Ouija

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This article is about spiritualist use of the ouija board. For other uses, see Ouija (disambiguation).
Original ouija board created in 1894

The Ouija board (/ˈwə/ WEE-jə) also known as a spirit board or talking board, is a flat board marked with the letters of the alphabet, the numbers 0–9, the words "yes", "no", "hello" (occasionally), and "goodbye", along with various symbols and graphics. It uses a planchette (small heart-shaped piece of wood) or movable indicator to indicate the spirit's message by spelling it out on the board during a séance. Participants place their fingers on the planchette, and it is moved about the board to spell out words. "Ouija" has become a trademark that is often used generically to refer to any talking board.

Following its commercial introduction by businessman Elijah Bond on July 1, 1890,[1] the Ouija board was regarded as a harmless parlor game unrelated to the occult until American Spiritualist Pearl Curran popularized its use as a divining tool during World War I.[2]

Mainstream religions and some occultists have associated use of a Ouija board with the concept of demonic possession, and view the use of the board as a spiritual threat and have cautioned their followers not to use a Ouija board.[3]

Despite being criticized by the scientific community and deemed demonic by Christians, Ouija remains popular among many people.[2]

History[edit]

China[edit]

Wang Chongyang, founder of the Quanzhen School, depicted in Changchun Temple, Wuhan
A modern ouija board plus planchette

One of the first mentions of the automatic writing method used in the Ouija board is found in China around 1100 AD, in historical documents of the Song Dynasty. The method was known as fuji (扶乩), "planchette writing". The use of planchette writing as an ostensible means of contacting the dead and the spirit-world continued, and, albeit under special rituals and supervisions, was a central practice of the Quanzhen School, until it was forbidden by the Qing Dynasty.[4] Several entire scriptures of the Daozang are supposedly works of automatic planchette writing. Similar methods of mediumistic spirit writing have been widely practiced in ancient India, Greece, Rome, and medieval Europe.[5]

Toy[edit]

During the late 19th century, planchettes were widely sold as a novelty. The businessmen Elijah Bond and Charles Kennard had the idea to patent a planchette sold with a board on which the alphabet was printed. The patentees filed on May 28, 1890 for patent protection and thus had invented the first Ouija board. Issue date on the patent was February 10, 1891. They received U.S. Patent 446,054. Bond was an attorney and was an inventor of other objects in addition to this device.

An employee of Kennard, William Fuld took over the talking board production and in 1901, he started production of his own boards under the name "Ouija".[6] Kennard claimed he learned the name "Ouija" from using the board and that it was an ancient Egyptian word meaning "good luck." When Fuld took over production of the boards, he popularized the more widely accepted etymology, that the name came from a combination of the French and German words for "yes".[7]

The Fuld name would become synonymous with the Ouija board, as Fuld reinvented its history, claiming that he himself had invented it. The strange talk about the boards from Fuld's competitors flooded the market, and all these boards enjoyed a heyday from the 1920s through the 1960s. Fuld sued many companies over the "Ouija" name and concept right up until his death in 1927. In 1966, Fuld's estate sold the entire business to Parker Brothers, which was sold to Hasbro in 1991, and which continues to hold all trademarks and patents. About ten brands of talking boards are sold today under various names.[6]

Criticism[edit]

Religious[edit]

Most religious criticism of the Ouija board has come from Christians, primarily evangelicals in the United States. In 2001, Ouija boards were burned in Alamogordo, New Mexico by fundamentalist groups alongside Harry Potter books as "symbols of witchcraft."[8][9][10] Religious criticism has also expressed beliefs that the Ouija board reveals information which should only be on God's hands, and thus it is a tool of Satan.[11] A spokesperson for Human Life International described the boards as a portal to talk to spirits and called for Hasbro to be prohibited from marketing them.[12]

Bishops in Micronesia called for the boards to be banned and warned congregations that they were talking to demons and devils when using the boards.[13]

Popular[edit]

Ouija boards have been criticized in the press since their inception; having been variously described as "'vestigial remains' of primitive belief-systems" and a con to part fools from their money.[14][15] Some journalists have described reports of Ouija board findings as 'half truths' and have suggested that their inclusion in national newspapers lowers the national discourse overall.[16]

Scientific[edit]

The Ouija phenomenon has been criticized by many scientists as a hoax related to the ideomotor response.[17] Various studies have been produced, recreating the effects of the Ouija board in the lab and showing that, under laboratory conditions, the subjects were moving the planchette involuntarily.[17][18] Skeptics have described Ouija board users as 'operators'.[19] Some critics noted that the messages ostensibly spelled out by spirits were similar to whatever was going through the minds of the subjects.[20] According to Professor of neurology Terence Hines in his book Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2003):

The planchette is guided by unconscious muscular exertions like those responsible for table movement. Nonetheless, in both cases, the illusion that the object (table or planchette) is moving under its own control is often extremely powerful and sufficient to convince many people that spirits are truly at work... The unconscious muscle movements responsible for the moving tables and Ouija board phenomena seen at seances are examples of a class of phenomena due to what psychologists call a dissociative state. A dissociative state is one in which consciousness is somehow divided or cut off from some aspects of the individual’s normal cognitive, motor, or sensory functions.[21]

In the 1970s Ouija board users were also described as "cult members" by sociologists, though this was severely scrutinised in the field.[22]

Use in creation of literature[edit]

Ouija boards have been the source of inspiration for literary works, used as guidance in writing, or as a form of channeling literary works. As a result of Ouija boards becoming popular in the early 20th century, by the 1920s many "psychic" books were written of varying quality often initiated by Ouija board use.[23]

Emily Grant Hutchings claimed that her 1917 novel Jap Herron: A Novel Written from the Ouija Board was dictated by Mark Twain's spirit through the use of a Ouija board after his death.[24]

Poems and novels written by Patience Worth, an alleged spirit, contacted by Pearl Lenore Curran, for more than 20 years, were initially transcribed from sessions with a Ouija board.

In 1982, poet James Merrill released an apocalyptic 560-page epic poem entitled The Changing Light at Sandover, which documented two decades of messages dictated from the Ouija board during séances hosted by Merrill and his partner David Noyes Jackson. Sandover, which received the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1983,[25] was published in three volumes beginning in 1976. The first contained a poem for each of the letters A through Z, and was called The Book of Ephraim. It appeared in the collection Divine Comedies, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1977.[26] According to Merrill, the spirits ordered him to write and publish the next two installments, Mirabell: Books of Number in 1978 (which won the National Book Award for Poetry)[27] and Scripts for the Pageant in 1980.

Notable users[edit]

Much of William Butler Yeats' later poetry was inspired, among other facets of occultism, by the Ouija board. Yeats himself did not use it but his wife did.[28]

G. K. Chesterton used a Ouija board in his teenage years. Around 1893 he had gone through a crisis of scepticism and depression, and during this period Chesterton experimented with the Ouija board and grew fascinated with the occult.[29]

Poet James Merrill used a Ouija board for years and even encouraged entrance of spirits into his body. Before he died, he recommended that people must not use Ouija boards.[30]

Former Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi claimed under oath that, in a séance held in 1978 with other professors at the University of Bologna, the "ghost" of Giorgio La Pira used a Ouija to spell the name of the street where Aldo Moro was being held by the Red Brigades. According to Peter Popham of The Independent: "Everybody here has long believed that Prodi's Ouija board tale was no more than an ill-advised and bizarre way to conceal the identity of his true source, probably a person from Bologna's seething far-left underground whom he was pledged to protect."[31]

In London in 1994, convicted murderer Stephen Young was granted a retrial after it was learned that four of the jurors had conducted a Ouija board seance and had "contacted" the murdered man, who had named Young as his killer.[32] Young was convicted for a second time at his retrial and jailed for life.[33][34][35]

Bill Wilson, the co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, used a Ouija board and conducted seances in attempts to contact the dead.[36]

On the July 25, 2007 edition of the paranormal radio show Coast to Coast AM, host George Noory attempted to carry out a live Ouija board experiment on national radio despite the objections of one of his guests. After recounting a near-death experience in 2000 and noting bizarre events taking place, Noory canceled the experiment.[37]

Dick Brooks of the Houdini Museum in Scranton, Pennsylvania, uses a Ouija board as part of a paranormal and seance presentation.[38]

The Mars Volta wrote their album Bedlam in Goliath based on their alleged experiences with a Ouija board. According to their story (written for them by a fiction author, Jeremy Robert Johnson), Omar Rodriguez Lopez purchased one while traveling in Jerusalem. At first the board provided a story which became the theme for the album. Strange events allegedly related to this activity occurred during the recording of the album: the studio flooded, one of the album's main engineers had a nervous breakdown, equipment began to malfunction, and Cedric Bixler-Zavala's foot was injured. Following these bad experiences the band buried the Ouija board.[39]

Early press releases stated that Vincent Furnier's stage and band name "Alice Cooper" was agreed upon after a session with a Ouija board, during which it was revealed that Furnier was the reincarnation of a 17th-century witch with that name. Alice Cooper later revealed that he just thought of the first name that came to his head while discussing a new band name with his band.[40]

In the murder trial of Joshua Tucker, his mother insisted that he had carried out the murders while possessed by the Devil who found him when he was using a Ouija board.[41][42]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "US Trademark Registration Number 0519636 under First Use In Commerce". Tess2.uspto.gov. 
  2. ^ a b Brunvand, Jan Harold (1998). American folklore: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8153-3350-0. 
  3. ^ Raising the devil: Satanism, new religions, and the media. University Press of Kentucky. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  4. ^ Silvers, Brock. The Taoist Manual (Honolulu: Sacred Mountain Press, 2005), p. 129–132.
  5. ^ Chao Wei-pang. 1942. "The origin and Growth of the Fu Chi", Folklore Studies 1:9–27
  6. ^ a b Orlando, Eugene. "Ancient Ouija Boards: Fact ot Fiction?". Museum of Talking Boards. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  7. ^ Cornelius, J. E. Aleister Crowley and the Ouija Board, pp. 20–21. Feral House, 2005.
  8. ^ Ishizuka, Kathy (February 2002). "Harry Potter book burning draws fire". School Library Journal (New York) 48 (2): 27. 
  9. ^ "Book banning spans the globe;". Houston Chronicle. October 3, 2002. 
  10. ^ Lauren LaRocca (July 13, 2007). "The Potter phenomenon". Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. 
  11. ^ Page McKean Zyromski (October 2006). "Facts for Teaching about Halloween". Catechist. 
  12. ^ "Pink Ouija Board Declared "A Dangerous Spiritual Game," Possibly Destroying Our Children [The Craft]". Jezebel. February 7, 2010. 
  13. ^ Dernbach, Katherine Boris (Spring 2005). "SPIRITS OF THE HEREAFTER: DEATH, FUNERARY POSSESSION, AND THE AFTERLIFE IN CHUUK, MICRONESIA1". Ethnology (Pittsburgh) 44 (2): 99. doi:10.2307/3773992. 
  14. ^ "Everything You Wanted To Know". The Statesman. October 11, 2009. 
  15. ^ Howerth, I. W. (Aug 1927). "Science and Religion". The Scientific Monthly (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 25 (2): 151. JSTOR 7828. 
  16. ^ Lloyd, Alfred H. (Sep 1921). "Newspaper Conscience--A Study in Half-Truths". The American Journal of Sociology (The University of Chicago Press) 27 (2): 198–205. doi:10.1086/213304. JSTOR 2764824. 
  17. ^ a b Burgess, Cheryl A; Irving Kirsch, Howard Shane, Kristen L. Niederauer, Steven M. Graham and Alyson Bacon. "Facilitated Communication as an Ideomotor Response". Psychological Science (Blackwell Publishing) 9 (1): 71. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00013. JSTOR 40063250. 
  18. ^ Hattie Brown Garrow (December 1, 2008). "Suffolk's Lakeland High teens find their own answers". McClatchy – Tribune Business News. 
  19. ^ Brian Dickerson (February 6, 2008). "Detroit Free Press Brian Dickerson column: Crying rape through a Ouija board". McClatchy – Tribune Business News. 
  20. ^ Tucker, Milo Asem (Apr 1897). "Comparative Observations on the Involuntary Movements of Adults and Children". The American Journal of Psychology (University of Illinois Press) 8 (3): 402. JSTOR 1411486. 
  21. ^ Hines, Terence. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 47
  22. ^ Robbins, Thomas; Dick Anthony (1979). "The Sociology of Contemporary Religious Movements". Annual Review of Sociology (Annual Reviews) 5: 81–7. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.05.080179.000451. JSTOR 2945948. 
  23. ^ White, Stewart Edward (March 1943). The Betty Book. USA: E. P. Dutton & CO., Inc. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-89804-151-1. 
  24. ^ "Book Review - Jap Herron". Twainquotes.com. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 
  25. ^ "All Past National Book Critics Circle Awards Winners and Finalists". National Book Critics Circle. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  26. ^ "Past winners & finalists by category". The Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  27. ^ "National Book Awards – 1979". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  28. ^ http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/71477
  29. ^ G.K. Chesterton. Autobiography, p. 77ff. 1936 (Ignatius Press, 2006). ISBN 1586170716
  30. ^ Ouija: The Most Dangerous Game, Stoker Hunt, Chapter 6, pages 44–50.
  31. ^ Popham, Peter (2005-12-02). "The seance that came back to haunt Romano Prodi". The Independent. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  32. ^ Mills, Heather (25 October 1994). "Retrial order in 'Ouija case'". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 
  33. ^ Spencer, J.R., "Seances, and the Secrecy of the Jury–Room", The Cambridge Law Journal, Vol.54, No.3, (November 1995), pp.519–522.
  34. ^ "Jury deliberations may be studied". BBC News. 2005-01-22. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 
  35. ^ "'Ouija board' appeal dismissed". BBC News. 7 December 2004. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  36. ^ Matthew J. Raphael (May 2002). Bill W. and Mr. Wilson: The Legend and Life of A. A.'s Cofounder. Univ of Massachusetts Press. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-1-55849-360-5. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  37. ^ "Wednesday July 25th, 2007 Coast to Coast AM Show Summary". Coasttocoastam.com. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  38. ^ psychictheater.com
  39. ^ The Bedlam in Goliath Offers Weird Ouija Tale of The Mars Volta[dead link]
  40. ^ The Rock Radio: Alice Cooper Biography[dead link]
  41. ^ Paula Horton (March 15, 2008). "Teen gets 41 years in Benton City slayings". McClatchy – Tribune Business News. 
  42. ^ Paula Horton (January 26, 2008). "Mom says son influenced by Satan on day of Benton City slayings". McClatchy – Tribune Business News. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Information on talking boards
Skeptics
Trade marks and patents
Other