Outline of software engineering
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to software engineering:
Software engineering – application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software.
Technologies and practices 
Skilled software engineers use technologies and practices from a variety of fields to improve their productivity in creating software and to improve the quality of the delivered product.
Software applications 
Applications influence software engineering by pressuring developers to solve problems in new ways. For example, consumer software emphasizes low cost, medical software emphasizes high quality, and Internet commerce software emphasizes rapid development.
- Business software
- Airline reservations
- Computer graphics
- Databases, support almost every field
- Embedded systems Both software engineers and traditional engineers write software control systems for embedded products.
- Engineering All traditional engineering branches use software extensively. Engineers use spreadsheets, more than they ever used calculators. Engineers use custom software tools to design, analyze, and simulate their own projects, like bridges and power lines. These projects resemble software in many respects, because the work exists as electronic documents and goes through analysis, design, implementation, and testing phases. Software tools for engineers use the tenets of computer science; as well as the tenets of calculus, physics, and chemistry.
- Information systems, support almost every field
- Network Management
- Networks and Internet
- Office suites
- Operating systems
- Signal processing, encoding and interpreting signals
- Simulation, supports almost every field.
- Traffic Control
- Visualization, supports almost every field
- World wide web
Software engineering topics 
Many technologies and practices are (mostly) confined to software engineering, though many of these are shared with computer science.
|Verilog||VHDL||Visual Basic||Visual Basic .NET|
|Assembly language • • • Scripting language • • • List of programming languages|
Programming paradigm, based on a programming language technology 
- Object-oriented programming
- Aspect-oriented programming
- Functional decomposition
- Structured programming
- Rule-based programming
Graphical user interfaces 
Programming tools 
- Configuration management and source code management
- Build tools
- Parser creation tools
- Static Code Analysis Tools
Design languages 
Patterns, document many common programming and project management techniques 
Processes and methodologies 
- Process Models
A platform combines computer hardware and an operating system. As platforms grow more powerful and less costly, applications and tools grow more widely available.
- Cray supercomputers
- DEC minicomputers
- IBM mainframes
- Linux PCs
- Mac OS and Mac OS X PCs
- Microsoft .NET
- Palm PDAs
- Sun Microsystems Solaris
- Windows PCs (Wintel)
- Symbian OS
Other Practices 
- Method engineering
- Pair programming
- Performance Engineering
- Programming productivity
- Software inspections/Code reviews
- Software reuse
- Systems integration
Other tools 
Computer science topics 
Skilled software engineers know a lot of computer science including what is possible and impossible, and what is easy and hard for software.
- Algorithms, well-defined methods for solving specific problems.
- Compiler theory
- Data structures, well-defined methods for storing and retrieving data.
- Computability, some problems cannot be solved at all
- Complexity, some problems are solvable in principle, yet unsolvable in practice
- Formal methods
- Adaptive Systems
Mathematics topics 
Discrete mathematics is a key foundation of software engineering.
- Number representation
- Set (computer science)
Life cycle phases 
- Development life cycle phase
- Product Life cycle phase and Project lifecycle
- Release development stage, near the end of a release cycle
- Software development lifecycle
Deliverables must be developed for many SE projects. Software engineers rarely make all of these deliverables themselves. They usually cooperate with the writers, trainers, installers, marketers, technical support people, and others who make many of these deliverables.
- Application software — the software
- Database — schemas and data.
- Documentation, online and/or print, FAQ, Readme, release notes, Help, for each role
- Administration and Maintenance policy, what should be backed-up, checked, configured, ...
- Upgrade from previous installations
- Upgrade from competitor's installations
- Training materials, for each role
- Support info for computer support groups.
- Marketing and sales materials
- White papers, explain the technologies used in the applications
Business roles 
Management topics 
- Human resource management
- Project management
- Process management
Business topics 
Software engineering profession 
- Software engineering demographics
- Software engineering economics
- History of software engineering
- Software engineering professionalism
History of software engineering 
- Main article: History of software engineering
Many people made important contributions to SE technologies, practices, or applications.
- John Backus: Fortran, first optimizing compiler, BNF
- Vic Basili: Experience factory.
- F.L. Bauer: Stack principle, popularized the term Software Engineering
- Kent Beck: Refactoring, extreme programming, pair programming, test-driven development.
- Tim Berners-Lee: World wide web
- Barry Boehm: SE economics, COCOMO, Spiral model.
- Grady Booch: Object-oriented design, UML.
- Fred Brooks: Managed System 360 and OS 360. Wrote The Mythical Man-Month and No Silver Bullet.
- Larry Constantine: Structured design, coupling, cohesion
- Edsger Dijkstra: Wrote Notes on Structured Programming, A Discipline of Programming and Go To Statement Considered Harmful, algorithms, formal methods, pedagogy.
- Michael Fagan: Software inspection.
- Tom Gilb: Software metric, Software inspection, Evolutionary processes.
- Grace Hopper: The first compiler (Mark 1), COBOL, Nanoseconds.
- Watts Humphrey: Capability Maturity Model, Personal Software Process, fellow of the Software Engineering Institute.
- Jean Ichbiah: Ada
- Michael A. Jackson: Jackson Structured Programming, Jackson System Development
- Bill Joy: Berkeley Unix, vi, Java.
- Brian Kernighan: C and Unix.
- Donald Knuth: Wrote The Art of Computer Programming, TeX, algorithms, literate programming
- Bertrand Meyer: Design by Contract, Eiffel programming language.
- Peter G. Neumann: RISKS Digest, ACM Sigsoft.
- David Parnas: Module design, social responsibility, professionalism.
- David John Pearson: Developed the ICL CADES software engineering system.
- Jef Raskin: Developed the original Macintosh GUI
- Dennis Ritchie: C and Unix.
- Winston W. Royce: Waterfall model.
- Mary Shaw: Software architecture.
- Richard Stallman: Founder of the Free Software Foundation
- Linus Torvalds: Linux kernel, free software / open source development.
- Will Tracz: Reuse, ACM Software Engineering Notes.
- Gerald Weinberg: Wrote The Psychology of Computer Programming.
- Jeanette Wing: Formal specifications.
- Ed Yourdon: Structured programming, wrote The Decline and Fall of the American Programmer.
Software has played a role in many high-profile disasters.
- Ariane 5 Flight 501
- Mars probe
- Denver International Airport
- TAURUS — UK share settlement system and dematerialised central share depository.
- Therac-25 — A radiation therapy machine responsible for six overdoses due to faulty software.
- Airbus A320 — The Airbus A320, while was controversial in software engineering circles, being the first civilian Fly-by-wire aircraft. In the Airbus flight control systems, the computer has the final say on all decisions, meaning the safety of passengers depends upon the accuracy of the software specification, and the competence of the engineering teams producing the (multiple, independent) software stacks. The Strasbourg A320 crash of Jan 21, 1992 is partially related to software in that poor user interface design was a contributing factor.
- Failure at Dharan — Patriot Missile clock issue.
Notable publications 
- About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design by Alan Cooper, about user interface design. ISBN 0-7645-2641-3
- The Capability Maturity Model by Watts Humphrey. Written for the Software Engineering Institute, emphasizing management and process. (See Managing the Software Process ISBN 0-201-18095-2)
- The Cathedral and the Bazaar by Eric Raymond about open source development.
- The Decline and Fall of the American Programmer by Ed Yourdon predicts the end of software development in the U.S. ISBN 0-13-191958-X
- Design Patterns by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides. ISBN 0-201-63361-2
- Extreme Programming Explained by Kent Beck ISBN 0-321-27865-8
- "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" by Edsger Dijkstra.
- Internet, Innovation and Open Source:Actors in the Network — First Monday article by Ilkka Tuomi (2000) source
- The Mythical Man-Month by Fred Brooks, about project management. ISBN 0-201-83595-9
- Object-oriented Analysis and Design by Grady Booch. ISBN 0-8053-5340-2
- Peopleware by Tom DeMarco and Tim Lister. ISBN 0-932633-43-9
- The pragmatic engineer versus the scientific designer by E. W. Dijkstra 
- Principles of Software Engineering Management by Tom Gilb about evolutionary processes. ISBN 0-201-19246-2
- The Psychology of Computer Programming by Gerald Weinberg. Written as an independent consultant, partly about his years at IBM. ISBN 0-932633-42-0
- Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code by Martin Fowler, Kent Beck, John Brant, William Opdyke, and Don Roberts. ISBN 0-201-48567-2
- The Pragmatic Programmer: from journeyman to master by Andrew Hunt, and David Thomas. ISBN 0-201-61622-X
"Software engineering" in different languages 
- In Arabic, software engineering is called handast albrmjeyat (هندسة البرمجيات).
- In Catalan, software engineering is called enginyeria del software.
- In Chinese, software engineering is called ruǎnjiàn gōngchéng(软件工程)
- In Danish, software engineering is called Software ingeniør.
- In Dutch, software engineering is called Software ontwikkeling.
- In French, software engineering is called Génie logiciel.
- In Persian, software engineering is called Mohandesi-e Narm Afzar (مهندسی نرم افزار).
- In German, software engineering is called Softwaretechnik.
- In Hebrew, software engineering is called הנדסת תוכנה.
- In Icelandic, software engineering is called Hugbúnaðarverkfræði.
- In Italian, software engineering is called Ingegneria del software,
- In Korean, software engineering is called 소프트웨어 공학,
- In Norwegian, software engineering is called Programvareutvikling.
- In Polish, software engineering is called Inżynieria oprogramowania.
- In Portuguese, software engineering is called Engenharia de software,
- In Spanish, software engineering is called Ingeniería del software,
- In Turkish, software engineering is called yazılım mühendisliği.
- In Urdu, software engineering is called سافٹ ویئر انجینئرنگ.
- In Greek, software engineering is called τεχνολογία λογισμικού.
Related fields 
- Computer Science
- Information technology
- Traditional engineering
- Software engineering
- Arts and Sciences
- Application software
- Systems Engineering
See also 
- Search-based software engineering
- SWEBOK Software engineering body of knowledge
- CCSE Computing curriculum for software engineering
- Computer terms etymology, the origins of computer terms
- Complexity or scaling
- Software brittleness problem
- Second system syndrome
- Source code escrow
- Feature interaction problem
- Certification (software engineering)
- Pierre Bourque and Robert Dupuis, ed. (2004). Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge - 2004 Version. IEEE Computer Society. pp. 1–1. ISBN 0-7695-2330-7.
- Professional organizations:
- Government organizations:
- Other organizations:
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