Out-of-core or external memory algorithms are algorithms that are designed to process data that is too large to fit into a computer's main memory at one time. Such algorithms must be optimized to efficiently fetch and access data stored in slow bulk memory such as hard drives or tape drives.
This notion naturally extends to a network connecting a data server to a treatment or visualization workstation. Popular mass-of-data based web applications such as google-Map or google-Earth enter this topic.
It also extends to GPU computing - utilizing powerful graphics cards with little memory (compared to CPU memory) and slow CPU-GPU memory transfer (compared to computation bandwidth).
- Vitter, JS (2001). "External Memory Algorithms and Data Structures: Dealing with MASSIVE DATA.". ACM Computing Surveys 33 (2): 209–271.
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