Outline of Singapore

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The location of Singapore
An enlargeable relief map of the Republic of Singapore, published in 1994

The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide to Singapore:

The Republic of Singapore is a sovereign republic comprising the main island of Singapore and smaller outlying islands which are located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia.[1] Singapore lies 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. Singapore is one of three remaining true city-states in the world. It is the second smallest nation in Asia.

Prior to European settlement, the island now known as Singapore was the site of a Malay fishing village at the mouth of the Singapore River. Several hundred indigenous Orang Laut people also lived along the nearby coast, rivers and on smaller islands. In 1819 the British East India Company established a trading post on the island, which was used thereafter as a strategic trading post along the spice route.[2] Singapore would become one of the most important commercial and military centres of the British Empire, and the hub of British power in Southeast Asia. The city was occupied by the Japanese during World War II, which Winston Churchill called "Britain's greatest defeat".[3] Singapore reverted to British rule immediately postwar, in 1945. Eighteen years later the city, having achieved independence from Britain, merged with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. However, less than two years later it seceded from the federation and became an independent republic on 9 August 1965. Singapore joined the United Nations on 21 September that same year.

Since independence, Singapore's standard of living has been on the rise. Foreign direct investment and a state-led drive to industrialization based on plans drawn up by the Dutch economist Albert Winsemius have created a modern economy focused on electronics manufacturing, petrochemicals, tourism and financial services alongside traditional entrepôt trade. Singapore is the 6th wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.[4] The small nation has foreign exchange reserves of US$171.7353 billion.[5]

The population of Singapore is approximately 4.59 million.[6] Though Singapore is highly cosmopolitan and diverse, ethnic Chinese form the majority of the population. English is the administrative language of the country.

The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore established the nation's political system as a representative democracy, while the country is recognized as a parliamentary republic.[1] The People's Action Party (PAP) dominates the political process and has won control of Parliament in every election since self-government in 1959.[7]

General reference[edit]

An enlargeable basic map of Singapore, published in 2003

Geography of Singapore[edit]

Singapore is an island south of Malaysia surrounded by some smaller islands as can be seen in this satellite image.

Environment of Singapore[edit]

An enlargeable satellite image of Singapore

Natural geographic features of Singapore[edit]

Sunset at Lower Peirce Reservoir, photographed on 25 December 2005

Regions of Singapore[edit]

Urban planning areas, an example of subdivisions in Singapore

Administrative divisions of Singapore[edit]


Demography of Singapore[edit]

Population structure[edit]

The religions of Singapore by ethnic group in 2000
  • Population (end June 2009): 4,987,600[11][12][13]
    • Resident population: 3,733,900 (74.9%).
    • Non-resident population: 1,253,700 (25.1%)
  • Population density (2008): 6,814 per km2[11][13]
  • Sex ratio of residents (end June 2009): 976 males per 1,000 females[11][12]
  • Median age of residents (2008): 36.7 years[11]
  • Age composition of residents (2009): 0–14 years – 17.9%, 15–64 years – 73.3%, 65 years and above – 8.8%[11]
  • Ethnic composition of residents (June 2009): Chinese – 2,770,300 (74.2%), Malays – 500,100 (13.4%), Indians – 343,500 (9.2%), others – 120,000 (3.2%)[12][14]
  • Proportion single among residents aged 35–39 years (2008): men – 19.4%, women – 15.2%[11]
  • Average resident household size (2008): 3.5 people[11]

Family formation and dissolution[edit]

The demographic of Singapore until 2005, Number of inhabitants in thousands. (Data:FAO
  • Total marriages (2008): 24,596[11][12]
    • Median age at first marriage (2008): men – 29.8 years, women – 27.3 years
  • Total divorces and annulments (2008): 7,220[11][12]

Fertility rate[edit]


Government and politics of Singapore[edit]

Parliament House, photographed on 18 October 2002

Branches of the government of Singapore[edit]

Main article: Politics of Singapore

Executive branch of the government of Singapore[edit]

Legislative branch of the government of Singapore[edit]

Judicial branch of the government of Singapore[edit]

Foreign relations of Singapore[edit]

International organization membership[edit]

The Republic of Singapore is a member of the:[1]

Law and order in Singapore[edit]

Copies of the Singapore Law Reports at the Library of the Supreme Court of Singapore
Main article: Law of Singapore

Military of Singapore[edit]

Main article: Military of Singapore

History of Singapore[edit]

1888 German map of Singapore
Main article: History of Singapore, Timeline of Singaporean history

Culture of Singapore[edit]

Main article: Culture of Singapore
A sign written in Singapore's four official languages
A statue of the Merlion

Religion in Singapore[edit]

Main article: Religion in Singapore

Art in Singapore[edit]

The Esplanade, a performing arts centre

Sports in Singapore[edit]

Main article: Sports in Singapore

Economy and infrastructure of Singapore[edit]

Main article: Economy of Singapore

Transport in Singapore[edit]

The logo of the Public Transport System

Road Transport in Singapore[edit]

A public bus in Singapore

Aviation in Singapore[edit]

A Singapore Airlines Airbus A380 at Singapore Changi Airport
Main article: Aviation in Singapore

Rail transport in Singapore[edit]

A diagram of the physical spread of the MRT and LRT network across the island (includes lines under construction).
Monorails in Singapore[edit]
Light Rapid Transit[edit]
Mass Rapid Transit[edit]
A Mass Rapid Transit train

Transport operators of Singapore[edit]

A Comfort-DelGro owned taxi in Singapore.

Transport disasters in Singapore[edit]

Education in Singapore[edit]

Students in Singapore

See also[edit]

Main article: Singapore


  1. ^ a b c "Singapore". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009. 
  2. ^ "Flavours of Singapore". Uniquely Singapore. Singapore Tourism Board. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  3. ^ "The 30 Greatest Battles of World War II". 
  4. ^ "List of GDP per capita by country". International Monetary Fund.  Singapore is 44th (as on 2006).
  5. ^ "Official Foreign Reserves". Statistics Singapore. Monetary Authority of Singapore. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  6. ^ "Population — latest data". Singapore Department of Statistics Singapore. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  7. ^ "Country Report: Singapore". Freedom House. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  8. ^ Victoria Vaughan (21 July 2009), "S'pore group head to China for rare glimpse", The Straits Times .
  9. ^ a b c Ho Juay Choy; Dickson Yeo (2008), Singapore Country Report – A Regional Review on the Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia. Report Submitted for RETA 6427: A Regional Review of the Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia, Manila: Asian Development Bank ; Amresh Gunasingham (16 July 2009), "Less rain over last 30 years: Experts cite climate change and rapid industrialisation to explain fluctuating rainfall", The Straits Times (Home): B1 .
  10. ^ a b Amresh Gunasingham (11 March 2010), "Showers bring cool relief: Dry spell may be over as air quality improves after two straight days of rain", The Straits Times (Home): B2 .
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Population Trends 2009 (PDF), Singapore Department of Statistics, September 2009, retrieved 29 September 2009 .
  12. ^ a b c d e Zakir Hussain (29 September 2009), "Population rises but at slower pace", The Straits Times: A1, A6 .
  13. ^ a b Esther Ng (29 September 2009), "Foreign population growth slows down", Today, archived from the original on 28 September 2009 .
  14. ^ "Singaporeans by Age Group, Ethnic Group and Sex, June 2009 [table A1]" (PDF), Singapore Department of Statistics, September 2009, retrieved 29 September 2009 .
  15. ^ Radha Basu (15 August 2009), "Baby bonus has had little impact so far: One positive trend is the rise in the number of first-time parents", The Straits Times: A1 . To replace itself, a population requires a TFR of 2.1 or higher.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Atlas of Singapore

General Information