Outline of science

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The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science:

Science – systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired. The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a "scientist". Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures or rules in order to determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but follow them through research policies. These procedures are known as scientific method.

Essence of science[edit]

Main article: Science
  • Research – systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge.
  • Scientific discovery – observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previously acquired knowledge from abstract thought and everyday experiences.
  • Laboratory – facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
  • Objectivity – the idea that scientists, in attempting to uncover truths about the natural world, must aspire to eliminate personal or cognitive biases, a priori commitments, emotional involvement, etc.
  • Inquiry – any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.

Scientific method[edit]

Scientific method – body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning, both deductive and inductive.

  • Empirical method
  • Experimental method – The steps involved in order to produce a reliable and logical conclusion include:
    1. Asking a question about a natural phenomenon
    2. Making observations of the phenomenon
    3. Forming a hypothesis – proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.
    4. Predicting a logical consequence of the hypothesis
    5. Testing the hypothesis through an experiment – methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. The 3 types of scientific experiments are:
      • Controlled experiment – experiment that compares the results obtained from an experimental sample against a control sample, which is practically identical to the experimental sample except for the one aspect the effect of which is being tested (the independent variable).
      • Natural experiment – empirical study in which the experimental conditions (i.e., which units receive which treatment) are determined by nature or by other factors out of the control of the experimenters and yet the treatment assignment process is arguably exogenous. Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment.
        • Observational study – draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator.
      • Field experiment – applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world (or as many experimentalists like to say, naturally occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory. See also field research.
    6. Gather and analyze data from experiments or observations, including indicators of uncertainty.
    7. Draw conclusions by comparing data with predictions. Possible outcomes:
      • Conclusive:
        • The hypothesis is falsified by the data.
        • Data are consistent with the hypothesis.
        • Data are consistent with alternative hypotheses.
      • Inconclusive:
        • Data are not relevant to the hypothesis, or data and predictions are incommensurate.
        • There is too much uncertainty in the data to draw any conclusion.
  • Deductive-nomological model
  • Scientific modelling
  • Models of scientific method
    • Hypothetico-deductive model – proposed description of scientific method. According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. A test that could and does run contrary to predictions of the hypothesis is taken as a falsification of the hypothesis. A test that could but does not run contrary to the hypothesis corroborates the theory.

Branches of science[edit]

Branches of science – divisions within science with respect to the entity or system concerned, which typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature.

Natural sciences[edit]

Physical sciences[edit]

Physics[edit]

Physics – study of matter and its motion through space-time, along with related concepts such as energy and force

  • Acoustics – study of mechanical waves in solids, liquids, and gases (such as vibration and sound)
  • Agrophysics – study of physics applied to agroecosystems
    • Soil physics – study of soil physical properties and processes.
  • Astrophysics – study of the physical aspects of celestial objects

Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).

  • Astrodynamics – application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.
    • Astrometry – branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
    • Cosmology – discipline that deals with the nature of the Universe as a whole.
    • Extragalactic astronomy – branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside our own Milky Way Galaxy
    • Galactic astronomy – study of our own Milky Way galaxy and all its contents.
    • Physical cosmology – study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution.
    • Planetary science – scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems, in particular those of the Solar System and the processes that form them.
    • Stellar astronomy – natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as cosmic background radiation)
    • Atmospheric physics – study of the application of physics to the atmosphere
  • Atomic, molecular, and optical physics – study of how matter and light interact
  • Biophysics – study of physical processes relating to biology
    • Medical physics – application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine.
    • Neurophysics – branch of biophysics dealing with the nervous system.
  • Chemical physics – branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
  • Computational physics – study and implementation of numerical algorithms to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
  • Condensed matter physics – study of the physical properties of condensed phases of matter.
  • Cryogenics – cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures.
  • Dynamics – study of the causes of motion and changes in motion
  • Econophysics – interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics
  • Electromagnetism – branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles.
  • Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods
  • Materials physics – use of physics to describe materials in many different ways such as force, heat, light and mechanics.
  • Mathematical physics – application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories.
  • Mechanics – branch of physics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
    • Biomechanics – study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.
    • Classical mechanics – one of the two major sub-fields of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the action of a system of forces.
    • Continuum mechanics – branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
    • Fluid mechanics – study of fluids and the forces on them.
    • Quantum mechanics – branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order of the Planck constant.
    • Thermodynamics – branch of physical science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work.
  • Nuclear physics – field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei.
  • Optics – branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
  • Particle physics – branch of physics that studies the existence and interactions of particles that are the constituents of what is usually referred to as matter or radiation.
  • Psychophysics – quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect.
  • Plasma physics – state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized.
  • Polymer physics – field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.
  • Quantum physics – branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order of the Planck constant.
  • Relativity
  • Statics – branch of mechanics concerned with the analysis of loads (force, torque/moment) on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at a constant velocity.
  • Solid state physics – study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
  • Vehicle dynamics – dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be ground vehicles.
Chemistry[edit]

Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions

  • Analytical chemistry – study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.
  • Astrochemistry – study of the abundance and reactions of chemical elements and molecules in the universe, and their interaction with radiation.
    • Cosmochemistry – study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions
  • Atmospheric chemistry – branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary field of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines
  • Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes.
    • Agrochemistry – study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation.
    • Bioinorganic chemistry – examines the role of metals in biology.
    • Bioorganic chemistry – rapidly growing scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry.
    • Biophysical chemistry – new branch of chemistry that covers a broad spectrum of research activities involving biological systems.
    • Environmental chemistry – scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
    • Immunochemistry – branch of chemistry that involves the study of the reactions and components on the immune system.
    • Medicinal chemistry – discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs).
    • Pharmacology – branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.
    • Natural product chemistry – chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism - found in nature that usually has a pharmacological or biological activity for use in pharmaceutical drug discovery and drug design.
    • Neurochemistry – specific study of neurochemicals, which include neurotransmitters and other molecules such as neuro-active drugs that influence neuron function.
  • Computational chemistry – branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems.
    • Chemo-informatics – use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry.
    • Molecular mechanics – uses Newtonian mechanics to model molecular systems.
  • Flavor chemistry – someone who uses chemistry to engineer artificial and natural flavors.
  • Flow chemistry – chemical reaction is run in a continuously flowing stream rather than in batch production.
  • Geochemistry – study of the mechanisms behind major geological systems using chemistry
    • Aqueous geochemistry – study of the role of various elements in watersheds, including copper, sulfur, mercury, and how elemental fluxes are exchanged through atmospheric-terrestrial-aquatic interactions
    • Isotope geochemistry – study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes using chemistry and geology
    • Ocean chemistry – studies the chemistry of marine environments including the influences of different variables.
    • Organic geochemistry – study of the impacts and processes that organisms have had on Earth
    • Regional, environmental and exploration geochemistry – study of the spatial variation in the chemical composition of materials at the surface of the Earth
  • Inorganic chemistry – branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds.
  • Nuclear chemistry – subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
    • Radiochemistry – chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).
  • Organic chemistry – study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
    • Petrochemistry – branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.
  • Organometallic chemistry – study of chemical compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal.
  • Photochemistry – study of chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light by atoms or molecules..
  • Physical chemistry – study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts.
    • Chemical kinetics – the study of rates of chemical processes.
    • Chemical thermodynamics – study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
    • Electrochemistry – branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution.
    • Femtochemistry – Femtochemistry is the science that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 10−15 seconds (one femtosecond, hence the name).
    • Mathematical chemistry – area of research engaged in novel applications of mathematics to chemistry; it concerns itself principally with the mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena.
    • Mechanochemistry – coupling of the mechanical and the chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking), tribology, polymer degradation under shear, cavitation-related phenomena (e.g., sonochemistry and sonoluminescence), shock wave chemistry and physics, and even the burgeoning field of molecular machines.
    • Physical organic chemistry – study of the interrelationships between structure and reactivity in organic molecules.
    • Quantum chemistry – branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
    • Sonochemistry – study of the effect of sonic waves and wave properties on chemical systems.
    • Stereochemistry – study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules.
    • Supramolecular chemistry – area of chemistry beyond the molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components.
    • Thermochemistry – study of the energy and heat associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
  • Phytochemistry – strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals.
  • Polymer chemistry – multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules.
  • Solid-state chemistry – study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids
  • Multidisciplinary fields involving chemistry
    • Chemical biology – scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that involves the application of chemical techniques and tools, often compounds produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems.
    • Chemical engineering – branch of engineering that deals with physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.
    • Chemical oceanography – study of the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
    • Chemical physics – branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
    • Materials science – interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering.
    • Nanotechnology – study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale
    • Oenology – science and study of all aspects of wine and winemaking except vine-growing and grape-harvesting, which is a subfield called viticulture.
    • Spectroscopy – study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy
    • Surface science – Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid-gas interfaces.
Earth sciences[edit]

Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth

  • Atmospheric sciences – umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
  • Biogeography – study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
  • Cartography – study and practice of making maps or globes.
  • Climatology – study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time
  • Coastal geography – study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.
  • Geodesy – scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space
  • Geography – science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth
  • Geoinformatics – science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, geosciences and related branches of engineering.
  • Geology – study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
    • Planetary geology – planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
  • Geomorphology – scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them
  • Geostatistics – branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets
  • Geophysics – physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
  • Glaciology – study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
  • Hydrology – study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  • Hydrogeology – area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
  • Mineralogy – study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals.
  • Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events.
  • Oceanography – branch of Earth science that studies the ocean
  • Paleoclimatology – study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth
  • Paleontology – study of prehistoric life
  • Petrology – branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.
  • Limnology – study of inland waters
  • Seismology – scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies
  • Soil science – study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
  • Topography – study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
  • Volcanology – study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
Environmental sciences[edit]
  • Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
    • Freshwater biology – scientific biological study of freshwater ecosystems and is a branch of Limnology
    • Marine biology – scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water
    • Parasitology – Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
    • Population dynamics – Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies short-term and long-term changes in the size and age composition of populations, and the biological and environmental processes influencing those changes.
  • Environmental chemistry – Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
  • Environmental soil science – Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
  • Environmental geology – Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems.
  • Toxicology – branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

Life sciences[edit]

Biology – study of living organisms.

  • Aerobiology – study of airborne organic particles
  • Agriculture – study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy – study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
    • Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
  • Astrobiology – study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe—also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy
  • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Bioengineering – study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
  • Biogeography – study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
  • Bioinformatics – use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
  • Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology – quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
  • Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics
  • Biomedical research – study of the human body in health and disease
  • Biophysics – study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology – new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
  • Building biology – study of the indoor living environment
  • Botany – study of plants
  • Cell biology – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Conservation Biology – study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
  • Chronobiology – field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
  • Cryobiology – study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings.
  • Developmental biology – study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
    • Embryology – study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth). See also topobiology.
    • Gerontology – study of aging processes.
  • Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Environmental Biology – study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
  • Epidemiology – major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
  • Evolution – any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations.
    • Evolutionary Biology – study of the origin and descent of species over time
      • Evolutionary developmental biology – field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved.
    • Paleobiology – discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
      • Paleontology – study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
  • Genetics – study of genes and heredity
    • Genomics – discipline in genetics concerned with the study of the genomes of organisms.
    • Proteomics – large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions
    • Population genetics – study of changes in gene frequencies in
  • Histology – study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
  • Integrative biology – study of whole organisms
  • Limnology – study of inland waters
  • Marine Biology – study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
  • Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
    • Bacteriology – study of bacteria.
    • Virology – study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
  • Molecular Biology – study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Morphology – In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
  • Mycology – study of fungi
  • Oceanography – study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean
  • Oncology – study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings
  • Population biology – study of groups of conspecific organisms, including
  • Pathobiology or pathology – study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
  • Parasitology – study of parasites and parasitism
  • Pharmacology – study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
  • Physiology – study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
    • Immunology – following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology:
    • Kinesiology – Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement
    • Neurobiology – study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology
      • Neuroscience – interdisciplinary science that studies the nervous system
    • Histology
  • Phytopathology – study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Psychobiology – study of the biological bases of psychology
  • Sociobiology – study of the biological bases of sociology
  • Systematics – study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time
    • Cladistics – method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades, which consist of an ancestor organism and all its descendants (and nothing else)
    • Phylogeny – study of evolutionary relation among groups of organisms (e.g. species, populations), which is discovered through molecular sequencing data and morphological data matrices
    • Taxonomy – science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification.
  • Zoology – study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior
    • Arachnology – scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
      • Acarology – study of the taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks
    • Entomology – study of insects
      • Myrmecology – scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology
      • Coleopterology – study of beetles
      • Lepidopterology – study of a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (called lepidopterans)
    • Ethology – study of animal behavior
    • Helminthology – study of worms, especially parasitic worms
    • Herpetology – study of reptiles and amphibians
    • Ichthyology – study of fish
    • Malacology – branch of invertebrate zoology which deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
    • Mammalogy – study of mammals
      • Cetology – branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea.
      • Physical anthropology – studies the physical development of the human species.
    • Nematology – scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms
    • Ornithology – study of birds

Formal sciences[edit]

Formal science – branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as: logic, mathematics, theoretical computer science, information theory, Game theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics. Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules.

Computer sciences[edit]

Computer science – study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.

  • Theory of computation – branch that deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm
    • Automata theory – study of mathematical objects called abstract machines or automata and the computational problems that can be solved using them.
    • Computability theory – branch of mathematical logic and computer science that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
    • Computational complexity theory – branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science and mathematics that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other
    • Concurrency theory – In computer science, concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other
  • Algorithms – step-by-step procedure for calculations
    • Randomized algorithms – algorithm which employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.
    • Distributed algorithms – algorithm designed to run on computer hardware constructed from interconnected processors
    • Parallel algorithms – algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then put back together again at the end to get the correct result.
  • Data structures – particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently.
  • Computer architecture – In computer science and engineering, computer architecture is the practical art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals and the formal modeling of those systems.
    • VLSI design – process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip
  • Operating systems – set of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs
  • Computer communications (networks) – collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information
    • Information theory – branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information
    • Internet – global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide.
      • World wide web – part of the Internet; system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.
    • Wireless computing – any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind.
      • Mobile computing – form of human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage.
  • Computer security – branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and networks.
    • reliability – system design approach and associated service implementation that ensures a prearranged level of operational performance will be met during a contractual measurement period.
    • Cryptography – practice and study of hiding information.
    • Fault-tolerant computing – property that enables a system (often computer-based) to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components
  • Distributed computing – field of computer science that studies distributed systems
    • Grid computing – federation of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal
  • Parallel computing – form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved concurrently ("in parallel").
  • Quantum computing – device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data
  • Computer graphics – graphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware.
    • Image processing – any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image
    • Scientific visualization – interdisciplinary branch of science according to Friendly (2008) "primarily concerned with the visualization of three-dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".
    • Computational geometry – branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry
  • Software engineering – application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software
    • Formal methods – particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems
      • Formal verification – act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics
  • Programming languages – artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer
    • Programming paradigms – fundamental style of computer programming
      • Object-oriented programming – programming paradigm using "objects" – data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions – to design applications and computer programs
      • Functional programming – programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data
    • Program semantics – field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages
    • Type theory – any of several formal systems that can serve as alternatives to naive set theory, or the study of such formalisms in general
    • Compilers – computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code)
    • Concurrent programming languages – form of computing in which programs are designed as collections of interacting computational processes that may be executed in parallel
  • Information science – interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information
    • Database – organized collection of data, today typically in digital form
      • Relational database – collection of data items organized as a set of formally described tables from which data can be accessed easily
      • Distributed database – database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU.
      • Object database – database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming
    • Multimedia – media and content that uses a combination of different content forms.
    • hypermedia – computer-based information retrieval system that enables a user to gain or provide access to texts, audio and video recordings, photographs and computer graphics related to a particular subject.
    • Data mining – process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large data sets
    • Information retrieval – area of study concerned with searching for documents, for information within documents, and for metadata about documents, as well as that of searching structured storage, relational databases, and the World Wide Web.
  • Artificial intelligence – branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines.
    • Automated reasoning – area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understand different aspects of reasoning.
    • Computer vision – field that includes methods for acquiring, processing, analysing, and understanding images and, in general, high-dimensional data from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, e.g., in the forms of decisions.
    • Machine learning – scientific discipline concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor data or databases
      • Artificial neural network – mathematical model or computational model that is inspired by the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks
    • Natural language processing – field of computer science, artificial intelligence (also called machine learning), and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages.
      • Computational linguistics – interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
    • Expert systems – computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert
    • Robotics – branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots
  • Human-computer interaction – study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers.
    • Numerical analysis – study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
    • Algebraic (symbolic) computation – relates to algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and equations in symbolic form, as opposed to manipulating the approximations of specific numerical quantities represented by those symbols. Software applications that perform symbolic calculations are called computer algebra systems.
    • Computational number theory – study of algorithms for performing number theoretic computations
    • Computational mathematics – involves mathematical research in areas of science where computing plays a central and essential role, emphasizing algorithms, numerical methods, and symbolic methods
    • Scientific computing (Computational science)
    • Computational biology (bioinformatics) – involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
    • Computational science – subfield of computer science concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems
    • Computational chemistry – branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems
    • Computational neuroscience – study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system.
    • Computer-aided engineering – broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering tasks.
      • Finite element analysis – numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as integral equations.
      • Computational fluid dynamics – branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
    • Computational economics – research discipline at the interface between computer science and economic and management science
    • Computational sociology – branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
    • Computational finance – cross-disciplinary field which relies on computational intelligence, mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions
    • Humanities computing (Digital Humanities) – area of research, teaching, and creation concerned with the intersection of computing and the disciplines of the humanities
  • Information systems – study of complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data

See also Branches of Computer Science and ACM Computing Classification System

Mathematics[edit]

Mathematics – search for fundamental truths in pattern, quantity, and change.

  • Algebra – one of the main branches of mathematics, it concerns the study of structure, relation and quantity.
    • Group theory – studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
      • Group representation – describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces
    • Ring theory – study of ring–algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those familiar from the integers
    • Field theory – branch of mathematics which studies the properties of fields
    • Linear algebra – branch of mathematics concerning finite or countably infinite dimensional vector spaces, as well as linear mappings between such spaces.
      • Vector space – mathematical structure formed by a collection of vectors: objects that may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars in this context.
    • Multilinear algebra – extends the methods of linear algebra
    • Lie algebra – algebraic structure whose main use is in studying geometric objects such as Lie groups and differentiable manifolds
    • Associative algebra – associative ring that has a compatible structure of a vector space over a certain field K or, more generally, of a module over a commutative ring R.
    • Non-associative algebra – K-vector space (or more generally a module) A equipped with a K-bilinear map
    • Universal algebra – field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures
    • Homological algebra – branch of mathematics which studies homology in a general algebraic setting
    • Category theory – area of study in mathematics that examines in an abstract way the properties of particular mathematical concepts, by formalising them as collections of objects and arrows (also called morphisms, although this term also has a specific, non category-theoretical sense), where these collections satisfy some basic conditions
    • Lattice theory – partially ordered set in which any two elements have a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet).
      • Order theory – branch of mathematics which investigates our intuitive notion of order using binary relations.
    • Differential algebra – algebras equipped with a derivation, which is a unary function that is linear and satisfies the Leibniz product rule.
  • Analysis – branch of pure mathematics that includes the theories of differentiation, integration and measure, limits, infinite series, and analytic functions
    • Real analysis – branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the set of real numbers and functions of a real variable.
      • Calculus – branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series.
    • Complex analysis – branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers
    • Functional analysis – branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear operators acting upon these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense
      • Operator theory – branch of functional analysis that focuses on bounded linear operators, but which includes closed operators and nonlinear operators.
    • Non-standard analysis – branch of classical mathematics that formulates analysis using a rigorous notion of an infinitesimal number.
    • Harmonic analysis – branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms.
    • p-adic analysis – branch of number theory that deals with the mathematical analysis of functions of p-adic numbers.
    • Ordinary differential equations – ordinary differential equation (ODE) is an equation in which there is only one independent variable and one or more derivatives of a dependent variable with respect to the independent variable, so that all the derivatives occurring in the equation are ordinary derivatives.
    • Partial differential equations – differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
  • Probability theory – branch of mathematics concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena.
    • Measure theory – systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.
    • Ergodic theory – branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems.
    • Stochastic process – collection of random variables; this is often used to represent the evolution of some random value, or system, over time.
  • Geometry – branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. Geometry is one of the oldest mathematical sciences.
    • Topology – major area of mathematics concerned with properties that are preserved under continuous deformations of objects, such as deformations that involve stretching, but no tearing or gluing.
    • General topology – branch of topology which studies properties of topological spaces and structures defined on them.
    • Algebraic topology – branch of mathematics which uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces
    • Geometric topology – study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another.
    • Differential topology – field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds
    • Algebraic geometry – branch of mathematics which combines techniques of abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with the language and the problems of geometry
    • Differential geometry – mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus and integral calculus, as well as linear algebra and multilinear algebra, to study problems in geometry
    • Projective geometry – study of geometric properties that are invariant under projective transformations
    • Affine geometry – study of geometric properties which remain unchanged by affine transformations
    • Non-Euclidean geometry – either of two specific geometries that are, loosely speaking, obtained by negating the Euclidean parallel postulate, namely hyperbolic and elliptic geometry.
    • Convex geometry – branch of geometry studying convex sets, mainly in Euclidean space.
    • Discrete geometry – branch of geometry that studies combinatorial properties and constructive methods of discrete geometric objects.
  • Trigonometry
  • Number theory – branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers
    • Analytic number theory – branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis to solve problems about the integers
    • Algebraic number theory – major branch of number theory which studies algebraic structures related to algebraic integers
    • Geometric number theory – studies convex bodies and integer vectors in n-dimensional space
  • Logic and Foundations of mathematics – subfield of mathematics with close connections to the foundations of mathematics, theoretical computer science and philosophical logic.
    • Set theory – branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects
    • Proof theory – branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques
    • Model theory – study of (classes of) mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) using tools from mathematical logic
    • Recursion theory – branch of mathematical logic and computer science that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees
    • Modal logic – type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality
    • Intuitionistic logic – symbolic logic system differing from classical logic in its definition of the meaning of a statement being true
  • Applied mathematics – branch of mathematics that concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry.
    • Mathematical statistics – study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis
      • Probability – likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen
      • Econometrics – application of mathematics and statistical methods to economic data
      • Actuarial science – discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries.
      • Demography – statistical study of human populations and sub-populations.
    • Approximation theory – study of how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.
    • Numerical analysis – study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
    • Optimization (Mathematical programming) – selection of a best element from some set of available alternatives.
      • Operations research – study of the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions
      • Linear programming – mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships
    • Dynamical systems – concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space
      • Chaos theory – study of the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.
      • Fractal geometry – mathematical set that has a fractal dimension that usually exceeds its topological dimension and may fall between the integers.
    • Mathematical physics – development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics
      • Quantum field theory – theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of systems classically parametrized (represented) by an infinite number of degrees of freedom, that is, fields and (in a condensed matter context) many-body systems.
      • Statistical mechanics – branch of physics that applies probability theory, which contains mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the study of the thermodynamic behavior of systems composed of a large number of particles.
    • Information theory – branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information.
    • Cryptography – study of means of obscuring information, such as codes and ciphers
    • Combinatorics – branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures
      • Coding theory – study of the properties of codes and their fitness for a specific application
    • Graph theory – study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection
    • Game theory – study of strategic decision making. More formally, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers."

See also Branches of Mathematics and AMS Mathematics Subject Classification

Statistics[edit]

Statistics – collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.

  • Computational statistics – interface between statistics and computer science.
    • Data mining – process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large data sets
    • Regression – estimates the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the independent variables — that is, the average value of the dependent variable when the independent variables are held fixed.
    • Simulation – Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the system over time.
      • Bootstrap (statistics) – method for assigning measures of accuracy to sample estimates (Efron and Tibshirani 1993).
  • Design of experiments – design of any information-gathering exercises where variation is present, whether under the full control of the experimenter or not
    • Block design – set together with a family of subsets (repeated subsets are allowed at times) whose members are chosen to satisfy some set of properties that are deemed useful for a particular application.
    • Analysis of variance – collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation.
    • Response surface methodology – explores the relationships between several explanatory variables and one or more response variables.
  • Engineering statistics – Engineering statistics combines engineering and statistics
  • Spatial statistics – any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
  • Social statistics – use of statistical measurement systems to study human behavior in a social environment
  • Statistical modelling – formalization of relationships between variables in the form of mathematical equations
    • Biostatistics – application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
      • Epidemiology – study of the distribution and patterns of health-events, health-characteristics and their causes or influences in well-defined populations.
    • Multivariate analysis – observation and analysis of more than one statistical variable at a time.
      • Structural equation model – statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions.
      • Time series – sequence of data points, measured typically at successive time instants spaced at uniform time intervals.
    • Reliability theory – describes the probability of a system completing its expected function during an interval of time.
    • Quality control – process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.
  • Statistical theory – provides a basis for the whole range of techniques, in both study design and data analysis, that are used within applications of statistics.
    • Decision theory – identifies the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision.
    • Mathematical statistics – study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis.
      • Probability – likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen.
  • Sample Survey – process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population in order to conduct a survey.
    • Sampling theory – study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.
    • Survey methodology – field that studies the sampling of individuals from a population with a view towards making statistical inferences about the population using the sample.

Systems science[edit]

Systems science – interdisciplinary field of science that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science.

  • Chaos theory – field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy; studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
  • Complex systems and Complexity Theory – studies how relationships between parts give rise to the collective behaviors of a system and how the system interacts and forms relationships with its environment.
  • Cybernetics – interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems.
    • Biocybernetics – application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics: neurology, multicellular systems and others.
    • Engineering cybernetics – field of cybernetics, which deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems as well as chemical or biological systems.
    • Management cybernetics – field of cybernetics concerned with management and organizations.
    • Medical cybernetics – branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice.
    • New Cybernetics – study of self-organizing systems according to Peter Harries-Jones (1988), "looking beyond the issues of the "first", "old" or "original" cybernetics and their politics and sciences of control, to the autonomy and self-organization capabilities of complex systems".
    • Second-order cybernetics – investigates the construction of models of cybernetic systems.
  • Control theory – Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems. The external input of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system.
    • Control engineering – engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.
    • Control systems – device, or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or system.
    • Dynamical systems – concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
  • Operations research – study of the use of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
  • Systems dynamics – approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time.
    • Systems analysis – study of sets of interacting entities, including computer systems analysis.
  • Systems theory – interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.
    • Developmental systems theory – overarching theoretical perspective on biological development, heredity, and evolution
    • General systems theory – interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.
    • Linear time-invariant systems – investigates the response of a linear and time-invariant system to an arbitrary input signal.
    • Mathematical system theory – area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.
    • Systems biology – several related trends in bioscience research, and a movement that draws on those trends.
    • Systems ecology – interdisciplinary field of ecology, taking a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.
    • Systems engineering – interdisciplinary field of engineering focusing on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over their life cycles.
    • Systems neuroscience – subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.
    • Systems psychology – branch of applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.

Social sciences[edit]

Social sciences is the study of the social world constructed between humans. The Social sciences usually limits itself to an anthropomorphic centric view of these interactions with minimal emphasis on the inadvertent impact of social human behavior on the external environment (physical, biological, ecological, etc.). 'Social' is the concept of exchange/influence of ideas, thoughts, and relationship interactions (resulting in harmony, peace, self enrichment, favoritism, maliciousness, justice seeking, etc.) between humans. The scientific method is utilized in many social sciences, albeit adapted to the needs of the social construct being studied.

  • Business studies – academic subject combining elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies and economics
  • Civics – study of the theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government.
  • Criminology – study of the nature, extent, causes, and control of criminal behavior in both the individual and in society.
  • Cultural studies – academic field grounded in critical theory and literary criticism.
  • Demography – statistical study of human populations and sub-populations.
  • Development studies – multidisciplinary branch of social science which addresses issues of concern to developing countries.
  • Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact.
  • Education – in the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another.
  • Environmental studies – interdisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment.
  • Gender and sexuality studies – field of interdisciplinary study and academic field devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
  • Gerontology – study of the social, psychological and biological aspects of aging.
  • History – discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented.
  • Geography – science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth.
    • Human geography – branch of the social sciences that studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures with an emphasis on relations of and across space and place.
  • Industrial relations – multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.
  • Information science – interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.
  • International studies – study of the major political, economic, social, cultural and sacral issues that dominate the international agenda
  • Law – set of rules and principles (laws) by which a society is governed, through enforcement by governmental authorities.
  • Legal management – social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of State and its elements, Law, Law Practice, Legal Research and Jurisprudence, legal Philosophy, Criminal Justice, Governance, Government structure, Political history and theories, Business Organization and Management, Entrepreneurship, Public Administration and Human Resource Development.
    • Paralegal studies – social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of State and its elements, Law, Law Practice, Legal Research and Jurisprudence, legal Philosophy, Criminal Justice, Governance, Government structure, Political history and theories, Business Organization and Management, Entrepreneurship, Public Administration and Human Resource Development.
  • Library science – study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.
  • Management – act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.
  • Media studies – academic discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history and effects of various media; in particular, the 'mass media'.
  • Communication studies – academic field that deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning.
  • Public administration – houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work.
  • Social work – professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of an individual, group, or community by intervening through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, and teaching on behalf of those afflicted with poverty or any real or perceived social injustices and violations of their human rights.

Cognitive science[edit]

Cognitive Science – interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works.

Anthropology[edit]

  • Anthropology of religion – study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures
  • Applied anthropology – application of the method and theory of anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems.
  • Archaeology – overview of and topical guide to archaeology
  • Cultural anthropology – branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans, collecting data about the impact of global economic and political processes on local cultural realities.
  • Ethnobiology – scientific study of dynamic relationships between peoples, biota, and environments, from the distant past to the immediate present.
  • Ethnography – Archaeology Biological anthropology Cultural anthropology Linguistic anthropology Social anthropology
  • Ethnology – branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.
  • Ethnopoetics – method of recording text versions of oral poetry or narrative performances (i.e., verbal lore) that uses poetic lines, verses, and stanzas (instead of prose paragraphs) to capture the formal, poetic performance elements which would otherwise be lost in the written texts.
  • Evolutionary anthropology – interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.
  • Experimental archaeology – Experimental archaeology employs a number of different methods, techniques, analyses, and approaches in order to generate and test hypotheses, based upon archaeological source material, like ancient structures or artifacts.
  • Historical archaeology – form of archaeology dealing with topics that are already attested in written records.
  • Linguistic anthropology
  • Medical anthropology – interdisciplinary field which studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation".
  • Physical anthropology – study of the physical development of the human species.
  • Psychological anthropology – interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes.
  • Zooarchaeology – study of faunal remains.
  • Anthrozoology – study of human-animal interaction.

Economics[edit]

Not considered a science by some thinkers [1]

  • Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact.
  • Macroeconomics – branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of the whole economy
  • Microeconomics – branch of economics that studies the behavior of individual households and firms in making decisions on the allocation of limited resources
  • Behavioural economics – Behavioral economics and the related field, behavioral finance, study the effects of social, cognitive and emotional factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and the consequences for market prices, returns and the resource allocation.
  • Bioeconomics – applies the laws of thermodynamics to economic theory
  • Comparative economics – comparative study of different systems of economic organization, such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy.
    • Socialist economics – economic theories and practices of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.
  • Development economics – branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries.
  • Economic geography – study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
  • Economic history – study of economies or economic phenomena in the past.
  • Economic sociology – studies both the social effects and the social causes of various economic phenomena.
  • Energy economics – broad scientific subject area which includes topics related to supply and use of energy in societies
  • Entrepreneurial Economics – study of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship within the economy.
  • Environmental economics – subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues.
  • Evolutionary economics – part of mainstream economics as well as heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.
  • Financial economics – branch of economics concerned with "the allocation and deployment of economic resources, both spatially and across time, in an uncertain environment".
  • Heterodox economics – approaches or to schools of economic thought that are considered outside of "mainstream economics" and sometimes contrasted by expositors with neoclassical economics.
    • Green economics – one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks
    • Feminist economics – diverse area of economic inquiry that highlights the androcentric biases of traditional economics through critical examinations of economic methodology, epistemology, history and empirical study.
    • Islamic economics – body of Islamic studies literature that "identifies and promotes an economic order that conforms to Islamic scripture and traditions," and in the economic world an interest-free Islamic banking system, grounded in Sharia's condemnation of interest (riba).
  • Industrial organization – field of economics that builds on the theory of the firm in examining the structure of, and boundaries between, firms and markets.
  • International economics – study of the effects upon economic activity of international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the institutions that affect them.
  • Institutional economics – study of the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.
  • Labor economics – seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for labour.
  • Law and Economics – application of economic methods to analysis of law.
  • Managerial economics – "application of economic concepts and economic analysis to the problems of formulating rational managerial decisions"
  • Monetary economics – branch of economics that historically prefigured and remains integrally linked to macroeconomics.
  • Neuroeconomics – interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to choose an optimal course of action.
  • Public finance – study of the role of the government in the economy.
  • Public economics – study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity.
  • Real estate economics – application of economic techniques to real estate markets.
  • Resource economics – study of supply, demand, and allocation of the Earth's natural resources.
  • Welfare economics – branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate economic well-being, especially relative to competitive general equilibrium within an economy as to economic efficiency and the resulting income distribution associated with it.
  • Political economy – study of the production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process.
  • Socioeconomics – considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets" (not excluding for example, sorting by marriage) and the formation of social norms.
  • Transport economics – branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector and has strong linkages with civil engineering.
  • Economic methodology – study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning.
    • Computational economics – research discipline at the interface between computer science and economic and management science.
    • Econometrics – application of mathematics and statistical methods to economic data
      • Mathematical economics – application of mathematical methods to represent economic theories and analyze problems posed in economics.
      • Economic statistics – topic in applied statistics that concerns the collection, processing, compilation, dissemination, and analysis of economic data.
        • Time series – sequence of data points, measured typically at successive time instants spaced at uniform time intervals.
    • Experimental economics – application of experimental methods to study economic questions.

Linguistics[edit]

  • Linguistics – scientific study of natural language.
  • Anthropological linguistics – study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology, cognition and language.
  • Applied linguistics – interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.
  • Biolinguistics – study of the biology and evolution of language.
  • Clinical linguistics and speech and language pathology – sub-discipline of linguistics which involves the application of linguistic theory to the field of Speech-Language Pathology.
  • Cognitive linguistics – branch of linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms.
  • Comparative linguistics – branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
  • Computational linguistics – interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
  • Developmental linguistics – study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.
      • language acquisition – the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words to communicate.
  • Dialectology – scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
    • dialectometry – the study of high levels of structure in geographical dialect networks.
  • Discourse analysis – general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken, signed language use or any significant semiotic event.
  • Etymology – study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
  • Evolutionary linguistics – the scientific study of both the origins and development of language as well as the cultural evolution of languages.
  • Forensic linguistics – application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure.
  • Geolinguistics – branch of human geography that studies the geographic distribution of language or its constituent elements.
  • Historical linguistics – study of language change.
  • Lexis – total vocabulary or lexicon having items of lexical, rather than grammatical, meaning.
  • Linguistic typology – subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features.
  • Morphology – identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology).
  • Neurolinguistics – study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
  • Philology – study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.
  • Phonetics – branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, orthe equivalent aspects of sign.
  • Phonology – branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
  • Phraseology – study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes), in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently.
  • Pragmatics – subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
  • Psycholinguistics – study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
  • Sociolinguistics – descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society.
  • Speech science – Speech science refers to the study of production, transmission and perception of speech. Speech science involves anatomy, in particular the anatomy of the oro-facial region and neuroanatomy, physiology, and acoustics.
  • Stylistics – study and interpretation of texts from a linguistic perspective.
  • Syntax – "the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages."
  • Semantics – study of meaning.
  • Writing systems and orthography – representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system).

Psychology[edit]

Psychology – science of behavior and mental processes

  • Behavior analysis – philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do can and should be regarded as behaviors, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns or modifying the environment.
  • Biopsychology – application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals.
  • Cognitive psychology – subdiscipline of psychology exploring internal mental processes.
  • Clinical psychology – integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
  • Cultural psychology – field of psychology which assumes the idea that culture and mind are inseparable, and that psychological theories grounded in one culture are likely to be limited in applicability when applied to a different culture.
  • Developmental psychology – scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span.
  • Educational psychology – study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
  • Evolutionary psychology – approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective.
  • Experimental psychology – application of experimental methods to the study of behavior and the processes that underlie it.
  • Forensic psychology – intersection between psychology and the courtroom—criminal, civil, family and Federal.
  • Health psychology – concerned with understanding how biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in physical health and illness.
  • Humanistic psychology – psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in the context of the tertiary sector beginning to produce in the most developed countries in the world more than the secondary sector was producing, for the first time in human history demanding creativity and new understanding of human capital.
  • Industrial and organizational psychology – scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations.
  • Music therapy – allied health profession and one of the expressive therapies, consisting of an interpersonal process in which a trained music therapist uses music to help clients to improve or maintain their health.
  • Neuropsychology – studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors.
  • Personality psychology – branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences.
  • Psychometrics – field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational measurement.
  • Psychology of religion – application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious traditions, as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals.
  • Psychophysics – quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect.
  • Sensation and perception psychology
Applied psychology[edit]

Applied psychology – use of psychological principles and theories to overcome problems in other areas, such as mental health, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law.

  • Psychological testing – field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to assess psychological construct(s), such as cognitive and emotional functioning, about a given individual.
  • Clinical psychology – integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
  • Community psychology – Sense of community Social capital
  • Consumer behaviour – study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product.
  • Counseling psychology – psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
  • Educational psychology – study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
  • Forensic psychology – intersection between psychology and the courtroom—criminal, civil, family and Federal.
  • Health psychology – concerned with understanding how biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in physical health and illness.
  • Industrial and organizational psychology – scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations.
  • Legal psychology – involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law.
  • Media psychology – seeks an understanding of how people perceive, interpret, use, and respond to a media-rich world.
  • Military psychology – research, design and application of psychological theories and experimentation data towards understanding, predicting and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations.
  • Occupational health psychology – concerned with the psychosocial characteristics of workplaces that contribute to the development of health-related problems in people who work.
  • Pastoral psychology – application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious traditions, as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals.
  • Political psychology – interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding political science, politicians and political behavior through the use of psychological theories.
  • Psychometrics – field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational measurement.
  • School psychology – field that applies principles of clinical psychology and educational psychology to the diagnosis and treatment of children's and adolescents' behavioral and learning problems.
  • Sport psychology – interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from the fields of Kinesiology and Psychology.
  • Systems psychology – branch of applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.
  • Traffic psychology – study of the behavior of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behavior (Rothengatter, 1997, 223) as well as to the relationship between behavior and accidents

Geography[edit]

Geography – study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth.

  • Cartography – study and practice of making maps or globes.
  • Human geography – branch of the social sciences that studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures with an emphasis on relations of and across space and place.
    • Critical geography – takes a critical theory (Frankfurt School) approach to the study and analysis of geography.
    • Cultural geography – study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places.
    • Feminist geography – approach in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space.
    • Economic geography – study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
    • Development geography – branch of geography with reference to the standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants.
    • Historical geography – study of the human, physical, fictional, theoretical, and "real" geographies of the past.
    • Time geography
    • Political geography & geopolitics – field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
    • Marxist geography – strand of critical geography that uses the theories and philosophy of Marxism to examine the spatial relations of human geography.
    • Military geography – sub-field of geography that is used by, not only the military, but also academics and politicians to understand the geopolitical sphere through the militaristic lens.
    • Strategic geography – concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that have an impact on the security and prosperity of nations.
    • Population geography – study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places.
    • Social geography – branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.
    • Behavioral geography – approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach.
    • Children's geographies – area of study within human geography and Childhood Studies which involves researching the places and spaces of children's lives.
    • Health geography – application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.
    • Tourism geography – study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity.
    • Urban geography – study of areas which have a high concentration of buildings and infrastructure.
  • Environmental geography – branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world.
  • Physical geography – branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.
    • Biogeography – study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
    • Climatology – Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category)
    • Palaeoclimatology – study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
    • Coastal geography – study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.
    • Geomorphology – scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them.
    • Geodesy – scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space.
    • Hydrology – study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
    • Hydrography – mapping (charting) of water topographic features through the measurement of the depths, the tides and currents of a body of water and establishment of the sea, river or lake bed topography and morphology.
    • Glaciology – study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
    • Limnology – study of inland waters.
    • Oceanography – branch of Earth science that studies the ocean.
    • Pedology – study of soils in their natural environment.
    • Landscape ecology – science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.
    • Palaeogeography – study of what the geography was in times past.
  • Regional geography – study of world regions.

Philosophy[edit]

Philosophy – study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Academic philosophy is considered a science by some.[2] Others say that philosophy is not a science but it is instead a precursor of it. [3]

The role of philosophy is also a philosophical question. [4]

Several fields of philosophy are more directly relevant to the natural and social sciences than others. These include:


  • Epistemology – study of how we know what we know; study of the nature and scope of knowledge.
  • Ethics – major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong.
  • Logic – formal science of using reason
  • Philosophy of mind – branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain.
  • Philosophy of science – questions the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science; questions the use and merit of science; sometimes overlaps metaphysics and epistemology by questioning whether scientific results are actually a study of truth.

Political science[edit]

Political science – social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics.

  • Comparative politics – field and a method used in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method.
  • Game theory – study of strategic decision making.
  • Geopolitics – theory that describes the relation between politics and territory whether on local or international scale.
    • political geography – field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
  • Ideology – set of ideas that constitute one's goals, expectations, and actions.
  • Political economy – Political economy originally was the term for studying production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process. Political economy originated in moral philosophy. It developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, polities, hence political economy.
  • Political psychology, bureaucratic, administrative and judicial behaviour –
  • Psephology – branch of political science which deals with the study and scientific analysis of elections.
  • Voting systems – methods by which voters make a choice between options, often in an election or on a policy referendum.
  • Public administration – houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work.
    • Public policy – generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
    • Local government studies – form of public administration which in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within the a given state.
    • International politics – study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs).
  • International relations theory – study of international relations from a theoretical perspective; it attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed.

Sociology[edit]

Sociology – studies society using various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure.

  • Criminology – study of the nature, extent, causes, and control of criminal behavior in both the individual and in society.
  • Demography – statistical study of human populations and sub-populations.

Applied sciences[edit]

Applied sciences – application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment.

Agronomy[edit]

Agronomy – science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation.

  • Animal husbandry – agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.
  • Aquaculture – also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants.[5][6]
    • Algaculture – form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae.
    • Mariculture – cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.
  • Agriculture – science of farming
    • Cuniculture – also known as rabbit farming, is the breeding and raising domestic rabbits, usually for their meat or fur.
    • Fungiculture – process of producing food, medicine, and other products by the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi.
    • Heliciculture – also called snail farming, is the process of farming or raising land snails specifically for human consumption, and more recently, to obtain snail slime for cosmetics use.
    • Olericulture – science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food.
    • Sericulture – also called silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production of silk. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori is the most widely used and intensively studied.
  • Food science – study concerned with all technical aspects of foods, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption, an ideology commonly referred to as "from field to fork".
  • Forestry – art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources.
    • Arboriculture – cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.
    • Silviculture – practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. It includes regenerating, tending and harvesting techniques.
  • Horticulture – art, science, technology and business of intensive plant cultivation for human use
    • Floriculture – discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry.
    • Hydroculture – growing of plants in a soilless medium, or an aquatic based environment. Plant nutrients are distributed via water. Hydroculture is aquatic horticulture.
      • Hydroponics – subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil.
  • Permaculture – branch of ecological design and ecological engineering, which develop sustainable human settlements and self-maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.

Architecture[edit]

Architecture – process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art.

  • Architectural engineering – application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.
  • Building science – collection of scientific knowledge that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings.

Education[edit]

Education – any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another.

Engineering[edit]

Engineering – discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of people.

  • Aeronautical engineering – Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter with craft that operate outside it.
  • Aerospace engineering – Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter with craft that operate outside it.
  • Agricultural engineering – engineering discipline that applies engineering science and technology to agricultural production and processing.
  • Agricultural science – broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
  • Biomedical engineering – application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology.
  • Bioengineering – application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science) to solve real-world problems related to the life sciences and/or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at.
  • Chemical engineering – application of physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.
  • Civil engineering – professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.
  • Computer engineering – design and development of computer systems
  • Control engineering – engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.
  • Electrical engineering – field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism.
  • Industrial engineering – branch of engineering dealing with the optimization of complex processes or systems
  • Language engineering – deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community.
  • Marine engineering – engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel
  • Materials engineering – interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering.
  • Mechanical engineering – discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems.
  • Mining engineering – engineering discipline that involves the practice, the theory, the science, the technology, and application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment.
  • Nuclear engineering – branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown (fission) as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics.
  • Polymer engineering – subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics.
  • Software engineering – application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software.
  • Systems engineering – interdisciplinary field of engineering focusing on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over their life cycles.

Health sciences[edit]

Health science – application of science, technology, engineering or mathematics to the delivery of healthcare

  • Conservation medicine – emerging, interdisciplinary field that studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions.
  • Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body.
  • Optometry – health care profession concerned with the health of the eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans.
  • Medicine – science of healing.
    • Anatomy – branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things.
      • Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
    • Dermatology – branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects.
    • Cardiology – medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart (specifically the human heart).
    • Gastroenterology – branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied.
    • Gynecology – medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries).
    • Immunology – study of the immune system.
    • Internal medicine – medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
    • Neurology – medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
    • Ophthalmology – branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
    • Pathology – precise study and diagnosis of disease.
    • Pathophysiology – study of the changes of normal mechanical, physiological, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease, or resulting from an abnormal syndrome.
    • Pediatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
    • Pharmacy – health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.
    • Physiology – science of the function of living systems.
    • Psychiatry – medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders.
    • Radiology – medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualised within the human body.
    • Toxicology – branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.
    • Urology – medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males.
  • Nutrition – studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease.
  • Nursing – Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
  • Pharmacology – branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action
  • Physical therapy – Military Physical Therapists working with patients on balance problems, orthopedic/musculoskeletal injuries, amputee, compression wrapping to control edema, and during evaluation/assessment of strength, flexibility, and joint range of motion, massages, etc. .
  • Veterinary medicine – branch of science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.

Management[edit]

Management – getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.

  • Accounting – process of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers.
  • Outline of management – getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.
  • Business Strategy – field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms in their external environments.
  • Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.
  • Marketing – social and managerial processes by which products, services and value are exchanged in order to fulfil individuals' or group's needs and wants. These processes include, but are not limited to, advertising, promotion, distribution, and sales.
  • Organizational Behavior – field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization.
  • Operations – those ongoing recurring (cyclic) activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders.

Military sciences[edit]

Military science – study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict.

  • Military Organization – structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defence policy.
  • Military Education and Training – Recruit training, more commonly known as Basic Training and colloquially called Boot Camp, is the initial indoctrination and instruction given to new military personnel, enlisted and officer.
  • Military History – humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships.
  • Military Engineering – collection of equipment, vehicles, structures and communication systems that are designed for use in warfare.
  • Military Strategy and Tactics – set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals

Spatial science[edit]

Main article: Spatial science
  • GIS – geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data.
  • Remote sensing – acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon, without making physical contact with the object.
  • Photogrammetry – practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images.

How scientific fields differ[edit]

  • Exact science – any field of science capable of accurate quantitative expression or precise predictions and rigorous methods of testing hypotheses, especially reproducible experiments involving quantifiable predictions and measurements.
  • Fundamental science – science that describes the most basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing them, such that all other phenomena may be in principle derived from them following the logic of scientific reductionism.
  • Hard and soft science – colloquial terms often used when comparing scientific fields of academic research or scholarship, with hard meaning perceived as being more scientific, rigorous, or accurate.

Politics of science[edit]

  • Disruptive technology – innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology.
  • Kansas evolution hearings – series of hearings held in Topeka, Kansas, United States May 5 to May 12, 2005 by the Kansas State Board of Education and its State Board Science Hearing Committee to change how evolution and the origin of life would be taught in the state's public high school science classes.
  • List of books about the politics of science – list of books about the politics of science.
  • Politicization of science – politicization of science is the manipulation of science for political gain.
  • Science by press release – refers to scientists who put an unusual focus on publicizing results of research in the media.

History of science[edit]

Main article: History of science
  • History of science in general – Mathematics Mathematical logic Mathematical statistics Computer science
    • History of scientific method – history of scientific method is a history of the methodology of scientific inquiry, as differentiated from a history of science in general.
    • Theories/sociology of science – sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been occupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science "works" both in a philosophical and practical sense.
    • Historiography – study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).
    • History of pseudoscience – history of pseudoscience is the study of pseudoscientific theories over time. A pseudoscience is a set of ideas that presents itself as science, while it does not meet the criteria to properly be called such.
    • Timeline of scientific discoveries – shows the date of publication of major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years.
    • Timeline of scientific thought – lists the major landmarks across all scientific philosophy and methodological sciences.

By period[edit]

  • History of science in early cultures – history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages.
  • History of science in Classical Antiquity – history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy.
  • History of science in the Middle Ages – Science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, including practical disciplines, the mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe.
  • History of science in the Renaissance – During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, and engineering.
  • Scientific revolution – scientific revolution is an era associated primarily with the 16th and 17th centuries during which new ideas and knowledge in physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed medieval and ancient views of nature and laid the foundations for modern science.
  • Governmental impact on science during WWII – Governmental impact on science during World War II represents the effect of public administration on technological development that provided many advantages to the armed forces, economies and societies in their strategies during the war.

By date[edit]

By field[edit]

By region[edit]

History of science in present states, by continent[edit]

See - Category:Science and technology by continent

History of science in historic states[edit]

Philosophy of science[edit]

Scientific community[edit]

  • Scientific community – group of all interacting scientists.
  • Big Science – a series of changes in science that occurred in industrial nations during and after World War II.

Scientific organizations[edit]

Scientists[edit]

  • Scientist – practitioner of science; an individual who uses scientific method to objectively inquire into the nature of reality—be it the fundamental laws of physics or how people behave. There are many names for scientists, often named in relation to the job that they do. One example of this is a biologist, a scientist who studies biology (the study of living organisms and their environments).

Types of scientist[edit]

By field[edit]

The scientific fields mentioned below are generally described by the science they study.

  • Agricultural scientist – broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
  • Archaeologist – study of human activity, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
  • Astronomer – astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.
    • Astrophysicist – branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties of celestial objects, as well as their interactions and behavior.
  • Biologist – scientist devoted to the study of living organisms and their relationship to their environment.
    • Astrobiologist – study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of extraterrestrial life.
    • Biophysicist – interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems.
    • Biotechnologist – field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.
    • Botanist – discipline of biology, is the science of plant life.
    • Cognitive scientists – scientific study of the mind and its processes.
    • Ecologist – scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment.
    • Entomologist – scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology.
    • Evolutionary biologist – sub-field of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that have given rise to the diversity of life on Earth.
    • Geneticist – biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.
    • Herpetologist – branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and gymnophiona) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
    • Immunologist – branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
    • Ichthyologist – study of fish.
    • Lepidopterist – person who specialises in the study of Lepidoptera, members of an order encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies.
    • Marine biologist – scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water.
    • Medical scientist – basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the body of knowledge in the field of medicine.
    • Microbiologist – study of microscopic organisms.
    • Mycologist – branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e.g., penicillin), food (e.g., beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms) and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.
    • Neuroscientist – individual who studies the scientific field of neuroscience or any of its related sub-fields.
    • Ornithologist – branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
    • Paleontologist – study of prehistoric life.
    • Pathologist – precise study and diagnosis of disease.
    • Pharmacologist – branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.
    • Physiologist – science of the function of living systems.
    • Zoologist – branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.
  • Chemist – scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
    • Analytical chemist – study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.
    • Biochemist – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter.
    • Inorganic chemist – branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds.
    • Organic chemist – subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
    • Physical chemist – study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts.
  • Earth scientist – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.
    • Geologist – scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it.
    • Glaciologist – study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
    • Hydrologist – study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
    • Limnologist – study of inland waters
    • Meteorologist – study of weather
    • Mineralogist – study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals.
    • Oceanographer – branch of Earth science that studies the ocean
    • Paleontologist – study of prehistoric life
    • Seismologist – scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
    • Volcanologist – study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
  • Informatician – science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems.
    • Computer scientist – scientist who has acquired knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation
  • Library scientist – interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
  • Management scientist – study of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
  • Mathematician – person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics, a field that has been informally defined as being concerned with numbers, data, collection, quantity, structure, space, and change.
    • Statistician – someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
  • Military scientist – process of translating national defence policy to produce military capability by employing military scientists, including theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, applied scientists, designers, engineers, test technicians, and military personnel responsible for prototyping.
  • Physicist – scientist who does research in physics
  • Psychologist – professional or academic title used by individuals who practice psychology
    • Abnormal psychologist – branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
    • Educational psychologist – psychologist whose differentiating functions may include diagnostic and psycho-educational assessment, psychological counseling in educational communities (students, teachers, parents and academic authorities), community-type psycho-educational intervention, and mediation, coordination, and referral to other professionals, at all levels of the educational system.
    • Biopsychologist – application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals.
    • Clinical psychologist – integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
    • Comparative psychologist – scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
    • Cognitive psychologist – subdiscipline of psychology exploring internal mental processes. It is the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.
    • Developmental psychologist – scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span.
    • Evolutionary psychologist – approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective.
    • Experimental psychologist – study of behavior and the processes that underlie it, by means of experiment
    • Neuropsychologist – studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors.
    • Social psychologist – scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
  • Social scientist – field of study concerned with society and human behaviours.
    • Anthropologist – study of humanity.
      • Ethnologist – branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.
    • Communication scientist – academic field that deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning.
    • Criminologist – study of criminal behavior
    • Demographer – statistical study of populations
    • Economist – professional in the social science discipline of economics.
    • Geographer – geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
    • Political economist – study of production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process.
    • Political scientist – social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics.
    • Sociologist
  • Technologist
By employment status[edit]
  • Academic – community of students and scholars engaged in higher education and research.
  • Layperson – someone who is not an expert or someone who has not had professional training
  • Gentleman scientist – financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study as a hobby.
  • Government scientist – scientist employed by a country's government

Famous scientists[edit]

Main list: Lists of scientists
  • Aristotle – Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
  • Archimedes – Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
  • Andreas Vesalius – Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body).
  • Nicolaus Copernicus – Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
  • Galileo Galilei – Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.
  • Johannes Kepler – German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy.
  • René Descartes – French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic.
  • Isaac Newton – English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."
  • Leonhard Euler – pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist.
  • Pierre-Simon Laplace – French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy and statistics.
  • Alexander von Humboldt – German geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt.
  • Charles Darwin – Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 -€“ 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
  • James Clerk Maxwell – Scottish physicist and mathematician.
  • Marie Curie – Polish physicist and chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity.
  • Albert Einstein – German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics
  • Linus Pauling – American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century.
  • John Bardeen – American physicist and electrical engineer, the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice
  • Frederick Sanger – English biochemist and a two-time Nobel laureate in chemistry, the only person to have been so.
  • Stephen Hawking – British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author.

Science education[edit]

Science education

  • Scientific literacy – encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories.

See also[edit]

  • Sci-Mate – open collaboration of scientists using Web 2.0 software to address well known challenges in academic publishing and technology transfer
  • Science Daily – news website for topical science articles
  • Science.tv – virtual community for people interested in science

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alan Y. Wang, thecrimson, December 2013
  2. ^ COLIN MCGINN, New York Times, March 2012
  3. ^ Friedland, New York Times, April 2012
  4. ^ Philosophy: The Journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy, 81(316), 189-207. 19 p./ Priest, Graham, April 2006]
  5. ^ Environmental Impact of Aquaculture
  6. ^ Aquaculture’s growth continuing: improved management techniques can reduce environmental effects of the practice.(UPDATE)." Resource: Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World 16.5 (2009): 20-22. Gale Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 1 October 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com/‌gtx/‌start.do?prodId=EAIM.>.