Outline of medicine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to medicine:
- Main article: Medicine
- The practice of medicine
- Medical education
- Medical research
- Cardiology – branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the blood vessels.
- Critical care medicine – focuses on life support and the intensive care of the seriously ill.
- Emergency medicine – focuses on care provided in the emergency department
- Endocrinology – branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the endocrine system.
- Gastroenterology – branch of medicine that deals with the study and care of the digestive system.
- General Practice (often called Family Medicine) is a branch of medicine that specializes in primary care.
- Geriatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of the elderly.
- Hematology – branch of medicine that deals with the blood and the circulatory system.
- Hepatology – branch of medicine that deals with the liver, gallbladder and the biliary system.
- Infectious disease – branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of infectious disease, especially for complex cases and immunocompromised patients.
- Neurology – branch of medicine that deals with the brain and the nervous system.
- Nephrology – branch of medicine which deals with the kidneys.
- Oncology – is the branch of medicine that studies of cancer.
- Ophthalmology – branch of medicine that deals with the eyes.
- Otolaryngology – branch of medicine that deals the ears, nose and throat.
- Pediatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of children.
- Pulmonology – branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system.
- Psychiatry – branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
- Radiology – branch of medicine that employs medical imaging to diagnose and treat disease.
- Rheumatology – branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
- Surgery – branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
- Urology – branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system.
- Numerous other interdisciplinary fields.
- Main article: History of medicine
- Prehistoric medicine
- Ancient Egyptian medicine
- Babylonian medicine
- Ancient Iranian medicine
- Traditional Chinese medicine
- Hebrew medicine
- Greco-Roman medicine
- Islamic medicine
- Medieval medicine
- Anatomy – study of the physical structure of organisms. In contrast to macroscopic or gross anatomy, cytology and histology are concerned with microscopic structures.
- Biochemistry – study of the chemistry taking place in living organisms, especially the structure and function of their chemical components.
- Biostatistics – application of statistics to biological fields in the broadest sense. A knowledge of biostatistics is essential in the planning, evaluation, and interpretation of medical research. It is also fundamental to epidemiology and evidence-based medicine.
- Cytology – microscopic study of individual cells.
- Embryology – study of the early development of organisms.
- Epidemiology – study of the demographics of disease processes, and includes, but is not limited to, the study of epidemics.
- Genetics – study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance.
- Histology – study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
- Immunology – study of the immune system, which includes the innate and adaptive immune system in humans, for example.
- Medical ethics – system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine.
- Microbiology – study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
- Neuroscience includes those disciplines of science that are related to the study of the nervous system. A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord.
- Nutrition – study of the relationship of food and drink to health and disease, especially in determining an optimal diet. Medical nutrition therapy is done by dietitians and is prescribed for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, weight and eating disorders, allergies, malnutrition, and neoplastic diseases.
- Pathology as a science – study of disease–the causes, course, progression and resolution thereof.
- Pharmacology – study of drugs and their actions.
- Physiology – study of the normal functioning of the body and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.
- Psychology – an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.
- Toxicology – study of hazardous effects of drugs and poisons.
- The earliest known physician, Hesyre.
- The first recorded female physician, Peseshet.
- Borsippa, a Babylonian who wrote the Diagnostic Handbook.
- The Iranian chemist, Rhazes.
- Avicenna, the philosopher and physician.
- Greco-Roman medical scholars:
- Abu al-Qasim, an Islamic physician known as the father of modern surgery.
- Medieval European medical scholars:
- Theodoric Borgognoni, one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period, responsible for introducing and promoting important surgical advances including basic antiseptic practice and the use of anaesthetics.
- Guy de Chauliac, considered to be one of the earliest fathers of modern surgery, after the great Islamic surgeon, Abu al-Qasim.
- Realdo Colombo, anatomist and surgeon who contributed to understanding of lesser circulation.
- Michael Servetus, considered to be the first European to discover the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
- Ambroise Paré suggested using ligatures instead of cauterisation and tested the bezoar stone.
- William Harvey describes blood circulation.
- John Hunter, surgeon.
- Amato Lusitano described venous valves and guessed their function.
- Garcia de Orta first to describe Cholera and other tropical diseases and herbal treatments
- Percivall Pott, surgeon.
- Sir Thomas Browne physician and medical neologist.
- Thomas Sydenham physician and so-called "English Hippocrates."
- Kuan Huang, who studied abroad and brought his techniques back to homeland china.
- Ignaz Semmelweis, who studied and decreased the incidence of childbed fever.
- Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch founded bacteriology.
- Alexander Fleming, whose accidental discovery of penicillin advanced the field of antibiotics.
- Wilhelm Röntgen discovered x-rays, earning the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays)," and invented radiography.
- Christiaan Barnard performed the first heart transplant
- Ian Donald pioneered the use of the ultrasound scan, which led to its use as a diagnostic tool.
- Sir Godfrey Hounsfield invented the computed tomography (CT) scanner, sharing the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Allan M. Cormack, "for the development of computer assisted tomography."
- Sir Peter Mansfield invented the MRI scanner, sharing the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Lauterbur for their "discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging."
- Robert Jarvik, inventor of the artificial heart.
- Anthony Atala, creator of the first lab-grown organ, an artificial urinary bladder.
- Lists of health topics
- List of diseases
- List of disorders
- List of medical abbreviations
- List of medical roots
- List of medical schools
- Important publications in medicine
- List of physicians
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- This outline displayed as a mindmap, at wikimindmap.com
- NLM (US National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and health care professionals)