Outline of diabetes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:

Diabetes – group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced,[1] a condition called insulin resistance. The resultant high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

What type of thing is diabetes?[edit]

Diabetes can be described as a:

Types of diabetes[edit]

  • Prediabetes – A medical condition where a person has high blood sugar level which cannot be considered normal but all the symptoms to label him diabetic are not found.[2]
  • Main types of diabetes:
    • Diabetes mellitus type 1 – disease that results in autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.[3]
    • Diabetes mellitus type 2 – metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.[4]
      • Disease of affluence – type 2 diabetes is one of the "diseases of affluence", which include mostly chronic non-communicable diseases for which personal lifestyles and societal conditions associated with economic development are believed to be important risk factors.
    • Gestational diabetes – A rare type of diabetes that exclusively occurs in pregnant woman during the gestational period of the fetus. [5]
  • Other types of diabetes:

Signs and symptoms of diabetes[edit]

  • Symptoms of prediabetes – prediabetes typically has no distinct signs or symptoms. Patients should monitor for signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (see below).

Signs and symptoms of Type II diabetes mellitus[edit]

Symptoms of type II diabetes mellitus include:[7]

Related conditions[edit]

Preventing diabetes[edit]

Preventing diabetes mellitus type 1[edit]

Preventing diabetes mellitus type 2[edit]

Preventing diabetes mellitus type 2 – entails a lifestyle with a routine, regime, or self care program that includes the following:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Proper nutrition
  • Regular physical exercise – in addition to maintaining a healthy weight, sufficient vigorous physical exercise increases cells' sensitivity to insulin, and can thus prevent and possibly revert insulin resistance.
  • Medication – specific medications have been shown to be able to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, the disease can often be delayed through proper nutrition and regular exercise.[8]

Treating diabetes[edit]

Low-carbohydrate diet[edit]

Main article: Low-carbohydrate diet

Low-carbohydrate dietary programs[edit]

History of diabetes[edit]

Main article: History of diabetes

Persons influential in relation to diabetes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shoback, edited by David G. Gardner, Dolores (2011). Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 17. ISBN 0-07-162243-8. 
  2. ^ "Definition of prediabetes causes, symptoms and treatment". Diabetes zone. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  3. ^ "Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  4. ^ Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Cotran, Ramzi S. ; Robbins, Stanley L. (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders. pp. 1194–1195. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. 
  5. ^ Gestational diabetes, causes, symptoms and treatment
  6. ^ "Definition of congenital diabetes, causes, symptoms and treatment". Diabetes zone. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  7. ^ Mayo Clinic Diabetes: "Prediabetes". [1]. Accessed Jan. 27, 2009.
  8. ^ Raina Elley C, Kenealy T (December 2008). "Lifestyle interventions reduced the long-term risk of diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance". Evid Based Med 13 (6): 173. doi:10.1136/ebm.13.6.173. PMID 19043031. 
  9. ^ Jamie Oliver's 2010 TED Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/765
  10. ^ Canada's Health Food Guide, Reference Page: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php

External links[edit]