Ottumwa High School
|File:Iowa Ottumwa High School facade.jpg|
|Ottumwa High School - Present|
|501 E 2nd St,
Ottumwa,, Iowa, 52501
|School district||Ottumwa Community School District|
|Principal||Mark S. Hanson|
|Color(s)||Red and White|
|Athletics conference||Central Iowa Metro League|
|Vision||All students graduate from Ottumwa High School prepared for a successful post-secondary transition. Our essential learnings state we want our graduates to be effective communicators, critical thinkers, responsible community members, informed decision makers, compassionate role models, and respectful individuals.|
Ottumwa High School is a public high school located in Ottumwa, Iowa. It is part of the Ottumwa Community School District, and it is the district's only high school. It was established in 1923. The school sports mascot is a Bulldog.
For several years, students in Ottumwa attended private classes inside area homes. Later, some students studied inside a local Methodist Episcopal church. In 1865, the first public school in Ottumwa—Adams School—was completed at "College Square", an area bounded by College, Fourth, Second, and Union Streets. The school, which utilized four classrooms on its top floor for the high school, cost $28,818.57 to build, and it sat on the same site as the present-day high school. It was declared unsafe in 1883. The school board voted to tear down the condemned building and build a new one at the same site. With more citizens coming to Ottumwa, an additional high school was constructed about a mile west of the Adams School site in 1899. This building later served as a junior high school until it was closed in 1982.
To address the growing student population, the Ottumwa Community School District began construction on the current high school building at the same location as the Adams School in 1921. The "new" high school was completed in 1923. As part of the construction, the Adams School was lifted from its foundation and moved east—it would serve as a building for vocational classes at the new high school.
In the 1970s, an additional building was completed—the "Vo-Tech" building—for vocational and performing arts classes. The facility was connected to the main building via a skywalk accessible from the second floor hallway. This decade also saw the addition of a second gymnasium, often nicknamed the "Rubber Gym" because of its rubber floor, which was built behind the first gymnasium and replaced the Adams School, which was demolished.
In the 1990s, a city property tax was levied to help fund a multi-million dollar renovation project. The original aim of the project was to renovate the school hallways and some classrooms, add additional basement classrooms, relocate the cafeteria and library to a new area adjacent to the original building and connecting to the Vo-Tech building, renovate and modernize the school's gymnasium facilities (locker and exercise rooms), and remodel the school's auditorium. The project went over budget, and the gymnasium and auditorium phases were scratched. The cafeteria and library projects were successfully completed, along with the basement, classroom, and hallway renovations, by the end of the century. The skywalk formerly connecting the Vo-Tech and main buildings was replaced by the new building.
In spring 2001, the school received a grant for nearly $1 million from Vision Iowa to remodel the auditorium which is where they now hold all of their pep rallies, guest speakers, and drama productions. The auditorium was closed from 2002 to 2003 for renovations. Its grand re-opening took place on November 23, 2002.
The latest renovations to the Ottumwa High School building came in the summer of 2003, when renovations to the gymnasium facilities were completed with aid of a federal grant obtained with the help of Iowa Senator Tom Harkin.
In 2005, the school's front steps were the focus of a local controversy. The steps, which are in disrepair, needed to be replaced. A local architectural firm suggested two options: replace the steps with a similar staircase, or scrap the steps and redesign the building's entrance and facade. Although the architectural firm and local school board both recommended the cheaper option of scrapping the steps, a grassroots campaign of graduates spoke out against removing such an iconic part of the school. In August 2005, the school board decided to keep the steps, and no major decisions about what to do with them were made then.
Near the end of May the district decided to get rid of the steps in front of the school. The original idea was to just leave them off of the school and have a flat front of the building. As there were so many protests and different people against the idea the new plan now is to get rid of the steps and rebuild them. The steps had seen senior pranks that caused them to be painted with Sherman-Williams paint from the Ottumwa store, just a short walk from the school. Rebuilding them will cost around $3 million to redo, but they will be rebuilt with extra safety and better features to go with them.
The steps now have no passage way underneath them, Having air going underneath them causes them to rot faster. Also, the steps were rebuilt with a heating system that will increase safety in the winter time and reduce or end the need to salt the stairs in the winter. Construction was finished in the 2006-2007 school year.
The main campus of Ottumwa High School consists of a four-story building in downtown Ottumwa. The hill on which the building sits was once the site of Chief Wapello's tribal village. Legend suggests he originally called the area "Ottumwa" from this spot in 1838.
The four floors of the main building can be roughly divided by subject areas: the rooms on the bottom floor contain mostly social studies and foreign language classrooms; the second floor contains several offices, family and consumer science classrooms, and mathematics classrooms; the third floor is mostly mathematics and language arts classrooms; and the fourth floor houses science and language arts classrooms. The school's auditorium and gymnasium are usually accessed from the second floor, though the auditorium extends to the fourth floor in height and the gymnasiums also extend an extra floor.
Ottumwa High School does not hold any sporting contests within its campus; instead, the school uses other buildings or stadia within Ottumwa. The school does maintain a parking lot for students; a local church offers permit parking for students as well as a free parking lot with a limited number of places. The school does maintain two parking lots for faculty.
Enrollment during the fall quarter of the 2004–2005 school year was 1541 students. 90% of the student body is white, 7% is Hispanic, 2% is Asian, 1% is African American, and less than 1% is of another descent.
10% of the student body qualifies for a special education program, while just over 37% of the student body speaks English as a second language. 6% of all graduates completed four years of English/language arts study and three years of either mathematics, science, or social studies in 2004–2005.
Ottumwa High School enrolls around twenty foreign exchange students each year.
In 2001, anatomy/physiology teacher Gail Wortmann was named "Iowa Teacher of the Year." She was also awarded the Milken Family Foundation Teacher of the Year award in that year. From 2000–2002, science teacher Peggy Steffen served as an Einstein Fellow for NASA.
Current faculty members have the following degrees M.A. 36 B.A. 38 M.ed 5 Mse 2 B.S.E. 3 M.M. 1 M.A.T. 5 B.S.N. 1 M.L.S. 1 M.S. 3 M.S.M. 1 B.S. 3 E.D.S. 1 M.A.R. 1
The current administration at OHS includes Mr. Hansen (Principal), Mr. Wigle (Assistant Principal), Mrs. Bemis (Dean of Students), Mr. Zimmerman (Dean of Students), and Mrs. Maas (Dean of Students). School board members include Carol Mitchell (President), Payson Moreland (Vice President), Cindy Kurtz Hopkins, Doug Mathias, Ron Oswalt, Greg Riley, and Jeff Strunk. Other faculty include Ms. Anderson and Mr. Beghtol, who are members of the custodial staff.
Varsity teams Football: Zach Pfantz Volleyball: Jessica Carson Girls Swimming: Stephanie Mishler Cross Country: Boys-Jeff “Smiddy” Smith Girls-Angela Chaney Boys Golf: Scott Maas Basketball: Boys: Chris Gravett Girls: Bowling Wrestling: Frueh Boys Swimming: Tennis: Emily Phommachack and Alan Paris Girls Golf: Stephanie Mishler Track: Jim Nickerson and Soccer: Girls: Brett McKenzie Boys: Aaron Rose Baseball: Jaeger Softball: Frank Houston and Matt Mishler Cheerleading: Deb Kent
Achievements Metro Wins State Titles: Bowling Individual State Titles: Golf-Matthew Walker
Team Records 2012-2013 Football: 4-6 Volleyball: 16-20 Basketball: Girls: 4-18 Boys: 2-20 Soccer: Boys: 7-9 Girls: 4-12 Tennis:Boys: 6-3 Girls: Baseball: 19-19 Softball: 35-10
Ottumwa’s Softball, Golf, and Bowling teams have consistently competed very well with championships throughout the years. Ottumwa High School hosts a variety of intramural sports including basketball, dodgeball and powderpuff football.
Mission Statement- To motivate young people to become better citizens.
Purpose of JROTC- To encourage students to graduate high school, against common misconception that the purpose of JROTC is to recruit students for the military. The JROTC cadets usually all go by last name.
The battalion’s staff is a group of devoted cadets that under the command of the Executive Officer. The staff is composed of the S-1 (Adjutant Officer), S-2 (Security Officer), S-3 (Training & Operations Officer), S-4 (Supply & Logistics Officer), S-5 (Public Affairs Officer).
There are 6 companies during the course of a day, which are Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo and Foxtrot.
Instructors: SAI (Senior Army Instructor) qualifications are 25 years of active service and either be a Commission Officer or a Chief Warrant Officer and must have a bachelors degree. The AI (Army Instructor) must have 20 years of active service, be a Non-Commission Officer or a Chief Warrant Officer, and have at least an associates degree. CW5 (Retired) Chief Wynn, CW5 (Retired) Chief Rynier.
Raiders: Raiders is concentrated more on the physical and military intellectual part of JROTC. They work mostly on physical training (PT), map reading, first aid, knot tying and rope ridge.
Color guard: A group of cadets that present the colors at special events such as sporting events, parades, public events.
Drill Team: The person in charge is the Battalion’s Command Sergeant Major, who is responsible for the Battalion’s Drill Team. Drill team concentrates more on the mind and footwork of JROTC.
Achievements- The OHS Battalion has had the Honor Unit with Distinction Status Award for 15 years. Raiders have won 4 first place trophies 2012-2013, Drill has won 1 first place and Color won 1 first place and 2 second place trophies in competitions.
Rank Structure- When the cadets first start out their rank is a private. Cadet goes in front of every name given. Cadet Private, Cadet Private 1st class, Cadet Corporal, Cadet Sergeant, Cadet Staff Sergeant, Cadet Sergeant 1st class, Cadet Master Sergeant, Cadet 1st Sergeant, Cadet Sergeant Major, Cadet Command Sergeant Major, Cadet 1st Lieutenant, Cadet 2nd Lieutenant, Cadet Major, Cadet Lieutenant Colonel, Cadet Colonel (Not Active).
Chain of Command- The chain of command is a line of authority in JROTC in which responsibility is delegated. The head of the battalion is the Battalion Commander, who subordinates are the company commanders, who are responsible for whatever their company does or fails to do.
It started February 22, 1995 and is one of the three Army JROTC's in Iowa, the others are Marines, Air Force and Navy.
Activities: The OHS Battalion participates in community service activities, it hosts the Cadet Ball and the annual steak dinner to raise funds for the program. There are awarded ceremonies after competitions.
Curriculum- They focus on leadership, physical fitness, and group building, they practice first aid, land navigation, and military intelligence.
There are 17 clubs at The Ottumwa High School, they include:
Future Educators of America (FEA)- Allows students the opportunity to explore teaching as a career option, provide a realistic understanding of teaching and encourage students from diverse backgrounds to think seriously about the teaching profession. International Club- Students who want to share/gain a more global view of foreign cultures. Most students in the club are taking a foreign language.
National Honor Society- Torch Club- Students selected to this organization are chosen for their outstanding qualities of scholarship, leadership, character, and service.
Operation Smile- is a non-profit volunteer medical organization that provides free reconstructive facial surgery for children and young adults in developing countries around the world and the U.S.
Science Club- For students who are fascinated by intellectual conversations about science.
Speech and Debate Team- Offers students excellent opportunities to develop communication skills.
Student Council- is the channel through which students may express their opinions and offer suggestions to faculty and administration.
First Tech Challenge- Is an out of school program for high school students to learn about the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) through hands-on learning in the field of robotics.
Substance Abuse Task Force- Is for students who want to be positive role models for youth in the community and decrease youth substance abuse in our community by participating in substance abuse prevention initiatives in our community.
Art Club- is a social organization open to any high school student who has an interest in the visual arts and wishes to participate in extracurricular arts activities.
Interact Club- Sponsored by the Ottumwa Rotary Club and is dedicated to service in our community, as well as, internationally.
SU2C- Stand Up To Cancer- To raise cancer awareness in the school and the community.
Hyperstream Club- Allows students to learn about technology and do hands on activities.
Friends of Rachael- Allows students to be positive role models while promoting random acts of kindness.
Dance Team- Group that dances during halftime at football and basketball games.
Best Buddies- To establish a global volunteer movement that creates opportunities for one-to-one friendships, integrated employment and leadership development for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD).
Students at Ottumwa High School can participate in many extracurricular activities. In addition to 14 varsity athletic teams (baseball/softball, basketball, bowling, cheerleading, cross-country running, football, golf, swimming, tennis, track and field, volleyball, soccer, and wrestling), OHS offers numerous clubs and other activities such as the JROTC program and Drama. The OHS drama department presents several productions annually, and the band, choirs, and orchestra present several concerts.
An art club, debate team, speech team, international club, and science club are joined by local chapters of DECA, Future Educators of America, SADD, and the National Honor Society (known at OHS as the "Torch Club") to extend opportunities for students. There is also a student council with approximately 50 members, who help to plan homecoming (an annual tradition since 1938), intramural sports (basketball, dodgeball, powder puff football, and volleyball), and multiple "Spirit Weeks."
Of three intramural sports offered yearly, basketball is the most popular. It involves a regular season and a playoff tournament. Intramural dodgeball and beach volleyball seasons also take place each year.
Students may also take a year-long course to help produce the "Argus Annual", an annual yearbook since 1904, the student newspaper (formerly the "Argus News", but is now the "Bulldog Bulletin"), or the student television show ("BNN"—Standing for "Bulldogs News Network"). A student-run café—with gourmet food cooked by family and consumer science students—offers bi-weekly meals to the community. Another class offers students interested in going directly into a field of work after graduation job shadowing experience.
Student traditions are observed around the week of homecoming, which is usually close to the end of September or early October. Students celebrate the school day with "dress-up days", (such as "duct tape day", "pink day", "black day", "Disney day", "Make-your-own t-shirt day", and "hat day"), a parade, a bonfire/local band concert, and a football game. Cheerleaders and football players TP each other's houses during homecoming week, and the senior class often celebrates Friday with a senior prank.
OHS has had fluctuating numbers of accepted All-State singers in the last 40 years. Dennis Vasconez, Ottumwa High’s current vocal director, believes that OHS had the “highest accepted number of All-State singers in the 70s.” OHS had a steady number of singers in the 90s through the early 2000s, followed by a decrease in numbers, with none accepted again until the early 2010s. “In the past two years,” Vasconez says “Ottumwa has had five all-state singers accepted, with two admitted into chamber choirs in the festival.”
Show Choir According to Ottumwa Vocal Director Dennis Vasconez the OHS Show Choir has been in existence for the last 11 years, and in the last three years has moved on to finals six time, four consecutive, and won one grand championship. Solo and Ensemble
Dennis Vasconez stated that OHS steadily receives many 1 ratings in all the years that they have participated in State Solo and Ensemble competition.
Concert Band-Ginny Kjer The current directors are Alexander Mason and Troy Gerleman. There is only one concert band. The from 1970-1971 directors were Bob Kaiser (sophomore) and Jack Cameron (junior/senior). From 1973-1974 the directors were Robert Kullmer (sophomore) and Jack Cameron (junior/senior). From 1975 the director of both bands was Jack Cameron and the junior/senior band played at Hancher. From 1976-1978 the band directors were William Cornelius (sophomore) and Barney Onerheim (marching band, junior/senior). OHS hosted the Tri-City Festival in 1976. From 1982-1983 the directors were Craig Alberty (sophomore) and William Cornelius (junior/ senior). From 1988-1989 the directors were Glen Flanigan and William Cornelius. From 1994-2001 the directors were Glen Flanigan and Jane Triplett. From 2002-2008 the directors were Jane Triplett and Pam DeBoer. From 2009-2010 the directors were Ellen Wubbels and Pam DeBoer. From 2010-2011 the directors were Ellen Wubbels and Troy Gerleman. From 2011–present the directors are Alexander Mason and Troy Gerleman.
The OHS Auditorium was renovated in 2000. “Rumors” was the first play performed in the newly renovated auditorium, and “The Music Man” was the first musical in 2003. It was the first musical performed by the OHS drama department in fifteen years. These plays were performed by Natalie Saunders who has been the longest returning drama director since Mike Earnst.
Natalie Saunders, current director of the OHS Drama Department, trained Ashton Kutcher as an actor. Tyler Smith, alumni of Troupe #615, has performed on Royal Caribbean Cruise lines as an entertainer. Heather Hubbs and Nicole Agee are now anchorwomen for KCRG. All three of these successful individuals were on the State Thespian Board during their time at OHS. James Palmer is assistant director of Birthday Party in Steppenwolf Theatre. He has helped organize the Tony party. Jim Gibler went on to do work in Los Angeles and interned at Disneyland. Josh Morissey and Josh Huddleston did “extra” roles for popular TV shows. Austin Pettinger won a costume design contest at the international level, and he is designing costumes professionally now in Chicago. Niq Schwartz is working as manager at Second City in Chicago. Many alumni of the Ottumwa High School Drama Department are currently working or have worked with the Ottumwa Community Players.
The Thespian troupe of Ottumwa High School is #615. It is one of the oldest Thespian troupes in the state of Iowa. A Thespian Troupe is a National Honors Society for people who have invested over a hundred hours in two different productions with at least ten of those hours being crew hours. After they have done so they become a Thespian and a part of the Thespian Troupe in their area. Past officers of Thespian Troupe #615 include:
2012-2013-President: Jacoby Clingman, Vice President: James Canny, Secretary: Maddie McKelvey, Treasurer: Samantha Saunders, Clerk Historian: Evan Runkle 2011-2012-President: Jacoby Clingman, Vice President: Michaela Robertson, Secretary: Maddie McKelvey, Treasurer: Laurissa Minks, Clerk Historian: Evan Runkle 2010-2011-President: Molly Overturf, Vice President: Jessica Geidel, Secretary: Jordan Lappinen, Treasurer: Samantha Saunders, Clerk Historian: Sarah Mosher Current officers for the 2013-2014 school year are as follows: President: Maddie McKelvey, Vice President: Leilah Armstrong, Secretary: Jordan Young, Treasurer: Talitha Ford, Clerk Historian: Andrew Milder
The shows being performed for the 2013-2014 school year are “The Laramie Project” and “Grease.” The OHS Drama Department puts on two full-length shows per year, one in the fall and one in the spring. A musical is performed every other year. The Drama Department participates in speech contest during the winter months, competing in areas such as One Act, Ensemble Acting, Musical Theatre, Mime, Reader’s Theater, TV News, Radio News, and individual events such as Poetry, Prose, Acting, Improv, and Public Address. Ottumwa High School regularly participates in speech contest at the State and All-State levels. This is a high honor for the students participating. Students regularly attend the State and International Thespian Festivals each year, sometimes taking individual events (like the ones performed at speech contest) and performing them for fellow Thespians of Iowa, or even of foreign countries at the International festival.
At the annual End of the Year Banquet, awards are given out, new Thespians are inducted, and next year’s officers and shows are announced. There are awards for best actor and best crewperson in each show, some director’s choice and some student choice. There are also traditional awards unique to Ottumwa High School, such as Senior Drama Queen and Best Thespian.
Ottumwa High School utilizes a seven-period school day, with classes beginning at 8:15 am and ending at 3:00 p.m. School is also dismissed at 12:30 p.m. on every second Wednesday of each month for faculty meetings. All students are required to take several core academic classes, including three years of language arts, two years of mathematics, three years of social studies, two years of science, and four years of physical education to graduate and receive a diploma.
As of the 06-07 school year, they mandated an advisory period for all grades. A twenty minute class to set kids in the right direction, and plan their future. Students have the same teacher all four years. It's held between third and fourth period. Students listen to announcements on Tuesday and Fridays. Also used to better organize assemblys, inform students on schedule changes, grade updates, and ITED testing. While many people are opposed to the advisory program for shortening each class, some students say it's an okay program. Black binders hold activities to get your goals accomplished towards a better future. Most of these are seen as useless, busy work. Every person in the building has an advisory including the principal and school nurse. So therefore, going to the nurse is not allowed during advisory. Neither is going to the bathroom allowed. It counts for half a credit per semester if all advisory activities are completed.
46 credits are required, and each daily semester-long course is one credit. A student must have a course load of at least 5½ credits per semester; students are assisted by the faculty when choosing their classes.
The 08-09 school year saw the elimination of the study hall.
Ottumwa High School’s current Alumni Association was founded in 2012. It hopes to provide a variety of activities for the school’s alumni. These activities are an alumni choir, pep band, and sporting events. The Alumni Association also plans to be involved with Ottumwa High School, working with the student council, giving out scholarships, and also helping fund High School reunions. (cite: Mr. Kyle Roemerman at 2:30 May 31, 2013, Room 410)
There are currently 16 Ottumwa alumni working at the Ottumwa High School, roughly 9.6% percent of the whole faculty, in 10 departments.
The Ottumwa Alumni Association ceased operating in the 1990s (most of the members died or moved on) but it re-established in 2012, thanks to leadership and head of the association of Kyle Roemerman, current English teacher.
Some of the future goals for the association are an alumni sports game, an alumni choir concert, an alumni pep band, and an official Hall of Fame. The Alumni Association would also like to reward the alumni by providing an Alumni Membership Card,which would provide discounts from local businesses in Ottumwa. The awarding of scholarships in the future and helping with class reunions is another goal of the association.
- Herschel C. Loveless – 1927 – Governor of Iowa (1957–1961)
- Carol Morris – 1954 – Miss Universe winner in 1956
- Tom Arnold – 1977 – character actor/philanthropist
- Stephen Blumberg – 1975 – Rare book thief
- Stevan Robinson – 1989 – musician
- E. J. Mather—football and basketball player and coach
- Meagher, G.; Munsell, H. Ottumwa, Yesterday and Today. p. 49 and 51.
- Ottumwa Courier (2001), Ottumwa to receive nearly $1 million for OHS improvements.
- Ottumwa Courier (November 24, 2002), Hundreds pack new auditorium.
- Ottumwa Courier (August 9, 2005), No repairs for OHS stairs.
- Ottumwa Community School District (2004–2005), Annual Report.
- (Short, Kim, ed. Argus 1996 VOL. 92. Comp. John Graziano. Otttumwa Iowa: Ottumwa High School, 1996. Print.) (Beeler, Stacy, and Jennifer Moore, eds. Argus 2000. Comp. Christy Peterson. Vol. 96. Otttumwa Iowa: Ottumwa High School, 2000. Print.) (Cook, Jennifer, ed. Argus 2002. Comp. Erin K. Harris. Vol. 98. Otttumwa Iowa: Ottumwa High School, 2002. Print.)
- The junior/senior band went to Minneapolis. Edmund, Julie, Diane Magrane, Jean Finney, Beth Barnes, Linda Hart, and Janice Wilkerson, eds. Argus 1970. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1970. Print. Bruch, Ruth, Connie Lakin, Nancy Eaves, Debbie Schertz, Penny Staebler, Joan Comer, Janet Denefe, Connie Soteropulous, and Janice Wilkerson, eds. Argus 1971. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1971. Print.
- Funk, Rick, ed. Argus 1973. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1973. Print Rhynas, Ken, ed. Argus 1974. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1974. Print.
- Gross, Geoffrey, ed. Argus 1975. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1975. Print.
- Hall, Julie, ed. Argus 1976. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1976. Print. McWilliams, Cindy, ed. Argus 1977. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1977. Print. Argus 1978.
- Riedel, Rosanne, ed. Argus 1982. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1982. Print. Riedel, Rosanne, ed. Argus 1983. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1983. Print.
- Ogier, Cindy, ed. Argus 1988. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1988. Print. Mitchell, Julie, ed. Argus 1989. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1989. Print.
- Stuart, Monica, ed. Argus 1994. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1994. Print. McElroy, Valerie, ed. Argus 1995. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1995. Print. Short, Kim, ed. Argus 1996. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 1996. Print. Beeler, Stacy, and Jennifer Moore, eds. Argus 2000. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 2000. Print. Sieren, Lisa, ed. Argus 2001. Ottumwa: Ottumwa High School, 2001. Print.
- Interview with Mr. Kelly Scott, 6/5/2013
- Saunders, Natalie. "Thespian Troupe #615." Personal interview. 31 May 2013.
- Citation: Roemerman, Kyle. Personal interview. 31 May 2013.
- Taylor, J. Ottumwa: One Hundred Years a City. Chicago: Max Corp. 1948. p. 52.
- Meagher, G., Munsell, H. Ottumwa, Yesterday and Today. Ottumwa, Iowa: Ottumwa Stamp Works. 1923. p. 48–52.
- Sterling, R. Wapello County History. Montezuma, Iowa: Sutherland Printing Company Inc. 1986. p. 154–159
- Baker, C. In retrospect. Virginia Beach: The Donning Company. 1992. p. 164–167.