|History of Vietnam
Âu Lạc (甌雒/甌駱) was the name of the Vietnamese state from 257 BC to 207 BC, succeeding Văn Lang and preceding Nam Việt. The capital was Cổ Loa, located in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district.
The country was created by Thục Phán, who served as its only monarch, ruling under the royal title of An Dương Vương and creating the Thục dynasty by uniting the mountainous Âu Việt region (comprising what is today northernmost Vietnam and parts of southern China) with the more southerly Lạc Việt (located in the Red River Delta of what is today northern Vietnam). According to old Vietnamese historical records Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục ("欽定越史通鑑綱目"), An Dương Vương (Thục Phán) was a prince of the Chinese state of Shu (蜀, which shares the same Chinese character as his surname Thục), sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin dynasty. Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the Âu Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). After assembling an army, he defeated King Hùng Vương XVIII, the last ruler of the Hồng Bàng dynasty, around 257 BC. He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương ("King An Dương"). He then renamed Văn Lang as Âu Lạc, combining the names of the conquering and conquered peoples, and established a new fortress and capital at Co Loa on a rise overlooking the Red River about 16 km (10 mi) northeast of central Hanoi. Around 180 to 179 BC, Âu Lạc was conquered by Nam Việt, a kingdom that had its capital city, Panyu, around modern Guangzhou. Nam Việt rule lasted until 111 BC. In Vietnamese history, the rule of the Nam Việt kings is referred to as the Triệu dynasty.
- Philip Quang Phan, Vietnamese-American engineers: An examination of the leadership ... - Page 26 University of Phoenix - 2009 "The first written records of Vietnamese in leadership date back to 258 BC, with Thục Phán as King An Dương Vương of the kingdom Âu Lạc (Nguyễn, 1999). Throughout history, Asians in leadership positions was related to the following ..."
- Understanding Vietnam - Page 7 Neil L. Jamieson - 1995 The Dragon Lord of the Lac served as protector of the kingdom under the Hung kings, as the Golden Turtle spirit guarded the realm of Au Lac. As these potent leaders and other major cultural heroes joined the spirit world after death, they too ...
- Patricia M. Pelley - Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past - Page 213 2002 "To bring Hanoi's singular status into sharper focus, Nguyễn Lương Bích discusses the previous capitals, beginning with Phong Châu, the capital of the prehistoric Hùng kings, and Cổ Loa, the capital of An Dương Vương."
- Ray, Nick et al. (2010), "Co Loa Citadel", Vietnam, Lonely Planet, p. 123, ISBN 9781742203898
- Keith Weller Taylor -The Birth of Vietnam Page 20 1991 " however, his unusual cleverness enabled him to retain his father's throne. As Nam Cuong grew in strength, Van-lang became weak; subsequently, Thuc Phan conquered Van-lang and founded the kingdom of Au Lac. That the Thuc family was .....
- Taylor (1983), p. 19
- Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1 (1990), p. 36
- Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Contributor: Far-Eastern Prehistory Association Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1. (1990) University Press of Hawaii. Retrieved 7 August 2013.