The Oudh State or Kigdom of Oudh (Awadh State) was a princely state in the Awadh region during the British Raj until 1856. The now obsolete but once official English-language name of the state, also written in British historical texts as 'Oude', derived from the name of Ayodhya. The capital of Oudh State was in Faizabad, but the British Agents, officially known as 'residents', had their seat in Lucknow.
Oudh joined other Indian states in an upheaval against British rule in 1858 during one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857. In the course of this uprising a few detachments of the British Indian Army from the Bombay Presidency overcame the disunited collection of Indian states in a single rapid campaign. Even so determined rebels continued to wage sporadic guerrilla clashes until the spring of 1859. This ill-fated rebellion is also historically known as the 'Oudh campaign'.
In 1732, under Mughal sovereignty, a senior official of the Mughal Empire established a hereditary polity in Oudh. As the power of the Mughals waned the rulers of Oudh gradually affirmed their own sovereignty. Since the state was located in a prosperous region, the British East India Company soon took notice of the affluence in which the Nawabs of Oudh lived. The result would be direct British interference in the internal state matters of Oudh and the kingdom became a British protectorate in May 1816. Three years later, in 1819, the ruler of Oudh took the style of Padshah (king), signaling formal independence under the advice of the Marquis of Hastings. On 7 Feb 1856 by order of Lord Dalhousie, Governor General of the East India Company, the king of Oudh was deposed and its kingdom was incorporated into British India under the terms of the Doctrine of lapse on the grounds of internal misrule.
Between 5 Jul 1857 and 3 Mar 1858 there was a brief upheaval by the son of the deposed king joining the Indian Rebellion of 1857. During the rebellion the British temporarily lost control of the territory and they needed eighteen months to reestablish their rule during which there were massacres such as those during the Siege of Cawnpore (Kanpur).