Overton Brooks

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For other persons named Tom or Thomas Brooks, see Thomas Brooks (disambiguation).
Thomas Overton Brooks
Overton Brooks.jpg
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 4th district
In office
January 3, 1937 – September 16, 1961
Preceded by John N. Sandlin
Succeeded by Joe Waggonner
Personal details
Born (1897-12-21)December 21, 1897
Baton Rouge
East Baton Rouge Parish
Louisiana, US
Died September 16, 1961(1961-09-16) (aged 63)
Bethesda, Maryland
Resting place Forest Park Cemetery in Shreveport, Louisiana
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Mollie Meriwether Brooks (married 1932)
Children Laura Anne
Residence Shreveport, Louisiana
Alma mater Louisiana State University Law Center
Occupation Attorney
Religion Episcopalian
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service World War I
The Veterans Administration Hospital in Shreveport, Louisiana, is named for Overton Brooks; photo taken from Clyde Fant Parkway (2012)

Thomas Overton Brooks (December 21, 1897 – September 16, 1961)[1] was a Democratic U.S. representative from the Shreveport-based Fourth Congressional District of northwestern Louisiana, having served for a quarter century beginning on January 3, 1937. Brooks was a nephew of U.S. Senator John Holmes Overton and a great-grandson of Walter Hampden Overton. At the time of his death, he was chairman of the House Science and Astronautics Committee.

Before politics[edit]

Brooks was born in Baton Rouge to Claude M. Brooks and the former Penelope Overton. He graduated from public schools. Brooks served overseas during World War I as an enlisted man in the Sixth Field Artillery, First Division, Regular Army, 1918–1919.

After the war, he obtained a law degree in 1923 from Louisiana State University Law Center in Baton Rouge. He was then admitted to the bar and began his practice in Shreveport, the seat of Caddo Parish in the northwestern corner of his state.

On June 1, 1932, Brooks married the former Mollie Meriwether of Shreveport, a daughter of Minor Meriwether and the former Anne Finley McNutt. They had one child, Laura Anne.

Political career[edit]

Brooks succeeded John Nicholas Sandlin, Sr., a fellow Democrat from Minden, the seat of Webster Parish. Rather than seek reelection to the House, Sandlin ran unsuccessfully in the 1936 Democratic primary against Allen J. Ellender for an open seat in the U.S. Senate. Brooks, who ran as the "Long-Allen candidate", defeated an intraparty rival for the U.S. House, Wilburn V. Lunn.[2]

In 1940, newly-elected Governor Sam Houston Jones urged that Brooks be defeated in the Democratic congressional primary, but Brooks won his third term that year.[3] In 1948, Brooks defeated two intraparty rivals Harvey Locke Carey and former State Senator Lloyd Hendrick of Shreveport.

In 1950, Brooks overwhelmed[4] the conservative intraparty challenge waged by James H. Greene (1918–1988),[5] a 32-year-old graduate of Fair Park High School, a veteran of the United States Navy, and at the time a reporter for the since defunct Shreveport Journal.[6]

Early in 1952, Brooks joined with U.S. Senator Russell B. Long to endorse U.S. Representative Hale Boggs of Louisiana's 2nd congressional district for governor, but victory went to Robert F. Kennon of Minden; Boggs finished in third placed in the Democratic primary.[7]

In the summer of 1952, Brooks defeated another young conservative intraparty rival, attorney Lawrence L. May, Jr. (1921–1995), of Vivian in Caddo Parish, who in an advertisement criticized the mounting casualties of the Korean War and the excesses of federal bureaucracy. May declared himself "an anti-Truman, anti-New Deal, anti-communist Democrat."[8] May said that "little by little Congress has voted this socialism into our laws."[9] He charged that Congress had followed the blueprint of The Communist Manifesto.[10]May claimed that the federal debt then equaled the value of all assessed property, real and personal, in the nation: "Did not Mr. Brooks vote for every item of the New Deal, Fair Deal, and Truman programs which he [now] says have brought the nation to the brink of disaster?"[11]May also declared that could not be "bought or bribe."[12]

Brooks served on the U.S. House Committee on Armed Services from 1947 to 1958, and he then became the first chairman of the newly formed House Space Committee (later Science and Astronautics), reportedly because his seniority entitled him to a more important post on Armed Services than he was considered capable of handling. He was reappointed in 1961. It was Brooks who proposed a civilian, rather than military, space program. On May 4, 1961, his committee sent a memo to then Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson on this subject. U.S. President John F. Kennedy's speech which prompted the development of the Apollo program was delivered a few weeks later.

From his berth on the House Armed Services Committee, Brooks became a champion of veterans' causes. The Overton Brooks Veterans Administration Medical Center at 510 East Stoner Street in Shreveport just south of Interstate 20 and viewed from along the Clyde Fant Parkway is named in his honor.[13]

Brooks was the president of the National River and Harbor Congress and was an early advocate of making the Red River navigable from Shreveport to Alexandria, a cause continued by his popular Democratic successor, Joe Waggonner of Plain Dealing in northern Bossier Parish.

Two conservative legislative assistants to Representative Brooks, Ned Touchstone and Billy McCormack,[14] went on to careers of their own in journalism and the Christian ministry.

1956 campaign[edit]

Brooks was reelected to Congress twelve times. In 1954, he signed the Southern Manifesto, a failed congressional attempt to block desegregation of public schools ordered by the United States Supreme Court in the case Brown v. Board of Education. Brooks continued to campaign on continued support for segregation. For a time the segregationist publisher Ned Touchstone of Bossier City worked on Brooks' staff. Brooks also urged the strengthening national defense, the expanded production of natural gas, rural electrification, and "fair prices" for farm, dairy, and ranch products.[15]

In November 1956, Brooks defeated, 68-32 percent, the Republican nominee Calhoun Allen, a longtime military reservist and the past president of the Holiday in Dixie festival, who later turned Democrat and was elected as Shreveport's public utilities commissioner and as mayor of Shreveport. Brooks declared himself a lifelong Democrat in that campaign and urged voters to support Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois for president over Dwight D. Eisenhower, the first Republican since Reconstruction to win the electoral votes of Louisiana. Allen, at the time, had declared himself an "Eisenhower Republican".

In the 1958 Democratic primary for the U.S. House, Brooks defeated Mrs. Sophie Thompson.

The last congressional race[edit]

In Brooks' last election to Congress in 1960, he faced another Republican challenger, Fred Charles McClanahan, Jr. (1918–2007), a contractor from Shreveport.

Reared in Homer and a graduate of Homer High School and Methodist-affiliated Centenary College in Shreveport, McClanahan had a distinguished military record. He flew sixty-eight combat missions as a fighter pilot for the United States Army Air Corps in World War II and received the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Purple Heart, and the Air Medal. He was a major in the Air Force Reserve.[16] McClanahan was married to the former Mary Virginia Simpson (1923-2014), a native of Ballinger, Texas, whom he met while he was training as a fighter pilot. Mrs. McClanahan was an English teacher at C. E. Byrd High School in Shreveport for many years and a Republican active in the League of Women Voters at the time her husband ran for Congress. The McClanahans had two children, Fred, III, of Shreveport and Elizabeth Waldmann of Kenner.[17]

McClanahan's campaign was managed by George Despot, later state chairman of the Louisiana Republican Party.[16] In his race against Brooks, McClanahan stressed the advantages of a two-party system, which he maintained would "bring us new recognition and respect in national affairs and stabilize state government with a constant watchdog over state affairs."[16] McClanahan, who endorsed the Nixon-Lodge ticket, called for the United States "to lead the free world in resisting the spread of communism and winning the Cold War in this hemisphere and in every country. ... Our foreign aid program must be re-evaluated on the basis of our aims...."[16] Like Brooks, McClanahan affirmed his support for segregation, having proclaimed "No right of the United States government to force integration in public schools."[16]

Brooks prevailed in his final race, 74-26 percent, though the Kennedy-Johnson ticket did not carry the Fourth Congressional District. McClanahan subsequently ran for the Republican nomination for one of the five at-large state representative from Caddo Parish in the December 7, 1963, primary. He finished in sixth place and was eliminated from the competition[18]

Vote on Rules Committee[edit]

On January 31, 1961, Brooks voted with a narrow majority of 217-212 to increase the size of the House Rules Committee to permit Speaker Sam Rayburn of Texas to appoint newer, more liberal members to the panel, which determines the legislation brought to the House floor. Conservatives in both parties generally opposed this vote, which they termed "packing the Rules Committee." Many southern Democrats saw the packing of the committee as certain to advance civil rights legislation to House floor, rather than to keep it confined to the committee, where opponents held the upper hand. Joe Waggonner later announced that he would challenge Brooks in the August 1962 Democratic primary. A civic group known as the Congressional Affairs League of Louisiana was formed to express a vote of "No Confidence" in Brooks. Among the organizers of the League were Charles E. Roemer, II (1923–2012), of Bossier Parish, later the commissioner of administration for eight years under Governor Edwin Washington Edwards and the father of Governor Buddy Roemer. From Webster Parish, the organizers included building contractor John Lawson McInnis, Jr. (1915–1994), and Ronzee McIntyre Bridges (1926–1992), a Shreveport native and a Minden physician who served on the Webster Parish School Board as a Conservative Democrat and had been part of the "Democrats-For-Nixon" organization in 1960.[19]

Opposition to Brooks' vote to expand the Rules Committee even led to the Ku Klux Klan burning a cross on the congressman's lawn at his Linden Street home in Shreveport. Caddo Parish Sheriff J. Howell Flournoy advised Brooks to remain in Washington and not to return home until tensions had eased. [20]

Death[edit]

A few months after the roll call vote on enlargement of the House Rules Committee, Brooks later died of a heart attack at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. Former Shreveport Mayor James C. Gardner of Shreveport, who at the time lived only two blocks from Brooks, said in his memoirs that he believes Brooks' death was "largely a result of the strain that he experienced from the Rules Committee vote. The party had demanded a vote that had a large and vocal opposition among the congressman's constituents."[21]

Brooks' death propelled Waggonner into the special election to choose a new representative. After winning an easy closed Democratic primary race, Waggonner faced a stronger-than-usual Republican challenger in Charlton Lyons, a Shreveport oilman originally from Vermilion Parish in south Louisiana. Waggonner nevertheless prevailed with 54 percent of the vote, having carried every parish in the district except Lyons' adopted Caddo Parish. Waggonner ran again with ease in 1962 for election to his first full term in the House.

Brooks was a member of the Masonic Lodge, the Shriners, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and the Kiwanis International.

Brooks is interred at Forest Park Cemetery East in Shreveport, the resting place of many Shreveport politicians. He was Episcopalian.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Overton Brooks dies", Shreveport Times, September 17, 1961, p. 1
  2. ^ Minden Herald, January 3, 1936, p. 7
  3. ^ "Hot Election Forecast for Louisiana Democratic Primary", St. Petersburg Times, St. Petersburg, Florida, September 9, 1940
  4. ^ Minden Herald, July 28, 1950, p. 1
  5. ^ "Social Security Death Index". ssdi.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  6. ^ "James Greene Enters Race for Congress," Minden Herald, June 2, 1950, p. 12
  7. ^ Minden Herald, November 16, 1951, p. 2
  8. ^ Minden Press, June 13, 1952, p. 12
  9. ^ Minden Herald, June 23, 1952, p. 3
  10. ^ Minden Herald, July 4, 1952, p. 6
  11. ^ Minden Press, July 11, 1952, p. 9, reprinted from Shreveport Journal, June 27, 1952
  12. ^ Minden Press (advertisement), July 18, 1952, p. 14
  13. ^ "Overton Brooks VA Medical Center". switchboard.com. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Billy McCormack". mccormackmissiongroup.com. Retrieved June 10, 2012. 
  15. ^ Minden Herald, July 26, 1956, p. 2
  16. ^ a b c d e Fred McClanahan advertisement, Minden Press, October 17, 1960, p. 5
  17. ^ "Mary Virginia McClanahan (1923-2014)". rose-neath.com. Retrieved June 24, 2014. 
  18. ^ The Shreveport Times, December 8, 1963
  19. ^ Minden Herald, February 16, 1961, p. 13
  20. ^ "Ku Klux Klan cross burning at home of Overton Brooks," The Shreveport Times, February 8, 1961
  21. ^ James C. Gardner, Jim Gardner and Shreveport, Vol. II (Shreveport: Sarah Hudson-Pierce's Ritz Publications, 2006), pp. 30–31
  • Ken Hechler, The Endless Space Frontier. A History of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1959–1978 (Univelt, 1982) ISBN 0-87703-157-6 (hardback), ISBN 0-87703-158-4 (paperback)
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
John N. Sandlin
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 4th congressional district

1937–1961
Succeeded by
Joe Waggonner