Cover for Outsiders vol. 4, #15. Art by Lee Garbett and Trevor Scott.
|Group publication information|
|First appearance||The Brave and the Bold #200 (July 1983)|
|Created by||Mike W. Barr
|See: List of Outsiders members|
|Cover for Outsiders #1 (November 1985). Art by Jim Aparo.|
|Series publication information|
|Publication date||(vol. 1)
November 1985 – February 1988
November 1993 – November 1995
August 2003 – November 2007
April 2009 – June 2011
|Number of issues||(vol. 1): 28
(vol. 2): 26
(vol. 3): 50
(vol. 4): 25
Jim Aparo, Steve Lightle, Joe Staton, Curt Swan, Jan Duursema, Ernie Colón, Brian Bolland, John Byrne, Jerry Ordway, Dan Jurgens, Jerome Moore, Erik Larsen
Paul Pelletier, Casey Jones
Tom Raney, Dan Jurgens, Carlos D'Anda, Karl Kerschl, Matthew Clark, Shawn Moll, Ron Randall
Lee Garbett, Fernando Pasarin, Don Kramer, Philip Tan, Joe Bennett, Keith Giffen
|Creator(s)||Mike W. Barr
|Batman and The Outsiders|
Art by Kevin Nowlan.
|Group publication information|
|First appearance||The Brave and the Bold #200 (July 1983)|
|Created by||Mike Barr
|Batman and The Outsiders|
|Cover for Batman and the Outsiders #1 (1983).
Art by Jim Aparo.
|Series publication information|
|Publication date||(vol. 1)
August 1983 – April 1986
December 2007 – February 2009
|Number of issues||(vol. 1): 32
(vol. 2): 15
Chuck Dixon, Frank Tieri
Jim Aparo, Alan Davis
Julian Lopez, Carlos Rodriguez, Ryan Benjamin
The Outsiders is a fictional DC Comics superhero team. As its name suggests, the team consists of metahuman superheroes who do not fit the norms of the "mainstream" superhero community (the Justice League), and in some ways are similar to the X-Men of Marvel Comics.
The Outsiders have had three incarnations. They were founded by Batman, whose ties to the League had become strained. The Outsiders were reformed in the early 2000s by Nightwing and Arsenal after The Titans dissolved following the events of 'Graduation Day', in which the heroine Donna Troy was killed by a rogue Superman android. The intention of this new team was to act as 'hunters', actively searching for superhuman criminals currently on the loose, rather than waiting for them to act and then responding as other super-vigilante groups often do. In its most recent formation the group's leadership was relinquished by Nightwing to Batman, who recruited former members and newcomers. He has stated his intention to use the team as a black ops version of the Justice League, able to take the proverbial "fall" in public opinion when the League cannot. After Batman's (apparent) death in Final Crisis, he posthumously charged Alfred Pennyworth with recruiting a new team of Outsiders for a forthcoming mission of "great importance".
- 1 Batman and the Outsiders/Adventures of the Outsiders (1983–1986)
- 2 Outsiders (vol. 1, 1985–1988)
- 3 Outsiders (vol. 2, 1993–1995)
- 4 Outsiders (vol. 3, 2003–2007)
- 5 Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2)/Outsiders (vol. 4, 2007–2011)
- 6 Batman Inc. (2011–present)
- 7 In other media
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Batman and the Outsiders/Adventures of the Outsiders (1983–1986)
The Outsiders first appeared in a special insert in the final issue (#200) of The Brave and the Bold in 1983. The team was given its own comic, Batman and the Outsiders, which debuted in August 1983. It was created and originally written by Mike W. Barr and illustrated by Jim Aparo (later illustrated by Alan Davis).
After Batman left the group in issue #32 the title was changed to Adventures of the Outsiders, continuing until its cancellation after issue #46. Issue #38 featured the last original story in the series, as issues #39-46 were reprints of stories from companion series The Outsiders (vol. 1, 1986).
The cast of the Outsiders was notable for having mostly new characters (Geo-Force, Katana, Halo and Looker). The other members were two characters who refused membership in the Justice League (Black Lightning and Metamorpho) and former Leaguer Batman.
Markovia and Baron Bedlam
The Outsiders formed in the fictional East European country of Markovia, which was ravaged by war at the time. Batman had attempted to enlist the Justice League's aid, but was told they had been ordered to stay out of the conflict. Because he disagreed with the order, Batman resigned to strike out on his own. He and Black Lightning traveled to Markovia to free captive Lucius Fox from Baron Bedlam (who killed the country's ruler, King Viktor). One of the king's sons became Geo-Force after gaining powers from Markovia's top scientist (Dr. Helga Jace) to stop Bedlam. Metamorpho was searching for Dr. Jace for the doctor to help him with his powers. Katana arrived in Markovia to kill General Karnz (Bedlam's military commander) as vengeance for her family's death. Batman found a young, amnesiac girl in the woods exhibiting light-based powers whom he names Halo. These heroes banded together to defeat Baron Bedlam and decided to stay together as a team, later fighting such villains as Agent Orange, the Fearsome Five and the Cryonic Man.
Masters of Disaster and the Force of July
Recurring foes include the Masters of Disaster (New Wave, Shakedown, Windfall, Heatstroke, and Coldsnap), who at one point were almost able to kill Black Lightning. Windfall eventually became disenchanted with her team and joined the Outsiders. Another recurring opponent was the Force of July, a group of patriotic metahumans who also regularly came into contact with the Suicide Squad. During this time, Geo-Force's half-sister Terra died as a traitor against the Teen Titans. Batman revealed his real identity as Bruce Wayne to the team (although they already knew it). Eventually, Halo's origins were revealed. Emily Briggs (who later became the super-heroine Looker and joined the team) was introduced. Denise Howard (the love interest of Geo-Force) appeared for the second time.
Baron Bedlam later returned to life. With the assistance of the Bad Samaritan, the Masters of Disaster and Soviet forces, he again tried to seize control of Markovia. Batman withheld this information, angering the rest of the team. This eventually led to Batman disbanding the team and returning to the Justice League. Nevertheless the team traveled to Markovia, discovering many Markovian military casualties. They were defeated by the Masters, and learn that Bedlam cloned Adolf Hitler; however, the Hitler clone committed suicide in horror of the atrocities perpetrated by his original. The Outsiders became unofficial agents of Markovia to receive Markovian funding. They moved to Los Angeles; Geo-Force left his girlfriend Denise behind, and Looker separated from her husband.
Outsiders (vol. 1, 1985–1988)
This series again featured the original group, and was printed in the Baxter paper format used on such titles as The New Teen Titans (vol. 2) and the Legion of Super-Heroes (vol. 3). It lasted for 28 issues, in addition to annual and special issues. The series originally ran alongside the Adventures of the Outsiders title, chronicling events a year after that series. In the end, the first few issues of this series were reprinted in Adventures of the Outsiders before that title was canceled.
The team has moved into a new headquarters in Los Angeles, and once again becomes involved in an adventure with the Force of July (ending in Moscow). Villains such as the Duke of Oil and the Soviet super-team People's Heroes are introduced during this time. The team's adventures take them all over the globe, most notably when the Outsiders' plane is shot down and the team is marooned on a deserted island for three weeks. Tensions rise as Geo-Force tries to resign his leadership and he and Looker succumb to temptation. Eventually, the team is rescued.
More trouble arises when a detective is hired to look into Looker (now working as a model known as Lia Briggs) and her private life, and learns of her actual identity as Emily. The detective tries to blackmail her, but she hypnotizes him and forces him to leave. However, he is killed shortly afterward and Looker is arrested as a suspect. The Outsiders, fortunately, clear her name.
Reunion with Batman
The Outsiders are reunited with Batman when they band together to fight Eclipso. After the adventure, Batman gives them access to a batcave in Los Angeles. The team is also infiltrated by a clone of Windfall. Meanwhile, Looker and Geo-Force are guilty about their affair and eventually end it. Metamorpho faces his own personal problems with his lover, Sapphire Stagg. The clone of Windfall is ultimately killed; the Masters of Disaster are defeated, as the real Windfall joins the Outsiders. The team also meets the other Los Angeles-based team, Infinity, Inc.
The team is next involved with the crossover event Millennium, wherein it is revealed that Dr. Jace is an operative of the villainous Manhunters and kidnaps the team. The team (now joined by the Atomic Knight) free themselves, but Dr. Jace blows up herself and Metamorpho. Looker is called to return to Abyssia (the origin of her powers), where she must also face the Manhunters. During the adventure, she is drained of much of her power and returns to her normal form. Halo is hit in the crossfire when saving Katana's life, and slips into a coma as Katana vows to look after her. The team is disbanded by Geo-Force as Looker returns to her husband, and Batman rejoins the Justice League.
Outsiders (vol. 2, 1993–1995)
Declared a traitor in his native Markovia, Geo-Force is forced to seek the help of old (and new) Outsiders to battle the vampire-lord who controls his country. This is later coupled with the framing of the Outsiders for the slaughter of a Markovian village, forcing them into hiding. This fugitive status motivates the Atomic Knight to go after them, hoping to bring in his former allies without too much trouble. He is eventually convinced of their innocence, and joins them.
The new members who join the team in Markovia are the magician Faust, the warsuit-wearing engineer and industrialist Technocrat and Wylde (Charlie Wylde), a friend of Technocrat who has been turned into a mountain bear by Faust's uncontrollable magic.
During the initial confrontation with the vampires, Looker is (apparently) killed. Hiding out in Gotham City, the Outsiders experience another loss as Technocrat's wife Marissa and Halo are killed during a fight with Batman (actually the man standing in for Bruce Wayne, Jean-Paul Valley). However, Halo's spirit survives in the reanimated body of Marissa. For some time afterward, Technocrat has trouble accepting that his wife (whose body is still walking around) is dead. Eventually it is discovered that Looker is not dead, but undead. The Outsiders find her, and free her from the vampire's control.
Split in two
After the defeat of the vampires, two teams (one composed of Geo-Force, Katana, and Techonocrat; the other composed of the Eradicator, Looker, Wylde, Halo and Faust) claim the name of the Outsiders; both teams are considered fugitives for some time, thanks to questionable tactics by their new members. During this time the teams learn that Halo's (original) body has been brought back to life by the terrorist organization, Kobra. In control of her body is Violet Harper, the evil woman whose body Halo originally inhabited. She now has abilities similar to Halo's, calls herself Spectra and joins Strike Force Kobra with Dervish and Windfall. Both Kobra and Violet Harper are defeated.
The two teams unite to confront Felix Faust, father of the Outsider Faust. During the confrontation, the bear-like Wylde betrays the team when Felix promises to restore his humanity. The team defeats Felix Faust and Wylde, who eventually becomes an actual bear (without the ability to speak) and is kept in a zoo. The title ends with the clearing of the Outsiders' names and the marriage of Geo-Force and Denise Howard.
In the interim, the Halo entity is restored to Violet Harper's body, returning her to normal off-panel and a new team of Outsiders is formed and seen as active during the "Day of Judgement" crossover. Members of this new team include Geo-Force, Halo, Katanna, and Terra II, who in the 1999 Titans Secret File series, left the team after a round of genetic tests performed by scientists failed to decipher Terra's genetically altered DNA, to tell who she was prior to being turned into a genetic doppleganger of the original Terra.
Outsiders (vol. 3, 2003–2007)
Outsiders (vol. 3) is almost completely unrelated to the previous series. It was launched in 2003 with new members, some of whom had been part of the Titans. The series was canceled with issue #50 and relaunched as Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2), featuring a mix of current and new members.
The new team is put together in the wake of the Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day crossover which dissolves both groups. Arsenal accepts a sponsorship offer from the Optitron Corporation and uses the money to buy an enormous bomb shelter which had belonged to a multimillionaire, renovating it as group headquarters. He recruits a group of young heroes, the last of whom is his friend Nightwing (who joins reluctantly). Nightwing decides that instead of functioning in a reactive capacity like most other superhero teams this group should act as hunters, tracking down super-villains before they can cause problems.
Former Outsiders Technocrat and Looker are near Breach when he explodes in the Battle of Metropolis. The fate of Technocrat remains unclear, while Looker soon appears in an issue of the World War III limited series. Roy Harper is saved by Superman from Doomsday, and Captain Marvel, Jr. was sent to Earth-S when it was reformed. When New Earth came, he went with other heroes who could fly to fight Superboy-Prime. In the Infinite Crisis hardcover, Freddy joined alongside the other Titans to take down members of The Society who tried to kill Robin.
One Year Later
After Infinite Crisis the Outsiders are "officially" no more. Because of the Freedom of Power Treaty, the Outsiders have been operating covertly outside of the United States. Most of the members were presumed dead, until a botched mission forced them to reveal their presence. Following the revelation of their existence, they are recruited by Checkmate to pursue missions which Checkmate cannot support publicly. Checkmate's assignment as part of the "CheckOut" crossover arc involves dispatching the Outsiders to Oolong Island in China, the scene of World War III the previous year. The mission goes disastrously when Chang Tzu captures Owen Mercer and Checkmate's Black Queen, until both sides are bailed out by Batman. In the aftermath, Nightwing decides to give Batman control of the team once more.
The third volume of the Outsiders has been collected:
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Looking for Trouble||Outsiders #1-7||February 2004||978-1401202118|
|Sum of all Evil||Outsiders #8-15||December 2004||978-1401202439|
|Wanted||Outsiders #16-23||November 2005||978-1401204600|
|Teen Titans/Outsiders: The Insiders||Teen Titans #24-26
Outsiders #24-25, #28
|Crisis Intervention||Outsiders #29-33||April 2006||978-1401209735|
|The Good Fight||Outsiders #34-41||January 2007||978-1401211950|
|Pay As You Go||Outsiders #42-46, Annual #1||July 2007||978-1401213664|
|Outsiders/Checkmate: CheckOut||Checkmate #13-15
|January 2008 vidina||978-1401216238|
|Five of a Kind||Outsiders #50
Outsiders: Five of a Kind #1-5
Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2)/Outsiders (vol. 4, 2007–2011)
In November 2007, writer Chuck Dixon and artist Julian Lopez relaunched Outsiders as a new volume of Batman and the Outsiders with the Dark Knight taking control of the team in the aftermath of the "CheckOut" crossover with Checkmate.
Outsiders: Five of a Kind
In the weeks leading up to the new series' debut, Batman holds tryouts to determine who will be on the team in a series of one-shots called Five of a Kind. Each issue featured a different creative team (including Outsiders creator Mike W. Barr) and an epilogue written by Tony Bedard.
Batman angers several members, who feel he has no right to remove people already on the team. Captain Boomerang leaves the team for Amanda Waller's Suicide Squad, and Nightwing decides to take no part in the Outsiders' questionable activities. Katana is chosen as the team's first official member, joined later by the Martian Manhunter, Metamorpho and Grace. Thunder is kicked off the team; the second Aquaman is rejected because Batman feels he doesn't match up to his predecessor, Orin. Batman then tells the other members, "Whether you like it or not, you're here to save the world. And you're going to be hated for it". After the team's first official mission (in Outsiders #50), Catwoman overheard the other recruits talking about the team being "down by law," and said, "Batman can't possibly start up his own crew of super-crooks without me in it!"
Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2)
The team from Outsiders #50 was featured in the first two issues of Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2). Afterward, Catwoman and Martian Manhunter left the team and Batgirl, Geo-Force and Green Arrow joined; Thunder consistently appeared in the series as well. In issue #5, Ralph "Elongated Man" and Sue Dibny make a guest appearance. They are now "ghost detectives", and seem able to possess people in a method similar to that of Deadman. Dr. Francine Langstrom (wife of Dr. Kirk Langstrom, a.k.a. Man-Bat) serves as the team's technical advisor, and her assistant Salah Miandad operates the "blank" OMAC drone known as ReMAC. In issue #9, Batman calls on former team member Looker to assist in an interrogation.
The first main storyline of the title involves Batman sending the team to investigate the mysterious Mr. Jardine, who is organizing a convoluted plot to populate a subterranean lake on the moon with alien lifeforms. While trying to stop Jardine's unauthorized space-shot in South America, Metamorpho is blasted into space and is forced to escape from the International Space Station (where seemingly-brainwashed astronauts from around the world are building a giant weapon). Seeking a shuttle to hijack, the rest of the team infiltrates a Chinese space facility (only to be captured by members of the Great Ten). The timely intervention of Batgirl and ReMAC saves the team from execution. Metamorpho steals a shuttle back to Earth, escapes from the European Space Agency and rejoins the team.
During the Batman R.I.P. events, an assembly of the Outsiders (including Thunder) receives a message from the missing Batman. It asks them to feed a secret code into the cybernetic mind of the ReMAC, allowing it to track the caped crusader and the Black Glove organization and help him in his fight. As they comply (against Batgirl's advice), the code reveals itself as a cybernetic booby-trap coming from Simon Hurt (the mastermind behind Batman's downfall) and ReMAC explodes. Several Outsiders are wounded, and Thunder suffers brain injuries severe enough to knock her into a seemingly-irreversible coma. However, her in-costume appearance in the Final Crisis: Submit story contradicts this; the events of that Final Crisis storyline occur after the events in Batman R.I.P., suggesting a continuity error. When Black Lightning rejoins the team after the events of Batman R.I.P. and Final Crisis, he is shown visiting Thunder (who is still hospitalized in a coma).
Outsiders (vol. 4)
As a result of Batman R.I.P. and Final Crisis (where Batman apparently died), the series was renamed Outsiders and featured a new team roster. The change occurred when a new creative team took over, with Peter Tomasi writing and Lee Garbett on art duty. Tomasi began with Batman and the Ousiders Special #1, and the retitled series began with issue #15.
One night, after going to the graves of Thomas and Martha Wayne, Alfred awakes in Wayne Manor to a giant door opening in his room. He walks through it, where he sees a pod with a chair inside. He takes a seat, as a hologram of Batman activates. Batman explains that because he has not entered a special code into the Bat Computer (or any of its subsidiaries) for a certain length of time, this recording is playing (meaning he is probably dead). He tells Alfred of a very important mission the latter must undertake on his behalf (since Batman is unable to do so), but gives him a choice to accept or decline. Alfred promptly accepts; Batman explains what Alfred has meant to him throughout his life, saying to him what he did not have a chance to say at his death: "Goodbye, Dad."
With this, Batman charges Alfred to assemble a new team of Outsiders. Alfred travels around the planet, recruiting Roy Raymond Jr., Black Lightning, Geo-Force (leader), Halo, Katana, The Creeper and Metamorpho. As a member of the team, each must become a true "outsider," living away from their families and the public eye for months at a time. Each member fills a role once filled by Batman, making this team a composite. This arc ended with issue #25, and the series ended after 40 issues.
Dan DiDio and Phillip Tan began a new run of Outsiders in January 2010, in which Geo-Force appears to be acting more irrationally since his battle with Deathstroke. Without consulting the rest of the team (or Alfred), Geo-Force enters into a non-aggression pact with New Krypton (offering Markovia as a haven for all Kryptonians). The Eradicator is New Krypton's representative.
Issues #11–14 of Batman and the Outsiders do not appear to be collected.
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|The Chrysalis||Batman and the Outsiders #1-5||October 2008||978-1401219314|
|The Snare||Batman and the Outsiders #6-10||February 2009||978-1401221997|
|The Deep||Batman and the Outsiders Special #1
|The Hunt||Outsiders #21-25||May 2010||978-1401227166|
|The Road to Hell||Outsiders #26-31||November 2010||978-1401229030|
|The Great Divide||Outsiders #32-37||August 2011||978-1401231613|
Batman Inc. (2011–present)
In the 2011 Batman Inc. series by Grant Morrison, Batman assembles a new team of Outsiders which acts as a black-ops wing of Batman Incorporated. The team consists of Metamorpho, Katana, Looker, Halo and Freight Train, and is led by Red Robin. This incarnation of the team proved short-lived, as all of its members (except Red Robin) were caught in an explosion caused by Lord Death Man in the 2011 Batman Incorporated: Leviathan Strikes one-shot. The survivors were revealed in the first issue of volume two (2012).
In other media
- The Outsiders appear in several episodes of Batman: The Brave and the Bold. Here, they were re-imagined by the show creators as teenage versions of Black Lightning, Katana and Metamorpho (the former two have new outfits). Initially, they appear in "Enter the Outsiders!" as vigilantes gone rogue under the brainwashing control of the Slug, who resembles the evil New God Sleez. With the aid of Batman and Wildcat they break their conditioning, turn on the Slug and begin training under Wildcat's tutelage. In "Duel of the Double Crossers!" the Outsiders again appear, fighting Despero in a simulation created by Batman in the Batcave. In the episode "Inside the Outsiders!" they are kidnapped by Psycho-Pirate, who feeds on their rage by trapping them in nightmares. Batman enters their minds to help them confront their anger and fear and defeat Psycho-Pirate. They appear in the teaser for the episode "Requiem for a Scarlet Speedster!" (at the time Geo-Force and Halo are added to the roster) and work together with Batman to stop Kobra, his plan of global domination and his cultists. Black Lightning and Katana are now older, and sport their classic attire. Although Batman and the Outsiders defeated Kobra, the Outsiders forgot to blow up the bridge (which would have prevented other Kobra soldiers from arriving).
- Katana appears on her own in Beware the Batman. Unlike before, she will play a major part as Batman's sidekick (although not a replacement for Robin). Metamorpho also appears in the episode "Toxic" as a tragic antagonist. And Black Lightning's arch enemy, crime boss Tobias Whale appears in several episodes as well.
- An evil version of the Outsiders appears in the animated film Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, as part of the wider Crime Syndicate of America. The team consists of Black Power (Black Lightning), Aurora (Halo), Sai (Katana) and Model Citizen (Looker). The villainous Outsiders are shown working with alternate versions of several Justice League Detroit members, following the death of Martian Manhunter's evil counterpart.
- Tomasi, Peter (w). Batman and the Outsiders Special 1 (Feb. 2009), DC Comics
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "Despite being the final issue of this particular series, the book wasn't closed on Batman's team-ups. Although Batman was through working with partners, it was time to think bigger, and in a special sixteen-page preview insert written by Barr and with art by Jim Aparo, the Outsiders debuted. A super-hero team of Batman's own creation, the Outsiders would soon star alongside Batman in the new monthly series Batman and the Outsiders."
- Greenberger, Robert (2008). "Fearsome Five". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 120. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. OCLC 213309017.
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 215: "[The Outsiders] saw the popular team given the enhanced quality of a Baxter-format series...written by Mike W. Barr and drawn by Jim Aparo."
- Englehart, Steve (w). "The Arrival" Millennium 1: 22/3 (Jan. 1988), DC Comics
- Barr, Mike W. (w), Larsen, Erik (a). "Robot Tyrants of Kadeyland" The Outsiders 27: 6/6 (Jan. 1988), DC Comics
- Barr, Mike W. (w), Larsen, Erik (a). "Robot Tyrants of Kadeyland" The Outsiders 27: 24 (Jan. 1988), DC Comics
- Barr, Mike W. (w), Larsen, Erik (p), Farmer, Mark (i). "...A Land Down Under..." The Outsiders 28: 23-24 (Feb. 1988), DC Comics
- Barr, Mike W. (w), Larsen, Erik (p), Farmer, Mark (i). "...A Land Down Under..." The Outsiders 28 (Feb. 1988), DC Comics
- Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 261: "The Outsiders made their return in a new series courtesy of writer Mike W. Barr and artist Paul Pelletier."
- Chuck Dixon named as new "Batman and the Outsiders" writer, Newsarama, November 16, 2007
- Dixon shakes up "Outsiders" right off the bat, Comic Book Resources, November 13, 2007
- Morrison, Grant (w). Final Crisis: Submit (Oct. 2008), DC Comics
- Life without Batman: Peter Tomasi talks the Outsiders, Newsarama, December 16, 2008
- Batman Inc. #6 (May 2011)
- "Enter the Outsiders!". Batman: The Brave and the Bold. Season 1. Episode 6. January 9, 2009. Cartoon Network.
- "Duel of the Double Crossers!". Batman: The Brave and the Bold. Season 1. Episode 21. June 12, 2009. Cartoon Network.
- "Inside the Outsiders!". Batman: The Brave and the Bold. Season 1. Episode 25. Cartoon Network.
- "Requiem for a Scarlet Speedster!". Batman: The Brave and the Bold. Season 2. Episode 39. Cartoon Network.
- Cosmic Teams: Outsiders Index
- DCU Guide: Outsiders II
- DCU Guide: Outsiders III
- The Outer Observatory: Outsiders fansite