|10,455,788 - 13,500,000|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Countries with over 100,000 overseas Filipinos (2010)[a]|
|Philippine languages, English, Spanish|
|Mostly Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism · Islam.|
|Related ethnic groups|
An Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside of the Philippines. This term applies to Filipinos who are both abroad indefinitely as citizens or permanent residents of a different country, and to those Filipino citizens abroad for a limited, definite period, such as on a work contract or a student. It can also include seamen and others who work outside the Philippines but are not residents, either permanent or temporary, of another country.
They are known by a variety of terms with slightly different and sometimes overlapping meanings. Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs are Filipinos working abroad that are expected to return permanently either upon the expiration of a work contract or upon retirement. Balikbayans are Filipinos who have become citizens of another country and have returned to the Philippines for a temporary though extended visit. Global Filipino is a term of more recent vintage that less widely used.
A former economics professor, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, 10th President of the Philippines, applied the term Overseas Filipino Investor or OFI for Filipino expatriates who contribute to the economy through remittances, buying properties and creating businesses.
As a result of this migration, many countries have substantial Filipino communities.
In 2010, the Commission on Overseas Filipinos estimated that approximately 9.5 million Filipinos worked or resided abroad. This is about ten percent of the population figure of 94.01 estimated by the National Statistics Office.
More than a million Filipinos every year leave to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs, including government-sponsored initiatives. Many of them are women applying as nurses or domestic helpers and personal service workers. Others emigrate and become permanent residents of other countries. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors, physical therapists, nurses, accountants, IT professionals, engineers, architects, entertainers, technicians, teachers, military servicemen, seafarers, students, caregivers, domestic helpers and fast food workers.
The exodus includes a number of skilled workers taking on unskilled work overseas, resulting in what has been referred to as a brain drain, particularly in the health and education sectors. For example, doctors have retrained to become nurses.
In 2012, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the central bank of the Philippines, expects official remittances coursed through banks and agents to grow 5% over 2011 to US$21 billion, but official remittances are only a fraction of all remittances. Remittances by unofficial, including illegal, channels are estimated by the Asian Bankers Association to be 30 to 40% higher than the official BSP figure. In 2011, remittances were US$20.117 billion.
This Philippines is the fourth largest recipient of official remittances after China, India, and Mexico. OFW remittances represent 13.5% of the country's GDP, the largest in proportion to the domestic economy among the four countries. OFW remittances is also credited for the Philippines' recent economic growth resulting to investment status upgrades from credit ratings agencies such as Fitch and S&P.
In 2012, approximately 80% of the remittances came from only 7 countries—United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, UAE and Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan. These countries are widely dispersed around the globe—in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and East Asia, respectively.
Countries with Filipino populations
- Australia: In 2010, there were approximately 177,400 people in Australia who were born in the Philippines. [AUS]
- Brazil: As of 2008[update], there were 379 Filipinos in Brazil. They consist primarily of Catholic missionaries and migrant workers in the telecommunications and oil sectors. There are also a few former seafarers who settled in port cities, and an increasing number of Filipinas who lived in Japan and married Brazilians who were living there.In Venezuela there are 136 Filipinos citizens according to 2001 Census and the community amounts to 500 inhabitants. Since 2008, 33 overseas Filipino workers (11 men, 22 women) have been detained in jails in Brazil on charges of drug trafficking, primarily for attempting to bring in cocaine through airports.
- Canada: Only a small population of Filipinos resided in Canada until the late 20th century. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration has estimated that as of 2009[update] there were over 640,000 Canadians of Filipino origin. Due to Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Western Canada and the Philippines; contracts in Atlantic Canada; consistent hiring of workers in Central Canada; and increased activity in Northern Canada, it is estimated that there will be some 500,000 Filipinos in Canada as of 2010. As of December 2008, the Philippines overtook China as Canada's leading source of immigrants. See Filipino Canadians.
- France: there are approximately 55,000 Filipinos in France, making it the 3rd country in Europe for Filipinos, after the UK and Italy. 10% of Filipinos living in France have married French citizens. By 2000, 5,823 French citizens had been born in the Philippines, including both French nationals and naturalized Filipinos. Only one school in France, the EFI Langue Institut Linguistique Européen in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, offers classes focusing in part on the Filipino language. 16% of Filipinos in France are between 16 and 25 years of age, 50% are between 26 and 35, 29% are between 36 and 45, and 6% are older than 46. Every year since 1980, a major cultural festival embracing the Filipino culture has been held in Paris, called the "Pista sa Paris," unique in Continental Europe. The event is sponsored by the Filipino embassy in Paris, and features singers, dancers, and Filipino cuisine.
- Greece: The Philippine Embassy has reported an estimated of 40,000 Filipinos in Greece.[dead link]
- Hong Kong: There are approximately 140,000 Filipinos in Hong Kong, of whom most are domestic helpers (30,000 of them being members of the Filipino Migrant Workers Union). Filipino maids are known by the locals as amahs, or more often feiyungs (less politely, bun mui or bun bun), and face discrimination and maltreatment from the locals. A Hong Kong work visa requires some amount of higher education; and in some cases Filipino women with college degrees and perfect command of English are willing to work as maids and nannies for a salary higher than they could make at home in professions.[HKG]
- India: Approximately 1,000 Filipinos reside in India. However, government's official figures show some 500 Filipinos.
- Italy: There are about 130,000 Filipinos in Italy. This makes it the 2nd country host to Filipinos in Europe after the UK. Given the high amount of women working as domestic helpers, the Italian term "filippina" is now often used as a synonymous for this profession.
- Iraq: Despite that the Philippine government banned OFWs from working in Iraq, an estimated 1,000-3,000 Filipinos work there. Most work on US Military bases around the country as cooks and laundry service, sometimes as third-country national security guards. This is the only foreign country in which Filipino men outnumber Filipino women.
- Ireland: As of 2008, the Philippine embassy in London reported that there are 11,500 Filipinos in Ireland.
- Japan: Some 350,972 Filipinos are listed to be living within Japan's geographic confines.[JPN] However, this number is speculated to be larger, surpassing the one million mark due to many unlisted and illegal Filipino nationals.
- Lebanon: As many as 30,000 OFWs are working in Lebanon. Due to the recent turmoil between Lebanon and Israel, however, many have been repatriated back to the Philippines, while others have been relocated to Cyprus, a part of the Philippine evacuation plan.[LBN]
- Malaysia: As Sabah is very close to the Philippines, many Filipino residents and illegal immigrants live and work there. Filipinos make up about 30% of the entire population of Sabah and they enumerate up to 900,000. Many Filipinos in Malaysia come to work in construction industries, fisheries, and other labor-intensive sectors in hopes of a better living. Most live in stilt slums scattered behind cities or on offshore islands. The Philippine government also has promised to establish a consulate to provide any necessary help to its nationals. Historically, The Philippines has a claim on the eastern part of the territory.
- Mexico: There are about 200,000 Mexicans of Filipino ancestry living in Mexico, some of whom are of mixed ancestry, descended from Filipino immigrants who settled in Mexico during the colonial period. More recently, there were Filipinos who arrived as refugees to Mexico who fled from the Marcos dictatorship. Their communities are found in Guerrero, Michoacán, and Colima.
- Middle East: Many Filipinos work in the Middle East (mostly Saudi Arabia and UAE) as engineers, nurses or hospital workers, accountants, office workers, construction workers, restaurant workers and maids. The Philippine government estimates that more than 2 million Overseas Filipinos are working in the Middle East.
- New Zealand: There are about 17,000 Filipino residents and citizens in New Zealand called KiwiPino's, Filipino New Zealanders. New Zealand, as in the past, are currently recruiting Filipino qualified nurses. Filipinos in New Zealand, as well as prospective immigrants, often lean towards information technology, nursing and, more recently, telecommunications for careers.
- Nigeria: Filipinos in Nigeria consist largely of migrant workers in the oil industry, though those in the capital city Abuja also work in the education and medical sectors. By mid-2008, their numbers had grown to an estimated 4,500, up from 3,790 in December 2005. They commonly hold skilled construction positions, among them pipe layers, welders, and engineers, and may earn as much as US$10,000 per month; however, those working in oil areas in Southeast Nigeria often find themselves the target of violence by local militants. Majority of the OFWs are working/residing in Lagos and Abuja. Filipino workers are actively petitioning the Philippine government to lift the travel and work ban in Nigeria.
- Norway: The number of Filipinos in Norway is estimated to be about 12,000, most of them living in the Oslo urban area. In addition to Filipinos who have intermarried with Norwegians, there are at least 900 licensed Filipino nurses, over a hundred oil engineers employed mostly in offshore projects in the western coast of Norway and Filipinos or Norwegians of Filipino descent working in the government sector, diplomatic missions and NGO's and commercial establishments. An additional 35,000 Filipinos working on Norwegian-owned or operated ships or in shipyards.
- Oman: As of 2011, there are between 40,000 and 46,000 Filipinos in Oman. Oman was the only Middle Eastern nation included on the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration's list of nations safe for OFWs.
- Pakistan: According to the statistics of the Philippine government, an estimated 3,000 Filipinos live and work in Pakistan. Filipinos in Pakistan work as domestic workers, and housemaids.
- Singapore: As of 2009[update], over 163,000 Overseas Filipinos worked and resided in Singapore. A notable incident involving an OFW was the trial and execution of Flor Contemplacion for the alleged murder of her employer's child and another Filipina, Delia Maga.[POEA2004]
- South Korea: According to the Commission on Filipinos Overseas, as of December 2006, some 70,000 Filipinos work and live in Korea. Of this number, some 6,000 are permanent residents, some 50,000 work legally, and some 14,000 are "irregular" or do not have the proper documents.[not in citation given]
- Spain: There are around 50,000 Filipino legal workers living abroad in Spain, mainly in Barcelona and Madrid. This number is nearly 0,7% of the Spanish population. Filipinos have maintained a presence in Spain, given the latter colonised the islands for three centuries, resulting in significant cultural ties.
- Sweden: There are about 4,000 Filipinos in Sweden, mostly are married to Swedes and working in housekeepers in hotels and as caregivers.
- Taiwan: According to the 2006 data of the government of Taiwan, there are 96,000 Filipinos currently living in Taiwan. Of these, 58,704 are in manufacturing industries and 34,602 are in social or personal services (e.g. maids).[ROC] However, according to 2004 data by the Philippine Government, there are 2,037 Filipinos living in Taiwan permanently, 154,135 are in Taiwan for work contracts, and 4,500 go to Taiwan irregularly, which make a total of 160,672. It is not known why there is such a big difference between these two numbers (96,000 vs. 160,672).
- United Kingdom: Nurses and caregivers have begun migrating to the United Kingdom in recent years. The island nation has welcomed about 20,000 nurses and other Filipinos of various occupations and lifestyles during the past 5 years. The United Kingdom is home to an estimated 200,000 OFWs. Many Filipino seamen settled in British port cities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Liverpool even had an area nicknamed 'Little Manila'
- United States: Despite race relations problems of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the American Northwest, most Filipino Americans today find it easy to integrate into American society, with a majority belonging to the middle class. Filipinos are the second-largest Asian American group in the country; Tagalog is the fifth most spoken language in the U.S. Filipinas comprise a large portion of the roughly 4,000-6,000 women who annually come to the U.S. through method of mail-order bride, internet courtship, or direct contact when travel to the Philippines. The US State Department estimated that there are 4 million Filipinos in the US as of 2007.The United States hosts the largest population of Filipinos outside the Philippines, with a Historic Filipinotown in Los Angeles designated in August 2002, the first district established outside the Philippines to honor and recognize the area's Filipino community.
- Venezuela: There are 136 Filipino citizens registered in the 2001 Census.
- Population figures shown in the infobox at the head of this article are the top ten figures from estimates in 2010 by the Commission on Filipinos Overseas. Countries for which other sources report significant differences from these include the following:
- Brain drain#Philippines
- Philippine Labor Migration Policy
- Philippine Overseas Employment Administration
- "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2010". Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
- "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- American FactFinder - Results
- Dubai Filipinos rejoice as Cebu Pacific arrives with cheap deals - Emirates 24/7
- Spanish language diploma key to Filipinos’ legal stay | Ang Bagong Filipino
- HKCSO (2011) Statistics of the Diocese of Hong Kong, 31 August, [Online], Available: http://www.catholic.org.hk/v2/en/cdhk/a08statistics.html. Accessed 12 June 2012.
- "Editorial — Overseas Filipino investors". Philippines Today. 15 October – 14 November 2001. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "Philippines in Figures". National Statistics Office of the Philippines.
- GABRIELA Network USA (19 July 2004). "[Info-Bureau] FW: STATEMENT ON FILIPINO HOSTAGE". Philippine Women Centre of B.C — requoted by lists.ilps-news.com Mailing Lists. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- Remo, Michelle V. (November 14, 2012). "Stop illegal remittance agents, BSP urged: Informal forex channels a problem in the region". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Magtulis, Prinz (November 15, 2012). "Remittance growth poised to meet full-year forecast - BSP". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Remittances can't replace good economic policies". Archived from the original on 2006-03-05. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- King del Rosario. "MBA Buzz: More Funds in the Philippines". Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "Profile of Filipinos in Brazil". Backgrounder: Brazil. Philippines: Office of the Press Secretary. 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Kwok, Abigail (2009-04-29). "38 OFWs in Brazil jail for drug trafficking". The Inquirer. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2009" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA). 2009. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- Philippines takes over China as number one source of Canadian immigrants
- Philippine Embassy in Athens, Greece and Cyprus
- Profile of the Filipino Community in Ireland. Philippine Embassy in London. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- "Department of Foreign Affairs to Filipinos in Japan 'Heed advisories'". Japan. March 12, 2011.
- http://www.ezilon.com/cgi-bin/information/exec/view.cgi?archive=1&num=476 Mercene, Floro L. Filipinos in Mexican history. "By Pinzon’s estimate, there are about 200,000 descendants of Filipinos in southern Mexico. They are concentrated in the Costa Grande north of Acapulco. The town of Coyuca 35 miles north of Acapulco was called Filipino town in the old days. There is also a large Filipino community in Colima, about eight hours ride north of Acapulco." Retrieved 09 NOV 2010.
- Quismundo, Tarra (8 May 2007). "Filipino workers recount nightmare in Nigeria". The Inquirer (Manila). Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- Caber, Michael (5 May 2007). "Kidnappers, officials meet on hostages in Nigeria". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- Flores, Maynard (28 October 2008). "Nigeria-base OFWs renew appeal to PGMA to lift the ban". The PBSN Blogsite. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- "Philippines-Norway Relations". Embassy of the Philippines. 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "'Oman: Safest Country for Filipinos in Middle East'". Pinoy OFW. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Philippines monitors condition of Filipino workers in Pakistan". M&C. Nov 5, 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- "Korean embassy hints at action vs 15,000 undocumented OFWs". Asian journal. July 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- Filipinos in Liverpool, Part 1
- The "Mail-Order Bride" Industry and its Impact on U.S. Immigration, Robert J. Scholes
- "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. May 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-02. "There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than 250,000 American citizens in the Philippines."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to People from the Philippines in Hong Kong.|
General statistics from Philippine government
- POEA2004 a b c d e f g h i "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos" (MS Excel). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA). 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03. Retrieved 2007-08-01. (overseas Filipinos working and/or living overseas):
- 3,187,586 stay permanently, 3,599,257 stay for work contracts, and 1,296,972 stay irregularly (without proper documents), which make a sum of 8,083,815.
- Press release on the 2004 Survey on Overseas Filipinos, Philippine National Statistics Office, on OFWs:
- 1.06 million Overseas Filipinos Workers
- 33.4% are unskilled workers, 15.4% are Trades and related workers, 15.1% are plant and machine operators and assemblers.
- 49.3% are males, 50.7% are females.
- Remittances are 64.7 billion Philippine pesos (equaled 1.2 billion USD then)
- Deployed Landbased Overseas Filipino Workers by Destination (New hires and Rehires) (MS Excel format), Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA), 2005, on OFWs:
- 733,970 are landbased, 247,707 are seabased, which make a sum of 981,677. There is a 5.15% growth since 2004's 933,588.
- Remittances are 9,727,138,000 USD. There is a 26.6% growth since 2004.
- List of Additional Reports from the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration Statistics Page
From other sources
- a b AUS - "1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012 - Population - Country of Birth". Australia Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-30..
- a GWM - "Country Profile: Guam - People". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 2007-05-12..
- a b HKG - "Hong Kong Yearbook 2005 - population". Central Statistics Office. 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
- a LBN - Maila Ager (August 3, 2006). "'Standby fund' for OFWS in Lebanon gets House committee nod". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2007-05-09..
- a NZL - "QuickStats About Culture and Identity". Statistics New Zealand Tatauranga Aotearoa. August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2007-05-12..
- a SAU - "Table 29. Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2006" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA). 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-01..
- a b TWN - Alien Workers in Taiwan-Fukien Area by Industry and Nationality (JPG and PDF format), 2006 February, CLA, Taiwan.
- a MAL - "Table 29. Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2006" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA). 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-01..
- a1 "Selected Population Profile in the United States - Population Group: Filipino alone or in any combination". U.S. census bureau. 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-09. "Population Group: Filipino alone or in any combination - Total population: 288,378,137".
- b1 b2 United States Census Bureau (2007). "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. Retrieved 2006-11-04. "There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than 250,000 American citizens in the Philippines."
- a ARE – Jose N. Franco Jr (28 April 2007). "Jan–Feb 2007 remittances by Filipinos in Dubai grow 96pc". Khaleej Tomes. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- a AUS – "Year Book Australia, 2007 Contents >> Population >> Country of birth". Australia Bureau of Statistics. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- a CAN – "Population by Ethnic Origin". Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-04-09. Retrieved 2007-05-08.
- a GWM – "Country Profile: Guam – People". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
- a HKG – "Hong Kong Yearbook 2005 – population". Central Statistics Office. 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
- a IRL – Central Statistics Office Ireland. "Principal Statistics of Ireland by nationality". Retrieved 2007-04-12.
- a ITA – Lawrence Casiraya. "Microsoft training centers cater to 200,000 OFWs in Italy". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- a JPN – "Undocumented Filipinos cross the great divide in Japan". Philippines Today. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- a LBN – Maila Ager (3 August 2006). "'Standby fund’ for OFWS in Lebanon gets House committee nod". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- a NZL – "QuickStats About Culture and Identity". Statistics New Zealand Tatauranga Aotearoa. 3 August 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
- a ROK – "Secretary Albert Assures Filipinos in Korea of Continued Government Protection for Their Interests". Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs. 3 August 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
- a SAU – "International Religious Freedom Report 2005 – Saudi Arabia". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State. 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- a TWN – Alien Workers in Taiwan-Fukien Area by Industry and Nationality (JPG and PDF format), 2006 February, CLA, Taiwan.
- a1 "Selected Population Profile in the United States – Population Group: Filipino alone or in any combination". U.S. Census Bureau. 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-09. "Population Group: Filipino alone or in any combination: 2,807,731"
- b1 United States Census Bureau (May 2007). "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. Retrieved 2007-09-02. "There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than 250,000 American citizens in the Philippines."