British Overseas Territories

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British Overseas Territories
Flag
  British Overseas Territories   United Kingdom   Crown dependencies
  British Overseas Territories
  United Kingdom
Largest settlements George Town, Gibraltar, West Bay
Languages English, Greek, Turkish, Spanish, Llanito, Pitkern
Demonym British, Briton
Territories
Leaders
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
Area
 -  Total 1,727,570 km2
667,019 sq mi
Population
 -  estimate 350,000
Currency various, see below
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)

The fourteen British Overseas Territories are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it.[1][2] Instead, they are those parts of the former British Empire that have not acquired independence or have voted to remain British territories. While each has its own internal leadership, most being self-governing, they share the British monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) as head of state.

The name "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the name British Dependent Territory introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981. Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as Crown colonies. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (which host only officials and research station staff) and the British Indian Ocean Territory (used as a military base), the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the 7,000 or so civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus.

Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of approximately 350,000 people and a land area of approximately 667,018 square miles (1,727,570 km2). The vast majority of this, 660,000 square miles (1,700,000 km2), constitutes the British Antarctic Territory.[3][4] The United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System[5] and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory.

Although the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man are also under the sovereignty of the British Crown, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom.[6][7] The British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 15 independent countries (and the United Kingdom) each having Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, and from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries mostly with historic links to the British Empire (which also includes all Commonwealth realms).

The current minister responsible for the Territories is James Duddridge MP, of the Foreign Office. Gibraltar and the Sovereign Base Areas, however, are the responsibility of the Minister for Europe David Lidington MP, while the Falkland Islands are the responsibility of Hugo Swire MP, also of the Foreign Office.[8][9][10]

Current overseas territories[edit]

The fourteen British Overseas Territories are:[11]

Flag Arms Name Location Motto Area Population Capital
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Akrotiri and Dhekelia Mediterranean (Cyprus) 255 km2 (98 sq mi)[12] 14,000 (about half British military and staff); Episkopi Cantonment
Flag of Anguilla.svg Coat of arms of Anguilla.svg Anguilla Caribbean and North Atlantic Ocean Strength and Endurance 91 km2 (35.1 sq mi)[13] 13,500[14] The Valley
Flag of Bermuda.svg Coat of arms of Bermuda.svg Bermuda North Atlantic Ocean Quo fata ferunt (Latin: "Whither the Fates carry [us]") 54 km2 (20.8 sq mi)[15] 64,000 (2007 estimate)[16] Hamilton
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory.svg Coat of arms of the British Antarctic Territory.svg British Antarctic Territory Antarctica Research and discovery 1,709,400 km2 (660,000 sq mi)[13] 50 in winter; over 400 in summer[17] Rothera (main base)
Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg Coat of arms of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg British Indian Ocean Territory Indian Ocean In tutela nostra Limuria (Latin: "Limuria is in our charge") 46 km2 (18 sq mi)[18] About 3,000 UK and US military and staff.[19] Diego Garcia (base)
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg Coat of arms of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands Caribbean and North Atlantic Ocean Vigilate (Latin: "Be watchful") 153 km2 (59 sq mi)[20] 27,000 (2005 estimate)[20] Road Town
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Coat of arms of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands Caribbean and North Atlantic Ocean He hath founded it upon the seas 264 km2 (101.9 sq mi)[21] 54,878 [21] George Town
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg Coat of arms of the Falkland Islands.svg Falkland Islands South Atlantic Ocean Desire the right 12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)[15] 2,955 (2006 census)[22] Stanley
Flag of Gibraltar.svg Coat of arms of Gibraltar1.svg Gibraltar Iberian Peninsula (Continental Europe) Nulli expugnabilis hosti (Latin: "No enemy shall expel us") 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)[23] 28,800 (2005)[24] Gibraltar
Flag of Montserrat.svg Coat of arms of Montserrat.svg Montserrat Caribbean and North Atlantic Ocean 101 km2 (39 sq mi)[25] 4,655 (2006 estimate)[25] Plymouth (abandoned due to volcano—de facto capital is Brades)
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Pitcairn Islands Pacific Ocean 45 km2 (17 sq mi)
(all islands)[26]
48 (2012) Adamstown
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Coat of arms of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha   South Atlantic Ocean Loyal and Unshakeable 420 km2 (162 sq mi) 5,530 Total
4,255 (Saint Helena only; 2008 census)[27]
1,275 (Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; estimates)[28]
Jamestown
Flag of Ascension Island.svg Coat of arms of Ascension Island.svg
Flag of Tristan da Cunha.svg Coat of arms of Tristan da Cunha.svg Our faith is our strength
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg Coat of arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Atlantic Ocean Leo terram propriam protegat (Latin: "Let the lion protect his own land") 4,066 km2 (1,570 sq mi)[29] 99 (none permanent)[30] King Edward Point
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Coat of arms of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands Lucayan Archipelago and North Atlantic Ocean "Beautiful by nature, clean by choice" 430 km2 (166 sq mi)[31] 32,000 (2006 census estimate)[31] Cockburn Town

History[edit]

Main article: British Empire
St. George's town, in the Islands of Bermuda, or "The Somers Isles". The colony was founded by the wrecking of the flagship of the Virginia Company in 1609. The Company's charter was extended to include Bermuda in 1612, and it has remained a British colony ever since. Since the rebellion of Virginia, it has been the oldest-remaining British colony, and the town of St. George's is the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World.[32]

Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were generally known as "Plantations".

The first, unofficial, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century.[33] It is now a province of the British Dominion of Canada, known as Newfoundland and Labrador. It retains strong emotional ties with Britain.

English colonisation of North America began officially in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in "Virginia" (a term that was then applied generally to North America). Its off-shoot, Bermuda, was settled inadvertently in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to officially include the archipelago in 1612. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World (with some historians stating that – its formation predating the 1619 conversion of "James Fort" into "Jamestown" – St. George's was actually the first successful town the English established in the New World). Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but generally underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires. These include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, and the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas.[34][35]

The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire over one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa. The late nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries saw the larger settler colonies – in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa – becoming self-governing colonies and achieving independence in all matters except foreign policy, defence and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada (in 1867) and Australia (in 1901). These and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved almost full independence with the Statute of Westminster (1931). During the second half of the twentieth century most of the British colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean were granted independence. Some colonies became Commonwealth realms, retaining the British monarch as their own head of state.[36]

After the independence of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in Africa in 1980 and British Honduras (now Belize) in Central America in 1981, the last major colony that remained was Hong Kong, with a population of over 5 million.[37]

With 1997 approaching, the United Kingdom and China negotiated the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which led to the whole of Hong Kong becoming a "special administrative region" of China in 1997, subject to various conditions intended to guarantee the preservation of Hong Kong's capitalist economy and its way of life under British rule for at least 50 years after the handover. George Town in the Cayman Islands has consequently become the largest city in the Overseas Territories.

Many of the overseas territories are in the Caribbean, as shown on the map.

In 2002, the British Parliament passed the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as overseas territories and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.[38]

Former territories post-1978[edit]

Flag Arms Name Location Motto Area Population Capital Year of Independence
Flag of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg British Hong Kong Pearl River Delta and South China Sea "Dieu et mon droit" (French)

"God and my right"

1,042 km2 (402.3 sq mi) 6,300,000 Victoria 1997 (handover to China)
Flag of Rhodesia (1964).svg Coat of arms of Rhodesia.svg Southern Rhodesia North of the Limpopo River in southern Africa God save the Queen 372,518 km2 (143,830.0 sq mi) 605,764 Salisbury 1980
British Solomon Islands Protectorate 1956-1966.png British Solomon Islands Oceania 28,400 km2 (10,965.3 sq mi) 196,823 Honiara 1978

Government[edit]

Head of State[edit]

The head of state in the overseas territories is the British monarch, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory. The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power. In territories with a permanent population, a Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government, usually a retired senior military officer,[citation needed] or a senior civil servant. In territories without a permanent population, a Commissioner is usually appointed to represent the Queen. Exceptionally, in the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an Administrator is appointed to be the Governor's representative in each of the two distant parts of the territory, namely Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha.

The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. The Governor is also responsible for liaising with the UK Government, and carrying out any ceremonial duties. A Commissioner has the same powers as a Governor, but also acts as the head of government.[citation needed]

Local government[edit]

All the overseas territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory.[citation needed]

Territories Government
There is no native or permanent population; therefore there is no elected government. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator, run the affairs of the territory.
There is no elected government, and there is no native settled population. The Chagos Islanders – who were forcibly evicted from the territory in 1971 – won a High Court Judgement allowing them to return but this was then over-ridden by an Order in Council preventing them from returning. The final appeal (regarding the lawfulness of the order in council) to the House of Lords was decided in the government's favour, exhausting their legal options in the United Kingdom at present.
There is no elected government. However, the Commander British Forces Cyprus also acts as the territory's Administrator, with a Chief Officer responsible for day-to-day running of the civil government; as far as possible, there is convergence of laws with those of the Republic of Cyprus.
There are an elected Mayor and Island Council, who have the power to propose and administer local legislation. However, their decisions are subject to approval by the Governor, who retains near-unlimited powers of plenary legislation on behalf of the United Kingdom Government.
The Government consists of an elected Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Executive and the Director of Corporate Resources as ex officio members.[39]
The Government consists of an elected Legislative Council. The Governor is the head of government and leads the Executive Council, consisting of appointed members made up from the Legislative Council and two ex-officio members. Governance on Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha is led by Administrators which are advised by elected Island Councils.[40]
These territories have a House of Assembly, Legislative Assembly (Cayman Islands), or Legislative Council (Montserrat) with political parties. The Executive Council is usually called a cabinet and is led by a Premier or a Chief Minister (in Anguilla), who is the leader of the majority party in parliament. The Governor exercises less power over local affairs and deals mostly with foreign affairs and economic issues, while the elected government controls most "domestic" concerns.[citation needed]
Under the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 which was approved in Gibraltar by a referendum, Gibraltar now has a Parliament. The Government of Gibraltar, headed by the Chief Minister is elected. Defence, external affairs and internal security vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers.[41]
Bermuda, settled in 1609, and self-governed since 1620, is the oldest and most populous of the Overseas Territories. The bi-cameral Parliament consists of a Senate and a House of Assembly, and most executive powers have been devolved to the head of government, known as the Premier.[citation needed]

The Turks and Caicos Islands adopted a new constitution effective 9 August 2006; their head of government now also has the title Premier, their legislature is called the House of Assembly, and their autonomy has been greatly increased.[citation needed]

Legal system[edit]

Each overseas territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. The legal system is generally based on English common law, with some distinctions for local circumstances. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island.[citation needed]

The Pitcairn rape trial of 2004 is an example of how the UK may choose to provide the legal framework for particular cases where the territory cannot do so alone.

Relations with the United Kingdom[edit]

Tristan da Cunha on 6 February 2013, as seen from space. The population was temporarily evacuated to the UK in 1961 because of an eruption. Postal code TDCU 1ZZ
Coastline at Little Bay, the site of the new capital of Montserrat replacing Plymouth. The project is funded by the[42] UK's Department for International Development.

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) has the responsibility of looking after the interests of all overseas territories except Akrotiri & Dhekelia, which comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence.[43][44] Within the FCO, the general responsibility for the territories is handled by the Overseas Territories Directorate,[45] which is headed by the Minister for the Overseas Territories. As of January 2013 the Minister is Mark Simmonds, a Parliamentary Under Secretary of State.

In 2012, the FCO published the The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability which set out Britain's policy for the Overseas Territories, covering six main areas:[46]

  • Defence, security and safety of the territories and their people
  • Successful and resilient economies
  • Cherishing the environment
  • Making government work better
  • Vibrant and flourishing communities
  • Productive links with the wider world

Britain and the overseas territories do not have diplomatic representations, although the governments of the overseas territories with indigenous populations all retain a representative office in London. The United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association (UKOTA) also represents the interests of the territories in London. The governments in both London and territories occasionally meet to mitigate or resolve disagreements over the process of governance in the territories and levels of autonomy.[47]

Britain provides financial assistance to the overseas territories via the Department for International Development. Currently[when?] only Montserrat and Saint Helena receive budgetary aid (i.e. financial contribution to recurrent funding).[citation needed] Several specialist funds are made available by the UK, including:

The territories have no official representation in the UK Parliament, but have informal representation through the All-Party Parliamentary Group,[48] and can petition the UK Government through the Directgov e-Petitions website.[49] Only Gibraltar has representation in the European Parliament and it shares its Member with the region of South West England.

Foreign affairs[edit]

Map showing the portion of Antarctica claimed by the UK as British Antarctic Territory.
Gibraltar is the only overseas territory included in the European Union

Foreign affairs of the overseas territories are handled by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London. Some territories maintain diplomatic officers in nearby countries for trade and immigration purposes. Several of the territories in the Americas maintain membership within the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Development Bank, Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency, and the Association of Caribbean States. The territories are members of the Commonwealth of Nations through the United Kingdom. The inhabited territories compete in their own right at the Commonwealth Games, and three of the territories (Bermuda, the Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands) sent teams to the 2008 Summer Olympics.

Gibraltar is the only overseas territory that is part of the European Union (EU), although it is not part of the European Customs Union, the European Tax Policy, the European Statistics Zone or the Common Agriculture Policy. Gibraltar is not a member of the European Union in its own right. The Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus are not part of the European Union, but they are the only British overseas territory to use the Euro as official currency. None of the other Overseas Territories are members of the EU, the main body of EU law does not apply and, although certain slices of EU law are applied to those territories as part of the EU's Association of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT Association), they are not commonly enforceable in local courts. The OCT Association also provides overseas territories with structural funding for regeneration projects.

Since the return of full British citizenship[50] to most 'belongers' of overseas territories (mainly since the British Overseas Territories Act 2002), the citizens of those territories hold concurrent European Union citizenship, giving them rights of free movement across all EU member states.

Several nations dispute the UK's sovereignty in the following overseas territories:

Currencies[edit]

The many British overseas territories use a varied assortment of currencies, including the British Pound, US dollar, or their own currencies which may be pegged to either.

Location Native currency
  • British Antarctic Territory
  • Tristan da Cunha
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Pound Sterling

  • The Falkland Islands

Falkland Islands pound (parity with Pound Sterling)

  • Gibraltar

Gibraltar pound (parity with Pound Sterling)

  • Saint Helena
  • Ascension Island

Saint Helenian pound (parity with Pound Sterling)
(US$ accepted in Ascension Island)

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

United States dollar (de facto)[51][52]
Pound sterling (de jure)[53][54]

  • The British Virgin Islands
  • The Turks and Caicos Islands

United States dollar

  • Anguilla
  • Montserrat

Eastern Caribbean dollar (2.7EC$=1US$)

  • Bermuda

Bermudian dollar (parity with United States dollar)

  • The Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands dollar (1KY$=1.2US$)

  • The Pitcairn Islands

New Zealand dollar

  • Akrotiri and Dhekelia

Euro

Citizenship[edit]

An Anguillian passport. Anguillan citizens often travel to the other EU territories of Saint Martin and Sint Maarten, to which their British citizenship gives them visa-free access.

None of the overseas territories has its own nationality status, and all citizens are classed as British Overseas Territories citizens (BOTC). They do however, have legislative independence over immigration, and holding the status of a BOTC does not automatically give a person a right of abode in any of the territories, as it depends on the territory's immigration laws. A territory may issue Belonger status to allow a person classed as a BOTC to reside in the territory that they have close links with. Non-BOTC citizens may acquire Belonger status to reside in a particular territory (and may subsequently become naturalised BOTC if they wish).

Historically, most inhabitants of the British Empire held the status of British subject, which was usually lost upon independence. From 1949, British subjects in the United Kingdom and the remaining colonies became citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies. However changes in British immigration and nationality law between 1962 and 1983 saw the creation of a separate British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) with effect from January 1983. Citizens in most territories were stripped of full British citizenship. This was mainly to prevent a mass exodus of the citizens of Hong Kong to the UK before the agreed handover to China in 1997. Exception was made for the Falkland Islands, which had been invaded in 1982 by Argentina. Full British citizenship was soon returned to the people of Gibraltar due to their friction with Spain.

However, the British Overseas Territories Act 2002 replaced British Dependent Territory citizenship with British Overseas Territories citizenship (BOTC), and restored full British citizenship to all BOTCs except those from Akrotiri and Dhekelia. This restored to BOTCs the right to reside in the UK.

British citizens however, do not have an automatic right to reside in any of the Overseas Territories. Some territories prohibit immigration, and any visitors are required to seek the permission of the territory's government to live in the territory. As they are used primarily as military bases, Ascension Island and the British Indian Ocean Territory do not allow visitors to the territory unless on official business.

Military[edit]

RAF Mount Pleasant, Falkland Islands

Defence of the Overseas Territories is the responsibility of the UK. Many of the overseas territories are used as military bases by the UK and its allies.

Symbols and insignia[edit]

Overseas Territories flags in Parliament Square in 2013

Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. Traditionally, the flags follow the Blue Ensign design, with the Union Flag in the canton, and the territory's coat of arms in the fly. Exceptions to this are Bermuda which uses a Red Ensign; British Antarctic Territory which uses a White Ensign; British Indian Ocean Territory which uses a Blue Ensign with wavy lines to symbolise the sea; and Gibraltar which uses a banner of its coat of arms (the flag of the city of Gibraltar).

Akrotiri & Dhekelia is the only British overseas territory without a flag of its own. The Union Flag is used in this territory.

Sporting[edit]

As a British Overseas Territory, all apart from Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands do not have a recognised National Olympic Committee (NOC); the British Olympic Association is recognised as the appropriate NOC for such athletes and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games.[57]

Shara Proctor from Anguilla, Delano Williams from the Turks and Caicos Islands, Jenaya Wade-Fray from Bermuda[58] and Georgina Cassar from Gibraltar[59] strived to represent Team GB at the London 2012 Olympics. Proctor, Wade-Fray and Cassar[59] qualified for Team GB, with Williams missing the cut, however wishing to represent the UK in 2016.[60][61]

The Gibraltar national football team was accepted into UEFA in 2013 in time for the 2016 European Championships. It has also applied to be part of FIFA and hopes to be accepted in time for eligibility for the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying.

Biodiversity[edit]

The British Overseas Territories have more biodiversity than the entire UK mainland. There are at least 180 endemic plant species in the overseas territories as opposed to only 12 on the UK mainland. Responsibility for protection of biodiversity and meeting obligations under international environmental conventions is shared between the UK Government and the local governments of the territories.[62]

Two areas, Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Islands as well as the Gough and Inaccessible Islands of Tristan Da Cunha are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and two other territories, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saint Helena are on the United Kingdom's tentative list for future UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[63][64]

The three regions of biodiversity hotspots situated in the British Overseas Territories are the Caribbean Islands, the Mediterranean Basin and the Oceania ecozone in the Pacific.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Supporting the Overseas Territories". UK Government. Retrieved 8 November 2014. "There are 14 Overseas Territories which retain a constitutional link with the UK. Most of the Territories are largely self-governing, each with its own constitution and its own government, which enacts local laws. Although the relationship is rooted in four centuries of shared history, the UK government’s relationship with its Territories today is a modern one, based on mutual benefits and responsibilities. The foundations of this relationship are partnership, shared values and the right of the people of each territory to choose to freely choose whether to remain a British Overseas Territory or to seek an alternative future." 
  2. ^ "What is the British Constitution: The Primary Structures of the British State". The Constitution Society. Retrieved 15 November 2014. "The United Kingdom also manages a number of territories which, while mostly having their own forms of government, have the Queen as their head of state, and rely on the UK for defence and security, foreign affairs and representation at the international level. They do not form part of the UK, but have an ambiguous constitutional relationship with the UK." 
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  29. ^ Vital Statistics – SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS. 22 January 1993. CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 1992 via the Libraries of the Univ. of Missouri-St. Louis.
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  32. ^ "Bermuda – History and Heritage". Smithsonian.com. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  33. ^ "Newfoundland History – Early Colonization and Settlement of Newfoundland". Faculty.marianopolis.edu. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  34. ^ The University of North Carolina Press review of ´´In the Eye of All Trade:Bermuda, Bermudians, and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680–1783´´, By Michael J. Jarvis, Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia. ISBN 978-0-8078-3321-6
  35. ^ Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia and Essays in History review of ´´In the Eye of All Trade:Bermuda, Bermudians, and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680–1783´´, By Michael J. Jarvis, Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia. ISBN 978-0-8078-3321-6
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  41. ^ Press Release No. 133/2007. Government of Gibraltar Press Office.
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  45. ^ Working with the Overseas Territories
  46. ^ "The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Harry Ritchie, The Last Pink Bits: Travels Through the Remnants of the British Empire (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997)
  • Simon Winchester, Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire (London & New York, 1985)
  • George Drower, Britain's Dependent Territories (Dartmouth, 1992)
  • George Drower, Overseas Territories Handbook (London: TSO, 1998)
  • Ian Hendry and Susan Dickson, "British Overseas Territories Law" (London: Hart Publishing, 2011)
  • Ben Fogle, The Teatime Islands: Adventures in Britain's Faraway Outposts (London: Michael Joseph, 2003)
  • Joseph Boromé, 'How Crown Colony Government Came to Dominica by 1898', in Aspects of Dominican History (Roseau, Dominica, 1972), 120–50
  • Bonham C. Richardson (16 January 1992). The Caribbean in the Wider World, 1492–1992. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 

External links[edit]