Out-of-core or External memory algorithms are algorithms that are designed to process data that is too large to fit into a computer's main memory at one time. Such algorithms must be optimized to efficiently fetch and access data stored in slow bulk memory such as hard drive or tape drives.
- Vitter, JS (2001). "External Memory Algorithms and Data Structures: Dealing with MASSIVE DATA.". ACM Computing Surveys 33 (2): 209–271.
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