Ötzi

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Ötzi
Ötzi the Iceman on a sheet-covered autopsy table
Born c. 3300 BCE
near the present village of Feldthurns (Velturno), north of Bolzano, Italy
Died (aged about 45)
Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy
Cause of death
Exsanguination due to arrow wound on his shoulder[1]
Other names Ötzi the Iceman
Similaun Man
"Frozen Fritz"
Man from Hauslabjoch
Hauslabjoch mummy
Frozen Man
Known for Oldest natural mummy of a Chalcolithic (Copper Age) European man
Height 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Weight 50 kg (110 lb; 7.9 st)
Website
South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology

Ötzi (German pronunciation: [ˈœtsi] ( ); also called Ötzi the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, Homo tyrolensis, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE,[2][3] more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BC.[4] The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near the Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy.[5] He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.

Discovery

Ötzi the Iceman half uncovered, face down in a pool of water with iced banks
Ötzi the Iceman while still frozen in the glacier, photographed by Helmut Simon upon the discovery of the body in September 1991

On 19 September 1991, Ötzi was found by two German tourists from Nuremberg, Helmut and Erika Simon, at 3,210 metres (10,530 ft) on the east ridge of the Fineilspitze in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border, while walking off the path between the mountain passes Hauslabjoch and Tisenjoch. They believed that the body was of a recently deceased mountaineer.[6] The next day, a mountain gendarme and the keeper of the nearby Similaunhütte first attempted to remove the body, which was frozen in ice below the torso, using a pneumatic drill and ice-axes, but had to give up due to bad weather. The next day, eight groups visited the site, amongst whom happened to be the famous mountaineers Hans Kammerlander and Reinhold Messner. The body was semi-officially extracted on 22 September and officially salvaged the following day. It was transported to the University of Innsbruck, where it was recognized to be primeval the same day.[7]

At the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), the border of North and South Tyrol was defined as the watershed of the rivers Inn and Etsch. However, near Tisenjoch the (now withdrawn) glacier complicated establishing the watershed at the time and the border was established too far north. Therefore, although Ötzi's find site drains to the Austrian side, surveys in October 1991 showed that the body had been located 92.56 metres (101 yd) inside Italian territory as delineated in 1919Coordinates: 46°46′45.8″N 10°50′25.1″E / 46.779389°N 10.840306°E / 46.779389; 10.840306.[8] The province of South Tyrol therefore claimed property rights, but agreed to let Innsbruck University finish its scientific examinations. Since 1998, it has been on display at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol.

Scientific analyses

The corpse has been extensively examined, measured, X-rayed, and dated. Tissues and intestinal contents have been examined microscopically, as have the items found with the body. In August 2004, frozen bodies of three Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed during the Battle of San Matteo (1918) were found on the mountain Punta San Matteo in Trentino. One body was sent to a museum in the hope that research on how the environment affected its preservation would help unravel Ötzi's past.[9]

Body

By current estimates, at the time of his death Ötzi was approximately 1.65 metres (5 ft 5 in) tall,[10] weighed about 50 kilograms (110 lb; 7.9 st)[11] and was about 45 years of age.[10] When his body was found, it weighed 13.750 kg (30.25 lb).[12] Because the body was covered in ice shortly after his death, it had only partially deteriorated. Analysis of pollen, dust grains and the isotopic composition of his tooth enamel indicates that he spent his childhood near the present village of Feldthurns, north of Bolzano, but later went to live in valleys about 50 kilometres farther north.[13] Analysis by Franco Rollo's group at the University of Camerino has shown that Ötzi's mitochondrial DNA belongs to the K1 subcluster of the mitochondrial haplogroup K, but that it cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subcluster.[14] Rollo's group published Ötzi's complete mtDNA sequence in 2008.[15]

The Iceman from the chest up lying on stainless steel table, with his left arm across his body just between the top of his right shoulder and under his chin
Ötzi the Iceman, now housed at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy

Analysis of Ötzi's intestinal contents showed two meals (the last one consumed about eight hours before his death), one of chamois meat, the other of red deer and herb bread. Both were eaten with grain as well as roots and fruits. The grain from both meals was a highly processed einkorn wheat bran,[16] quite possibly eaten in the form of bread. In the proximity of the body, and thus possibly originating from the Iceman's provisions, chaff and grains of einkorn and barley, and seeds of flax and poppy were discovered, as well as kernels of sloes (small plumlike fruits of the blackthorn tree) and various seeds of berries growing in the wild.[17] Hair analysis was used to examine his diet from several months before.

Pollen in the first meal showed that it had been consumed in a mid-altitude conifer forest, and other pollens indicated the presence of wheat and legumes, which may have been domesticated crops. Pollen grains of hop-hornbeam were also discovered. The pollen was very well preserved, with the cells inside remaining intact, indicating that it had been fresh (a few hours old) at the time of Ötzi's death, which places the event in the spring. Einkorn wheat is harvested in the late summer, and sloes in the autumn; these must have been stored from the previous year.

In 2009, a CAT scan revealed that the stomach had shifted upward to where his lower lung area would normally be. Analysis of the contents revealed the partly digested remains of ibex meat, confirmed by DNA analysis, suggesting he had a meal less than two hours before his death. Wheat grains were also found.[18]

High levels of both copper particles and arsenic were found in Ötzi's hair. This, along with Ötzi's copper axe blade, which is 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting.[19]

By examining the proportions of Ötzi's tibia, femur and pelvis, Christopher Ruff has determined that Ötzi's lifestyle included long walks over hilly terrain. This degree of mobility is not characteristic of other Copper Age Europeans. Ruff proposes that this may indicate that Ötzi was a high-altitude shepherd.[20]

Using modern 3-D technology, a facial reconstruction has been created for the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy. It shows Ötzi looking old for his 45 years, with deep-set brown eyes, a beard, a furrowed face, and sunken cheeks. He is depicted looking tired and ungroomed.[21]

Health

Ötzi apparently had whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), an intestinal parasite. During CT scans, it was observed that three or four of his right ribs had been cracked when he had been lying face down after death, or where the ice had crushed his body. One of his fingernails (of the two found) shows three Beau's lines indicating he was sick three times in the six months before he died. The last incident, two months before he died, lasted about two weeks.[22] Also, it was found that his epidermis, the outer skin layer, was missing, a natural process from his mummification in ice.[11] Ötzi's teeth showed considerable internal deterioration from cavities. These oral pathologies may have been brought about by his grain-heavy, high carbohydrate diet.[23] DNA analysis in February 2012 revealed that Ötzi was lactose intolerant, supporting the theory that lactose intolerance was still common at that time, despite the increasing spread of agriculture and dairying.[24]

Skeletal details and tattooing

Ötzi had several carbon tattoos including groups of short, parallel, vertical lines to both sides of the lumbar spine, a cruciform mark behind the right knee, and various marks around both ankles. Radiological examination of his bones showed "age-conditioned or strain-induced degeneration" in these areas, including osteochondrosis and slight spondylosis in the lumbar spine and wear-and-tear degeneration in the knee and especially in the ankle joints.[25] It has been speculated that these tattoos may have been related to pain relief treatments similar to acupressure or acupuncture. If so, this is at least 2000 years before their previously known earliest use in China (c. 1000 BCE).[26]

Clothes and shoes

Line drawing of a right shoe
An artist's impression of Ötzi's right shoe

Ötzi's clothes were sophisticated. He wore a cloak made of woven grass[27] and a coat, a belt, a pair of leggings, a loincloth and shoes, all made of leather of different skins. He also wore a bearskin cap with a leather chin strap. The shoes were waterproof and wide, seemingly designed for walking across the snow; they were constructed using bearskin for the soles, deer hide for the top panels, and a netting made of tree bark. Soft grass went around the foot and in the shoe and functioned like modern socks. The coat, belt, leggings and loincloth were constructed of vertical strips of leather sewn together with sinew. His belt had a pouch sewn to it that contained a cache of useful items: a scraper, drill, flint flake, bone awl and a dried fungus.

The shoes have since been reproduced by a Czech academic, who said that "because the shoes are actually quite complex, I'm convinced that even 5,300 years ago, people had the equivalent of a cobbler who made shoes for other people". The reproductions were found to constitute such excellent footwear that it was reported that a Czech company offered to purchase the rights to sell them.[28] However, a more recent hypothesis by British archaeologist Jacqui Wood says that Ötzi's "shoes" were actually the upper part of snowshoes. According to this theory, the item currently interpreted as part of a "backpack" is actually the wood frame and netting of one snowshoe and animal hide to cover the face.[2]

Tools and equipment

A knife made from stone, and a woven sheath
Ötzi's flint knife and its sheath

Other items found with the Iceman were a copper axe with a yew handle, a flint-bladed knife with an ash handle and a quiver of 14 arrows with viburnum and dogwood shafts. Two of the arrows, which were broken, were tipped with flint and had fletching (stabilizing fins), while the other 12 were unfinished and untipped. The arrows were found in a quiver with what is presumed to be a bow string, an unidentified tool, and an antler tool which might have been used for sharpening arrow points.[29] There was also an unfinished yew longbow that was 1.82 metres (72 in) long.[30]

In addition, among Ötzi's possessions were berries, two birch bark baskets, and two species of polypore mushrooms with leather strings through them. One of these, the birch fungus, is known to have antibacterial properties, and was probably used for medicinal purposes. The other was a type of tinder fungus, included with part of what appeared to be a complex firestarting kit. The kit featured pieces of over a dozen different plants, in addition to flint and pyrite for creating sparks.

Ötzi's copper axe was of particular interest. The axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at the shoulder, leading to the blade. The 9.5 centimetres (3.7 in) long axe head is made of almost pure copper, produced by a combination of casting, cold forging, polishing, and sharpening. It was let into the forked end of the crook and fixed there using birch-tar and tight leather lashing. The blade part of the head extends out of the lashing and shows clear signs of having been used to chop and cut. At the time, such an axe would have been a valuable possession, important both as a tool and as a status symbol for the bearer.[31]

Genetic analysis

A group of scientists have sequenced Ötzi's full genome and the report was published on 28 February 2012.[3][32] The Y-DNA of Ötzi belongs to a subclade of G defined by the SNPs M201, P287, P15, L223 and L91 (G-L91, ISOGG G2a2b, former "G2a4"). He was not typed for any of the subclades downstreaming from G-L91. G-L91 is now mostly found in South Corsica.

Analysis of his mitochondrial DNA has shown that Ötzi belongs to the K1 subclade, but cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has provisionally been named K1ö for Ötzi.[33] Multiplex assay study was able to confirm that the Iceman's mtDNA belongs to a previously unknown European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution amongst modern data sets.[34]

By autosomal DNA he is most closely related to southern Europeans, especially to the geographically isolated populations of the two Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica.[35][36]

DNA analysis also showed him at high risk of atherosclerosis, lactose intolerance, and the presence of the DNA sequence of Borrelia burgdorferi, making him the earliest known human with Lyme disease.[37]

A 2012 paper by paleoanthropologist John Hawks suggests that Ötzi had a higher degree of Neanderthal ancestry than modern Europeans.[38]

In October 2013, it was reported that 19 modern Tyrolean men were related to Ötzi. Scientists from the Institute of Legal Medicine at Innsbruck Medical University had analysed the DNA of over 3,700 Tyrolean male blood donors and found 19 who shared a particular genetic mutation with the 5,300 year old man, which led them to identify the link.[39]

Blood

In May 2012, scientists announced the discovery that Ötzi still had intact blood cells. These are the oldest blood cells ever identified. In most bodies this old, the blood cells are either shrunken or mere remnants, but Ötzi's have the same dimensions as living red blood cells and resembled a modern-day sample.[40]

Cause of death

The Ötzi memorial near Tisenjoch. Ötzi was found ca. 70 m NE of here, a place indicated with a red mark. The mountain in the background is the Fineilspitze.

Initial speculation

It was initially believed that Ötzi died from exposure during a winter storm. Later it was speculated that Ötzi may have been a victim of a ritual sacrifice, perhaps for being a chieftain.[41][42] This explanation was inspired by theories previously advanced for the first millennium BCE bodies recovered from peat bogs such as the Tollund Man and the Lindow Man.[42]

Theories involving struggle followed by cold death

In 2001 X-rays and a CT scan revealed that Ötzi had an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder when he died,[43] and a matching small tear on his coat.[44] The discovery of the arrowhead prompted researchers to theorize Ötzi died of blood loss from the wound, which would probably have been fatal even if modern medical techniques had been available.[45] Further research found that the arrow's shaft had been removed before death, and close examination of the body found bruises and cuts to the hands, wrists and chest and cerebral trauma indicative of a blow to the head. One of the cuts was to the base of his thumb that reached down to the bone but had no time to heal before his death. Currently it is believed that death was caused by a blow to the head, though researchers are unsure if this was due to a fall, or from being struck with a rock by another person.[46] Unpublished and thus unconfirmed DNA analyses claim they revealed traces of blood from four other people on his gear: one from his knife, two from the same arrowhead, and a fourth from his coat.[47] Interpretations of these findings were that Ötzi killed two people with the same arrow, and was able to retrieve it on both occasions, and the blood on his coat was from a wounded comrade he may have carried over his back.[44] Ötzi's unnatural posture in death (frozen body, face down, left arm bent across the chest) suggests that the theory of a solitary death from blood loss, hunger, cold and weakness is untenable. Rather, before death occurred and rigor mortis set in, the Iceman was turned on to his stomach in the effort to remove the arrow shaft.[48]

In May 2012, researchers using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy concluded that Ötzi did not die immediately from his shoulder wound. They detected dried blood cells and possibly fibrin in a state of degradation from maturity, suggesting an established blood clot of more than a few days' age.[49][not in citation given]

The DNA evidence suggests that he was assisted by companions who were also wounded; pollen and food analysis suggests that he was out of his home territory. The copper axe could not have been made by him alone. It would have required a group tribal effort to mine, smelt and cast the copper axe head. This may indicate that Ötzi was part of an armed raiding party involved in a skirmish, perhaps with a neighboring tribe, and this skirmish had gone badly.[citation needed]

When the Iceman's mitochondrial DNA was analyzed by Franco Rollo and his colleagues, it was discovered that he had genetic markers associated with reduced fertility. It has been speculated that this may have affected his social acceptance, or at least that his infertility could have had social implications within his tribal group, which could have played a role in the chain of events that led to the confrontation.[50]

Burial theory

In 2010, it was proposed that Ötzi died at a much lower altitude and was buried higher in the mountains, as posited by archaeologist Alessandro Vanzetti of the Sapienza University of Rome and his colleagues.[51] According to their study of the items found near Ötzi and their locations, it is possible that the iceman may have been placed above what has been interpreted as a stone burial mound but was subsequently moved with each thaw cycle that created a flowing watery mix driven by gravity before being re-frozen.[52]

While archaeobotanist Klaus Oeggl of the University of Innsbruck agrees that the natural process described probably caused the body to move from the ridge that includes the stone formation, he pointed out that the paper provided no compelling evidence to demonstrate that the scattered stones constituted a burial platform.[52] Moreover, biological anthropologist Albert Zink argues that the iceman's bones display no dislocations that would have resulted from a downhill slide and that the intact blood clots in his arrow wound would show damage were the body carted up the mountain.[52]

In either case, the burial theory does not contradict the possibility of a violent cause of death as stated in the preceding theories.

Legal dispute

Italian law entitled the Simons to a finders' fee from the South Tyrolean provincial government of 25% of the value of Ötzi. In 1994 the authorities offered a "symbolic" reward of 10 million lire (€5,200), which the Simons turned down.[53] In 2003, the Simons filed a lawsuit which asked a court in Bolzano to recognize their role in Ötzi's discovery and declare them his "official discoverers". The court decided in the Simons' favor in November 2003, and at the end of December that year the Simons announced that they were seeking US$300,000 as their fee. The provincial government decided to appeal.[54]

In addition, two people came forward to claim that they were part of the same mountaineering party that came across Ötzi and discovered the body first:

  • Magdalena Mohar Jarc, a Slovenian actress, who alleged that she discovered the corpse first, and shortly after returning to an alpine house, asked Helmut Simon to take photographs of Ötzi.
  • Sandra Nemeth, from Switzerland, who contended that she found the corpse before Helmut and Erika Simon, and that she spat on Ötzi to make sure that her DNA would be found on the body later. She asked for a DNA test on the remains, but experts believed that there was little chance of finding any trace.[55]

The rival claims were heard by a Bolzano court. The legal case angered Mrs. Simon, who alleged that neither woman was present on the mountain that day.[55] This position is supported by a detailed description of the Iceman's discovery by Austrian researcher Elisabeth Rastbichler-Zissernig.[56] In 2005, Mrs. Simon's lawyer said: "Mrs. Simon is very upset by all this and by the fact that these two new claimants have decided to appear 14 years after Ötzi was found."[55]

In 2004, Helmut Simon died. Two years later, in June 2006, an appeals court affirmed that the Simons had indeed discovered the Iceman and were therefore entitled to a finder's fee. It also ruled that the provincial government had to pay the Simons' legal costs. After this ruling, Mrs. Erika Simon reduced her claim to €150,000. The provincial government's response was that the expenses it had incurred to establish a museum and the costs of preserving the Iceman should be considered in determining the finder's fee. It insisted it would pay no more than €50,000. In September 2006, the authorities appealed the case to Italy's highest court, the Court of Cassation.[54]

On 29 September 2008 it was announced that the provincial government and Mrs. Simon had reached a settlement of the dispute, under which she would receive €150,000 in recognition of Ötzi's discovery by her and her late husband and the tourist income that it attracts.[53][57]

"Ötzi's curse"

Influenced by the "Curse of the pharaohs" and the media theme of cursed mummies, claims have been made that Ötzi is cursed. The allegation revolves around the deaths of several people connected to the discovery, recovery and subsequent examination of Ötzi. It is alleged that they have died under mysterious circumstances. These persons include co-discoverer Helmut Simon,[58] and Konrad Spindler, the first examiner of the mummy in Austria at a local morgue in 1991.[59] To date, the deaths of seven people, of which four were the result of some violence in the form of accidents, have been attributed to the alleged curse. In reality hundreds of people were involved in the recovery of Ötzi and are still involved in studying the body and the artifacts found with it. The fact that a small percentage of them have died over the years has not been shown to be statistically significant.[60][61]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ PBS NOVA "Iceman Murder Mystery"
  2. ^ a b "Iceman was wearing 'earliest snowshoes'". The Times. Stone Pages Archaeo News. 27 February 2005. Retrieved 24 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b [1]
  4. ^ Age determination of tissue, bone and grass samples from Ötztal Ice Man (PDF; 476 kB)
  5. ^ James Neill (27 October 2004), Otzi, the 5,300 Year Old Iceman from the Alps: Pictures & Information, retrieved 8 March 2007 
  6. ^ Description of the Discovery at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology web site
  7. ^ Description of the recovery at the museum site.
  8. ^ The Border Question, at the museum site
  9. ^ WWI bodies are found on glacier, BBC News, 23 August 2004 
  10. ^ a b Rory Carroll (26 September 2000), "Iceman is defrosted for gene tests: New techniques may link Copper Age shepherd to present-day relatives", The Guardian 
  11. ^ a b James M. Deem (3 January 2008), Ötzi: Iceman of the Alps: His health, Mummy Tombs, retrieved 6 January 2008 
  12. ^ Egarter-Vigl, Eduard (2006), "The Preservation of the Iceman Mummy", in Marco Samadelli, The Chalcolithic Mummy, Volume 3, In Search of Immortality, Folio Verlag, p. 54, ISBN 978-3-85256-337-4 
  13. ^ Wolfgang Müller [] et al. (31 October 2003), "Origin and Migration of the Alpine Iceman", Science (AAAS) 302 (5646): 862–866, doi:10.1126/science.1089837, PMID 14593178, retrieved 18 October 2007, lay summaryMummy Tombs (16 December 2007) 
  14. ^ Franco Rollo [] et al. (19 January 2006), "Fine Characterization of the Iceman's mtDNA Haplogroup", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130 (4): 557–64, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20384, PMID 16425231 
  15. ^ Ermini, Luca [] et al. (2008), "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman", Current Biology 18 (21): 1687–1693, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.09.028, PMID 18976917 
  16. ^ T.G. Holden (2002), "The Food Remains from the Colon of the Tyrolean Ice Man", in Keith Dobney; Terry O'Connor, Bones and the Man: Studies in Honour of Don Brothwell, Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 35–40, ISBN 978-1-84217-060-1 
  17. ^ A.G. Heiss & K. Oeggl (19 February 2008), "The plant macro-remains from the Iceman site (Tisenjoch, Italian-Austrian border, eastern Alps): new results on the glacier mummy's environment", Veget Hist Archaeobot 18: 23, doi:10.1007/s00334-007-0140-8 
  18. ^ Than, Ker (23 June 2011). "Iceman's Stomach Sampled—Filled With Goat Meat". National Geographic. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  19. ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (16 September 2002), Iceman's final meal, BBC News 
  20. ^ Christopher Ruff; Holt, BM; Sládek, V; Berner, M; Murphy Jr, WA; Zur Nedden, D; Seidler, H; Recheis, W (July 2006), "Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman"", Journal of Human Evolution 51 (1): 91–101, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.001, PMID 16549104 
  21. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella (25 February 2011). "The Iceman Mummy: Finally Face to Face". Discovery News. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  22. ^ James H. Dickson; Klaus Oeggl; Linda L. Handly (May 2003), "The Iceman Reconsidered" (PDF), Scientific American: 70–79, archived from the original on 4 May 2010 
  23. ^ "Iceman Had Bad Teeth : Discovery News". News.discovery.com. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  24. ^ http://news.discovery.com/history/oetzi-iceman-mummy-blood-120502.html
  25. ^ Spindler, Konrad (1995), The man in the ice, Phoenix, pp. 178–184, ISBN 0-7538-1260-6 
  26. ^ Dorfer, L; M Moser, F Bahr, K Spindler, E Egarter-Vigl, S Giullén, G Dohr, T Kenner (September 1999), "A medical report from the stone age?", The Lancet 354 (9183): 1023–1025, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)12242-0, PMID 10501382, retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  27. ^ In the book Cookwise by Shirley Corriher, the point is made (in relation to cooking) that plant leaves have a waterproof, waxy cuticle which makes raindrops roll off, with the comment "it was interesting that the 5,000-year-old Alpine traveler ... had a grass raincoat": Shirley O. Corriher (1997), Cookwise: The Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking, New York, N.Y.: William Morrow and Company, p. 312, ISBN 978-0-688-10229-6 
  28. ^ Katka Krosnar (17 July 2005), "Now you can walk in footsteps of 5,000-year-old Iceman – wearing his boots", The Daily Telegraph 
  29. ^ Brenda Fowler (2001), Iceman: Uncovering the Life and Times of a Prehistoric Man found in an Alpine Glacier, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, pp. 105–106, ISBN 0-226-25823-8 
  30. ^ Norman Davies (1996), Europe: A History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820171-0 
  31. ^ The Axe – Ötzi – South Tyrol Museum of Archeology
  32. ^ Keller, A. et al. (2012). "New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing". Nature Commun. 3 (2): 698. doi:10.1038/ncomms1701. PMID 22426219. 
  33. ^ Luca Ermini et al., Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman, Current Biology, vol. 18, no. 21 (30 October 2008), pp. 1687–1693.
  34. ^ Endicott et al., Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: the singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman, BMC Genetics, vol. 10, no. 29 (19 June 2009).
  35. ^ Iceman's DNA reveals health risks and relations, Nature
  36. ^ Tratti genetici comuni tra la mummia Oetzi e gli attuali abitanti di Sardegna e Corsica
  37. ^ Hall, Stephen S. (November 2011). "Iceman Autopsy". National Geographic. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  38. ^ John Hawks (15 August 2012). "Neandertal ancestry "Iced"". john hawks weblog. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
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  40. ^ Stephanie Pappas (2 May 2012). "'Iceman' mummy holds world's oldest blood cells". Fox News. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  41. ^ Sarah Ives (30 October 2003), Was ancient alpine "Iceman" killed in battle?, National Geographic News, retrieved 25 October 2007 
  42. ^ a b Franco Rollo [] et al. (2002), "Ötzi's last meals: DNA analysis of the intestinal content of the Neolithic glacier mummy from the Alps", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (20): 12594–12599, doi:10.1073/pnas.192184599, PMC 130505, PMID 12244211 
  43. ^ Stephanie Pain (26 July 2001), Arrow points to foul play in ancient iceman's death, NewScientistTech 
  44. ^ a b James M. Deem (3 January 2008), Ötzi: Iceman of the Alps: Scientific studies, retrieved 6 January 2008 
  45. ^ Alok Jha (7 June 2007), "Iceman bled to death, scientists say", The Guardian 
  46. ^ Rory Carroll (21 March 2002), "How Oetzi the Iceman was stabbed in the back and lost his fight for life", The Guardian 
  47. ^ Friend, Tim. 'Iceman' was murdered, science sleuths say. USA TODAY. Posted 8 November 2003.
  48. ^ Rossella Lorenzi (31 August 2007), Blow to head, not arrow, killed Otzi the iceman, Australian Broadcasting Corporation ; Nicole Winfield (30 August 2007), Ancient murder mystery takes new turn, MSNBC 
  49. ^ Janko, Marek; Stark, Robert W.; Zink, Albert, "Preservation of 5300 year old red blood cells in the Iceman", Interface: Journal of the Royal Society, retrieved 2 May 2012 
  50. ^ Rebecca Morelle (3 February 2006), Infertility link in iceman's DNA, BBC News 
  51. ^ A. Vanzetti, M. Vidale, M. Gallinaro, D.W. Frayer, and L. Bondioli. "The iceman as a burial."[Antiquity (journal)|Antiquity]. Volume: 84 Number: 325 Page: 681–692. September 2010
  52. ^ a b c "Prehistoric 'Iceman' gets ceremonial twist", Science News, 25 September 2010. (Retrieved 19 September 2010)
  53. ^ a b <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (29 September 2008), 'Iceman' row ends after 17 years, BBC News 
  54. ^ a b James M. Deem (September 2008), Ötzi: Iceman of the Alps: Finder's fee lawsuits, Mummy Tombs, retrieved 1 October 2008 
  55. ^ a b c Nick Pisa (22 October 2005), "Cold case comes to court – After 5,300 years", The Daily Telegraph 
  56. ^ Elisabeth Rastbichler-Zissernig (3 September 2001), Der Mann vom Hauslabjoch – von der Entdeckung bis zur Bergung [The Hauslabjoch man – from the discovery to the retrieval], University of Innsbruck, retrieved 6 January 2008  (in German).
  57. ^ Nick Squires (29 September 2008), "Oetzi The Iceman's discoverers finally compensated: A bitter dispute over the payment of a finder's fee for two hikers who discovered the world famous Oetzi The Iceman mummy has finally been settled", The Daily Telegraph 
  58. ^ Reuters in Vienna (19 October 2004), "Iceman's finder missing", The Guardian ; Stephen Goodwin (25 October 2004), "Helmut Simon: Finder of a Bronze Age man in the alpine snow [obituary]", The Independent 
  59. ^ Barbara McMahon (20 April 2005), "Scientist seen as latest 'victim' of Iceman", The Guardian 
  60. ^ "Is there an Ötzi curse?", Ötsi - the Iceman (South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology), retrieved 15 August 2012, hundreds of people have worked on the Iceman project, and many years have passed since the corpse was first discovered. It is therefore not remarkable that some of those people have since died. 
  61. ^ The Curse of the Ice Mummy, a television documentary screened on UK Channel 4 on 8 March 2007. See also Kathy Marks (5 November 2005), "Curse of Oetzi the Iceman strikes again", The Independent  (also reported as Kathy Marks (5 November 2005), "Curse of Oetzi the Iceman claims another victim", New Zealand Herald ); Nick Squires (5 November 2005), "Seventh victim of the Ice Man's 'curse'", The Daily Telegraph 

Further reading

Articles

Books

  • Deem, James (2008), Bodies from the Ice, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 64, ISBN 0-618-80045-X 
  • Bortenschlager, Sigmar; Oeggl, Klaus, eds. (2000), The Iceman and His Natural Environment: Palaeobotanical Results, Wien; New York, N.Y.: Springer, ISBN 3-211-82660-2 .
  • Fowler, Brenda (2000), Iceman: Uncovering the Life and Times of a Prehistoric Man Found in an Alpine Glacier, New York, N.Y.: Random House, ISBN 0-679-43167-5 .
  • Spindler, Konrad; translated from the German by Ewald Osers (2001), The Man in the Ice: The Preserved Body of a Neolithic Man Reveals the Secrets of the Stone Age, London: Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1260-6  .
  • De Marinis, Raffaele C.; Brillante, Giuseppe (1998), La Mummia del Similaun: Ötzi, l'Uomo Venuto dal Ghiaccio [The Mummy of the Similaun: Ötzi, the Man who Came from the Ice], Venice, Italy: Marsilio, ISBN 88-317-7073-X  (Italian)
  • Fleckinger, Angelika; Steiner, Hubert (2000) [1998], L'Uomo Venuto dal Ghiaccio [The Man who Came from the Ice], Bolzano, Italy: Folio, ISBN 88-86857-03-9  (Italian)

External links