The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of Western civilization:
Western civilization – pertains to the civilization that began in the Middle East and generally spread westwards, in contrast to Eastern civilization. In its broader sense, its roots may be traced back to 9000 BCE, when humans existing in hunter-gatherer societies began to settle into agricultural societies. Farming became prominent around the headwaters of the Euphrates, Tigris and Jordan Rivers, spreading outwards into and across Europe; in this sense, the West produced the world's first cities, states, and empires. However, Western civilization in its more strictly defined European sphere traces its roots back to classical antiquity. From European and Mediterranean origins, it has spread to produce the dominant cultures of modern North America, South America, and much of Oceania, and has had immense global influence in recent centuries.
Western world – The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident, is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
Western culture – Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a Cultural heritage|heritage of social norms, ethics|ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific Cultural artifacts and technologies.
History of Western civilization – Western civilization describes the development of human civilization beginning in the Middle East, and generally spreading westwards, and it is generally contrasted with Eastern civilization.
Mesopotamia – ("land of rivers") is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.
Babylonia – Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia, with Babylon as its capital.
Assyrian people – most commonly known as Assyrians and other later names, such as: Chaldeans, Syrians, Syriacs, are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia.
Mediterranean Basin – In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Ancient Egypt – Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
Fertile Crescent – The Fertile Crescent, nicknamed "The Cradle of Civilization" due to the birth of various kingdoms within its borders, is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia, and the Nile Valley and Delta of north east Africa.
Alexander the Great – Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of Macedonia |Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece.
Ancient Rome – Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that began growing on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BCE.
Roman Empire – The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean.
Migration Period – The Migration Period, also known as the Barbarian Invasions, was a period of intensified human migration in Europe from about 400 to 800 .
Outline of Judaism – Judaism – "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people, based on the ancient Mosaic Law.
Outline of Christianity – Christianity – monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament.
History of Christianity – The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, its followers and the Church with its various Christian denominations, from the Christianity in the 1st century to the Christianity in the present.
Saint Patrick – Saint Patrick was a Romano-Briton and Christian missionary, who is the most generally recognized patron saint of Ireland or the Apostle of Ireland, although Brigid of Kildare and Colmcille are also formally patron saints.
Skellig Michael – literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity. Skellig Michael, also known as Great Skellig, is a steep rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean about 14.5 kilometres from the coast of County Kerry, Republic of Ireland|Ireland.
Clovis I – Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs.
Islam – first preached c. 610 – Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a Religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God in Islam, and by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God.[note 2][note 3]
Al-Andalus (711-1492) – the Islamic empire in southwestern Europe, particularly Spain, Portugal and South France – The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph ", refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the leaders unity of the Muslim Ummah.
Charles Martel – in 732, stopped Islamic advance into Europe. Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks.
Charlemagne – Charlemagne also known as Charles the Great, was King of the Franks from 768 and Holy Roman Emperor from 800 to his death in 814.
Norse colonization of the Americas – The Norse colonization of the Americas began as early as the 10th century, when Norsemen|Norse sailors explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeastern fringes of North America.
Holy Roman Empire in Germany and central Europe, established in 962 (survives until 1806)
Feudalism – Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
Catholic Church – The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members.
Franciscan Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Dominican Order The Order of Preachers, after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France.
Devotion to the Virgin Mary Roman Catholic Mariology is theology concerned with the Blessed Virgin Mary |Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ as developed by the Catholic Church.
Chivalry – Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is the traditional code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood.
Crusades – The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem.
Scholasticism – Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100–1500, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Scientific method – Scientific method refers to a body of Scientific techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
Walk to Canossa – The Walk to Canossa refers to both the trek itself of Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire from Speyer to the Canossa Castle|fortress at Canossa in Emilia Romagna and to the events surrounding his journey, which took place in and around January 1077.
Magna Carta – Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum, is an English charter, originally issued in the year 1215 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions.
Battle of Agincourt – The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory against a numerically superior French army in the Hundred Years' War.
University – A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
Ottoman Turks – The Ottoman Turks were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
Fall of Constantinople – The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which occurred after a siege by the Ottoman Empire, under the command of 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, against the defending army commanded by List of Byzantine emperors|Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos.
Middle class – The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a societal hierarchy, also known as bourgeoisie, or burghers.
Black Death – Kills between 1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population.
Italian Renaissance – The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy around the end of the 13th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Romanesque architecture – Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Johannes Gutenberg – Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Desiderius Erasmus – Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Roman Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.
Thomas More – Sir Thomas More, known by Catholics as Saint Thomas More since 1935, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanism|Renaissance humanist.
Leonardo da Vinci – Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal.
Vasco da Gama – Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
liberation of Spain – The Reconquista was a period of almost 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus.
Siege of Vienna – The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.
Nicolaus Copernicus – Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
Age of Discovery – The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations, was a period in history starting in the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans engaged in intensive exploration of the world, establishing direct contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania and mapping the planet.
Colonial empire – The Colonial empires were a product of the European Age of Exploration that began with a race of exploration between the then most advanced maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, in the 15th century.
Mercantilism – Mercantilism is the economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and military security of the state.
United States Declaration of Independence – The Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
American Revolution – The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which Thirteen Colonies|thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States|United States of America.
French Revolution – The French Revolution, was a period of Political radicalism|radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe.
Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft was an 18th-century British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman – A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, written by the 18th-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
First French Empire – The First French Empire, also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France|Napoleon I of France.
French invasion of Russia – A disastrous military campaign in which Napoleon, with his armies, attempted to seize Russia. Instead of fighting conventionally, Russian forces merely retreated, taking all of the food with them, resulting in Napoleon reaching Moscow but his armies dying of hunger.
Kingdom of Spain (Napoleonic) – The Kingdom of Spain was a short-lived client state of the French Empire that briefly existed during the Peninsular War, a contest between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Rise of the English-speaking world: 1815–1870
Industrial Revolution – The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times.
Luddite – The Luddites were a social movement of 19th-century English textile artisans who protested – often by destroying mechanized looms – against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, that replaced them with less skilled, low wage labour, and which they felt were leaving them without work and changing their way of life.
British Empire – The British Empire comprised the dominions, Crown colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
Pax Britannica – Pax Britannica was the period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire controlled most of the key maritime trade routes and enjoyed unchallenged sea power.
Constitutional monarchy – Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution.
Canada – Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories.
Australia – The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonies period of Australia's history, from the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney to establish the penal colony of New South Wales in 1788 to the European exploration of the continent and establishment of other colonies and the beginnings of autonomous democratic government.
New Zealand – New Zealand is an island country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Louisiana Purchase – The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of America of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803.
Oregon Country – The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed ownership region of the Pacific Northwest of North America.
Abraham Lincoln – Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Confederate States of America – The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by eleven Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States.
Emancipation Proclamation – The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War using his war powers.
Alaska – also known as Seward's Folly, the Alaska territory was purchased by the United States from Russia in 1867.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire – The Decline of the Ottoman Empire |24 July 1908) is the period that followed after the Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire in which the empire experienced several economic and political setbacks.
Austria-Hungary or Austro-Hungarian Empire, formed in 1867, ends during World War I.
North German Confederation – The North German Confederation was a federation of 22 independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants.
German Empire – common name given to the state officially named the Deutsches Reich, designating Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Concordat of 1801 – The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801.
Congress of Vienna – The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom during the period when it included the territory now known as the Republic of Ireland.
Joseph Lister – A pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who greatly reduced the mortality rate for many operations.
Periodic table – The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their properties.
Neoclassicism – Neoclassicism is the name given to Western Cultural movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
Romanticism – Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1840.
realism – In philosophy, Realism, or Realist or Realistic are terms that describe manifestations of philosophical realism, the belief that reality exists independently of observers.
Impressionism – Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent art exhibition|exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s in spite of harsh opposition from the art community in France.
Scramble for Africa – The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa or Partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914.
Opium Wars – The Opium Wars, also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, divided into the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842 and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860, were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.
Boxer Rebellion – The Boxer Rebellion, also known as Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was a proto-Chinese nationalism|nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity.
Franco-Prussian War – The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia.
German Empire – The German Empire is the common name given to the state officially named the Deutsches Reich, designating Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria – Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Western Front – Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the east and the Allies to the west.
Women's rights movement succeeds in securing the right for women to vote in national elections in many Western countries following World War I, including in Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States.
Great Depression – The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II.
Dust Bowl – The Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936.
War reparations – Following World War One, the League of Nations saddled the former Triple Alliance countries with massive amounts of war reparations in repayment for their aggressive actions. These, along with the Depression greatly reduced quality of life in these countries.
Balfour Declaration – The Balfour Declaration was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.
Lateran Treaty – The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, and ratified June 7, 1929, ending the "Roman Question".
Vatican City – Vatican City, or Vatican City State, in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled Enclave and exclave|enclave within the city of Rome, Italy.
Adolf Hitler – Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, commonly referred to as the Nazi Party.
Francisco Franco – Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, better known under the name of Franco, was a Spanish general, dictator and the leader of the Nationalist military rebellion in the Spanish Civil War, and totalitarian head of state of Spain, from October 1936 until his death in November 1975.
Second World War and its aftermath: 1939–1950
Battle of Britain – The Battle of Britain is the name given to the World War II air campaign waged by the German Air Force against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940.
Pearl Harbor – Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu, Hawaii.
Pacific War – The Pacific War, also sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War refers broadly to the parts of World War II that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, then called the Far East.
Sandakan Death Marches – The Sandakan Death Marches were a series of death march|forced marches in Borneo from Sandakan to Ranau, Malaysia which resulted in the deaths of more than 3,600 Indonesian civilian slave labourers and 2,400 Allied prisoners of war held captive by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II at prison camps in North Borneo.
The Holocaust – The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, throughout Nazi-occupied territory.
United Nations – The United Nations, is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.
West Germany – West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.
East Germany – The German Democratic Republic, informally known as East Germany, was a socialist state established by the USSR in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city.
Chinese Civil War – The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang, the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China, for the control of China |China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China in Taiwan and People's Republic of China in Mainland.
Cuban Missile Crisis – The Cuban Missile Crisis, known as the October Crisis in Cuba and the Caribbean Crisis in the USSR was a thirteen-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other; the crisis occurred in October 1962, during the Cold War.
Afghanistan – Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked sovereign country located in the centre of Asia, forming part of South Asia, Central Asia, and Greater Middle East, it is also considered to be part of a broader West Asia.
Détente – Détente is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
Revolutions of 1989 – The Revolutions of 1989 were the revolutions which overthrew the communist regimes in various Central and Eastern European countries.
Middle class – The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a societal hierarchy.
Civil Rights Act – Civil Rights Act may refer to several Act |acts in the history of civil rights in the United States, including:
Voting Rights Act – The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
Charles de Gaulle – Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French General de brigade|general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II.
Provisional Irish Republican Army – The Provisional Irish Republican Army is an Irish republicanism|Irish republican paramilitary organisation whose aim was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and bring about a socialist republic within a united Ireland by force of arms and political persuasion.
ETA – ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna is an armed Basque nationalism|Basque nationalist and separatism|separatist organization.
Counterculture of the 1960s – The counterculture of the 1960s refers to a cultural event that mainly developed in the United States and United Kingdom and spread throughout much of the western world between 1960 and 1973.
Conservatism – Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society.
Political repression – Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take politics|political life of society.
North American Free Trade Agreement – The North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
African National Congress – The African National Congress is South Africa's governing political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party, since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994.
World Trade Center – The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
al-Qaeda – al-Qaeda is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden in Peshawar sometime between August 1988 and late 1989.
September 11 attacks – The September 11 attacks were a series of four suicide attacks that were committed in the United States on September 11, 2001, coordinated to strike the areas of New York City and Washington, D.C.[note 4]
Same-sex marriage The struggle for gay rights which began in the 1970s culminates in the ongoing fight for the recognition of same-sex marriages. By the mid-2000s (decade), several western nations (Netherlands, Denmark, Canada, and Spain) had given full legal recognition to married gay or lesbian couples.
^ĝir15means "native, local", in some contexts is "noble"(ĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian) from The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary). Literally, "land of the native (local, noble) lords". Stiebing (1994) has "Land of the Lords of Brightness" (William Stiebing, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture). Postgate (1994) takes en as substituting eme "language", translating "land of the Sumerian tongue" (John Nicholas Postgate (1994).Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge (UK).. Postgate believes it likely that eme, 'tongue', became en, 'lord', through consonantal assimilation.)
^There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is /z/ or /s/, and whether the a is pronounced /ɑː/, /æ/ or (when the stress is on the first syllable) /ə/ (Merriam Webster). The most common are /ˈɪzləm,ˈɪsləm,ɪzˈlɑːm,ɪsˈlɑːm/ (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and /ˈɪzlɑːm,ˈɪslɑːm/ (American Heritage Dictionary).
^/ʔiˈslaːm/: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from [i]~[ɪ]~[e]. The second vowel ranges from [æ]~[a]~[ä]~[ɛ]. At some geographic regions, such as Northwestern Africa they don't have stress.
^9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven". The slash is not part of the pronunciation. The name is frequently used in British English as well as American English even though the dating conventions differ: "9/11" in British English would normally refer to 9 November.
^Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095–1131 Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-64603-0.
^See Steven P. Marone, "Medieval philosophy in context" in A. S. McGrade, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). On the difference between scholastic and medieval monastic postures towards learning, see Jean Leclercq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God (New York: Fordham University Press, 1970) esp. 89; 238ff.
^de Monstrelet, Enguerrand; Johnes, Thomas (trans) (1810). "The French and English meet in battle on the plains of Azincourt". The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet (1853 ed.). London: Henry Bohn. p. 340.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76
^Linton (2004, p. 39). Copernicus was not, however, the first to propose some form of heliocentric system. A Greek mathematician and astronomer, Aristarchus of Samos, had already done so as early as the 3rd century BCE. Nevertheless, there is little evidence that he ever developed his ideas beyond a very basic outline (Dreyer, 1953, pp. 135–48).
^"Mercantilism". The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
^"Declaring Independence", Revolutionary War, Digital History, University of Houston. From Adams' notes: "Why will you not? You ought to do it." "I will not." "Why?" "Reasons enough." "What can be your reasons?" "Reason first, you are a Virginian, and a Virginian ought to appear at the head of this business. Reason second, I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. You are very much otherwise. Reason third, you can write ten times better than I can." "Well," said Jefferson, "if you are decided, I will do as well as I can." "Very well. When you have drawn it up, we will have a meeting.""
^Anstey at Welcome to Leicester (visitoruk.com) According to this source, "A half-witted Anstey lad, Ned Ludlam or Ned Ludd, gave his name to the Luddites, who in the 1800s followed his earlier example by smashing machinery in protest against the Industrial Revolution."
^ abHarper's magazine, Volume 63. Pp. 593. The term "reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people, the term "Kaiserreich" literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary empire led by a literal emperor, though "reich" has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it has a weak hereditary tradition. In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich that is properly translated as "German Realm" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a "presidency" of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.
^ abWorld Book, Inc. The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc., 2003. Pp. 572. States that Deutsches Reich translates as "German Realm" that was a former official name of the Germany.
^ abJoseph Whitaker. Whitaker's almanack, 1991. J Whitaker & Sons, 1990. Pp. 765. Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated in English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.
^U.S. Naval War College Analysis, p.1; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.416–430.
^Keegan, John. "The Second World War." New York: Penguin, 2005. (275)
^ ab"Holocaust," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women and children, and millions of others by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Nazis called this "the final solution to the Jewish question ..."
^The word is only marginally found in Greek [Classical] literature referring in general to an offering. The adjective ὁλόκαυστος "holókaustos], "wholly burned", more common in the parallel form ὁλόκαυτος [holókautos], is in the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible used in Leviticus 6,21–22 in the following context: "[...] the baked pieces of the grain offering you shall offer for a sweet aroma to the Lord. / The priest [...] shall offer it. It is a statute for ever to the Lord. It shall be wholly burned)."
^Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." Also see "The Holocaust", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women and children, and millions of others, by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question".
^Today the largely rewritten treaty continues in force as the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union, as renamed by the Lisbon Treaty.
^Burgess, Michael (2000). Federalism and European union: The building of Europe, 1950–2000. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN0-415-22647-3. "Our theoretical analysis suggests that the EC/EU is neither a federation nor a confederation in the classical sense. But it does claim that the European political and economic elites have shaped and moulded the EC/EU into a new form of international organization, namely, a species of "new" confederation."
^"European". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 3 October 2011. "5 b. spec. Designating a developing series of economic and political unions between certain countries of Europe from 1952 onwards, as European Economic Community, European Community, European Union."
^Alberigo, Giuseppe; Sherry, Matthew (2006). A Brief History of Vatican II. Maryknoll: Orbis Books. p. 69. ISBN1-57075-638-4.
^Hirsch, E.D. (1993). The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-65597-9. p 419. "Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. in the 1960s and affected Europe before fading in the 1970s...fundamentally a cultural rather than a political protest."
^"Rockin' At the Red Dog: The Dawn of Psychedelic Rock," Mary Works Covington, 2005.
^Davies, N, 'Europe: A History', (Pimlico:London,1997) p.812
^Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan, "Conservatism", Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, Third Edition, "Sometimes it (conservatism) has been outright opposition, based on an existing model of society that is considered right for all time. It can take a 'reactionary' form, harking back to, and attempting to reconstruct, forms of society which existed in an earlier period.", Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 978019205165
^United States v. Usama bin Laden et al., S (7) 98 Cr. 1023, Testimony of Jamal Ahmed Mohamed al-Fadl (S.D.N.Y. February 6, 2001).
^Data assembled from David Womersley, ed., Edward Gibbon - The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 1 (London: Allen Lane, 1994), pp. cvii, 1084, 1106; and Norton, Biblio, 36-63. Norton reported that reliable figures on printed copies of all editions and volumes "cannot, unfortunately, be stated." p. 52. Precise days of publication from Norton, Biblio, except where otherwise noted.