Outline of C++

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to C++:

C++statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.[1] It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs as an enhancement to the C language.

What type of thing is C++?[edit]

C++ can be described as all of the following:

  • Programming language — artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.
    • Compiled language — programming language implemented through compilers (translators which generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no translation takes place).
    • General-purpose programming language — programming language designed to be used for writing software in a wide variety of application domains.
    • Intermediate language — language of an abstract machine designed to aid in the analysis of computer programs. The term comes from their use in compilers, where a compiler first translates the source code of a program into a form more suitable for code-improving transformations, as an intermediate step before generating object or machine code for a target machine.
    • Object-oriented programming language
    • Statically typed programming language

General C++ concepts[edit]

Issues[edit]

C++ Toolchain[edit]

C++ compilers[edit]

Main article: List of C++ compilers

C++ libraries[edit]

C++ Standard Library[edit]

Main article: C++ Standard Library

The C++ standard library is a collection of utilities that are shipped with C++ for use by any C++ programmer. It includes input and output, multi-threading, time, regular expressions, algorithms for common tasks, and less common ones (find, for_each, swap, etc.) and lists, maps and hash maps (and the equivalent for sets) and a class called vector that is a resizeable array. Many other functions are provided by the standard library, but mainly in a form designed for building on top of to create third party libraries.

Other libraries[edit]

See also[edit]

History of C++[edit]

Main article: C++ § History
  • History of C++
  • Programming languages that influenced C++
  • Standardisation History
    • C++98 — In 1998, the C++ standards committee standardized C++ and published the international standard ISO/IEC 14882:1998 (informally known as C++98).
    • C++03
    • C++11 — name of the most recent iteration of C++, approved by ISO as of 12 August 2011, replacing C++03.[3] The name is derived from the tradition of naming language versions by the year of the specification's publication.

Example source code[edit]

C++ publications[edit]

Books about C++[edit]

Magazines about C++[edit]

  • C++ Report — was a bi-monthly professional computer magazine published by SIGS Publications Group.

C++ personalities[edit]

C++ dialects[edit]

The C++ standardisation committee discourages dialects (with a preference that the problem is solved by new functionality in the standard library, as is done with items like multi-threading for parallel programming), however some dialects have been created, for various reasons (to remove features that are harder to implement, response to a programming trend, etc.):

  • Programming language dialect — (relatively small) variation or extension of the language that does not change its intrinsic nature.
    • Charm++ — parallel object-oriented programming language based on C++ and developed in the Parallel Programming Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Charm++ is designed with the goal of enhancing programmer productivity by providing a high-level abstraction of a parallel program while at the same time delivering good performance on a wide variety of underlying hardware platforms.
    • Embedded C++ — dialect of C++ for embedded systems, built "to provide embedded systems programmers with a subset of C++ that is easy for the average C programmer to understand and use".[4]
      • Embedded system — computer system designed for specific control functions for a facility, machine, or device in which it is embedded as an integrated part of the product. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.
  • Felix — open source programming language which provides an ML-style type system with a syntax that C++ programmers should find easy to learn. It generates C++ and supports both use of C++ types as primitives, as well as embedding in existing C++ written architectures in a natural manner.
  • R++ — rule-based programming language developed by Bell Labs in the 1990s, based on C++.
  • Sieve C++ Parallel Programming System — C++ compiler and parallel runtime designed and released by Codeplay that aims to simplify the parallelization of code so that it may run efficiently on multi-processor or multi-core systems.
  • ΜC++

C++ language extensions[edit]

  • AspectC++ — aspect-oriented extension of C and C++ languages.
  • C++/CLI — Microsoft's language specification intended to supersede Managed Extensions for C++. It is a complete revision that aims to simplify the older Managed C++ syntax (which is now deprecated). C++/CLI is standardized by Ecma as ECMA-372. It is currently available only in Visual Studio 2005, 2008, 2010 and 11 beta (also included in the Express Editions).
    • Common Language Infrastructure — open specification developed by Microsoft and standardized by ISO and ECMA that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft .NET Framework and the free and open source implementations Mono and Portable.NET.
  • C++/CX — language extension for C++ compilers from Microsoft that enables C++ programmers to write programs for the new Windows Runtime platform, or WinRT. It brings a set of syntax and library abstractions that interface with the COM-based WinRT programming model in a way that is natural to native C++-programmers.
  • Cilk Plusmultithreaded parallel computing extension of C and C++ languages.
  • Managed Extensions for C++ — deprecated Microsoft set of deviations from C++, including grammatical and syntactic extensions, keywords and attributes, to bring the C++ syntax and language to the .NET Framework. These extensions allowed C++ code to be targeted to the Common Language Runtime (CLR) in the form of managed code as well as continue to interoperate with native code. Superseded by C++/CLI.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://stroustrup.com/hopl-almost-final.pdf
  2. ^ Stroustrup, Bjarne (1997). "1". The C++ Programming Language (Third ed.). ISBN 0201889544. OCLC 59193992. 
  3. ^ "We have an international standard: C++0x is unanimously approved". Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  4. ^ EC++ Questions and Answers

External links[edit]