı – Independence March
- March of Abdülmecid
- Ottoman military band
- Culture of the Ottoman Empire
- Ottoman classical music