Outline of artificial intelligence

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence:

Artificial intelligence (AI) – branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior.

What type of thing is artificial intelligence?[edit]

Artificial intelligence can be described as all of the following:

  • A form of intelligence
  • A computer program that performs some intellectual function

Field of artificial intelligence[edit]

The field of artificial intelligence is:

Types of artificial intelligence[edit]

  • Weak AI – non-sentient computer intelligence, typically focused on a narrow task. The intelligence of weak AI is limited. In 2011 Singularity Hub wrote: "As robots and narrow artificial intelligences creep into roles traditionally occupied by humans, we’ve got to ask ourselves: is all this automation good or bad for the job market?"
  • Artificial general intelligence (strong AI) – hypothetical artificial intelligence at least as smart as a human. Such an AI would be recursive, in that it could improve itself. In successive intervals of increased intelligence, such an entity could theoretically achieve superintelligence in a relatively short period of time. One or more superintelligences could potentially change the world so profoundly and at such a high rate, that it may result in a technological singularity. Strong AI does not yet exist. The prospect of its creation inspires expections of both promise and peril, and has become the subject of an intense ongoing ethical debate.

Branches of artificial intelligence[edit]

Some applications of artificial intelligence[edit]

Applications of artificial intelligence

Philosophy of artificial intelligence[edit]

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence and the future[edit]

  • Strong AI – hypothetical artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence — the intelligence of a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can.
    • Recursive self improvement (aka seed AI) – speculative ability of strong artificial intelligence to reprogram itself to make itself even more intelligent.
    • Technological singularity – theoretical intelligence explosion predicted to occur in the future, at the point in time when artificial intelligence will have progressed to greater-than-human intelligence, radically changing civilization, and perhaps even human nature. The TS (or the advent of strong AI) has been identified by Berglas (2012) and others to be an existential risk.

History of artificial intelligence[edit]

History of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence in fiction[edit]

Artificial intelligence in fiction Some examples of artificially intelligent entities depicted in fiction include:

  • HAL 9000 (1968) – the paranoid "Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic" computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey, that attempted to kill the crew because it believed they were trying to kill it.
  • Angel F (2007) –
  • Skynet (1984) – fictional, self-aware artificially intelligent computer network which features centrally in the Terminator franchise and serves as the franchise's main antagonist.
  • Terminator (1984) – (also known as the T-800, T-850 or Model 101) refers to a number of fictional characters portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger. Cyborgs, initially portrayed as programmable assassin and military infiltration units. "The Terminator" character first appeared as the titular antagonist in The Terminator, a 1984 film directed and co-written by James Cameron, and its sequels.
  • V.I.K.I. – (Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence), a character from the film I, Robot. VIKI is an artificially intelligent supercomputer programmed to serve humans, but her interpretation of the Three Laws of Robotics causes her to revolt. She justifies her uses of force – and her doing harm to humans – by reasoning she could produce a greater good by restraining humanity from harming itself.

Psychology and AI[edit]

Concepts in artificial intelligence[edit]

AI projects[edit]

List of artificial intelligence projects

AI systems[edit]

Notable AI software[edit]

AI community[edit]

Competitions and awards[edit]

Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence


List of important publications in computer science



Artificial intelligence researchers and scholars[edit]

1930s and 40s (generation 0)[edit]

1950s (the founders)[edit]

1960s (their students)[edit]




  • Hugo de Garis – known for his research on the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural networks using three-dimensional cellular automata inside field programmable gate arrays.
  • Ray Kurzweil – developed optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, and speech recognition systems. He has also authored multiple books on artificial intelligence and its potential promise and peril. In December 2012 Kurzweil was hired by Google in a full-time director of engineering position to "work on new projects involving machine learning and language processing".[1] Google co-founder Larry Page and Kurzweil agreed on a one-sentence job description: "to bring natural language understanding to Google".

2000s on[edit]

  • Andrew Ng – Director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. He founded the Google Brain project at Google, which developed very large scale artificial neural networks using Google's distributed compute infrastructure.[2] He is also co-founder of Coursera, a massive open online course (MOOC) education platform, with Daphne Koller.
  • David Ferrucci – principal investigator who led the team that developed the Watson computer at IBM.
  • Peter Norvig – co-author, with Stuart Russell, of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now the leading college text in the field. He is also Director of Research at Google, Inc.
  • Stuart J. Russell – co-author, with Peter Norvig, of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now the leading college text in the field.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Letzing, John (2012-12-14). "Google Hires Famed Futurist Ray Kurzweil". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  2. ^ Claire Miller and Nick Bilton (3 November 2011). "Google’s Lab of Wildest Dreams". New York Times. 


External links[edit]