Oveta Culp Hobby

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Oveta Culp Hobby
Hobby-Oveta-Culp.jpg
1st United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
In office
April 11, 1953 – July 13, 1955
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Marion B. Folsom
Personal details
Born Oveta Culp
(1905-01-19)January 19, 1905
Killeen, Texas
Died August 16, 1995(1995-08-16) (aged 90)
Houston, Texas
Spouse(s) William P. Hobby
Hobby (right) during World War II

Oveta Culp Hobby (January 19, 1905 – August 16, 1995) was the first secretary of the US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first commanding officer of the Women's Army Corps, and chairperson of the board of the Houston Post.

Early life and war service[edit]

Culp was born on January 19, 1905, in Killeen, Texas to Isaac William Culp and Emma Elizabeth Hoover. An autodidact, she briefly attended Mary Hardin Baylor College for Women, but did not graduate. She graduated from the University of Texas Law School in 1925. Beginning at age 21 and for the next several years she served as parliamentarian of the Texas House of Representatives. In 1931 she married William P. Hobby, the former Governor of Texas and the publisher of the Houston Post, and took a position as research editor at the Post. In ensuing years she became the newspaper's executive vice president, president, ultimately becoming its publisher.

During World War II she headed the War Department's Women's Interest Section for a short time and then became the Director of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (later the Women's Army Corps), which was created to fill gaps left by a shortage of men. The members of the WAC were the first women other than nurses to be in Army uniform. Hobby achieved the rank of colonel and received the Distinguished Service Medal for efforts during the war. She was the first woman in the Army to receive this award.

Political career and later life[edit]

President Dwight D. Eisenhower named her head of the Federal Security Agency, a non-cabinet post, and she was invited to sit in on cabinet meetings. Soon, on April 11, 1953, she became the first secretary, and first female secretary, of the new Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, which later became the Department of Health and Human Services. This was her second time organizing a new government agency. Among other decisions and actions at HEW, she made the decision to approve Jonas Salk's polio vaccine.

She resigned her post in 1955 to return to Houston to care for her ailing husband. At the time of her resignation she was embroiled in controversies related to the polio vaccine Cutter Incident. Back in Houston, Hobby resumed her position with the Houston Post as president and editor and cared for her husband. She went on to serve on many boards and advisory positions with various civic and business institutions around the country. Seventeen colleges and universities, including Columbia University and the University of Pennsylvania, awarded her honorary doctoral degrees. Eisenhower encouraged her to run for President in 1960, but she did not run.[1] She died of a stroke in 1995, in Houston, and was buried at Glenwood Cemetery.

Her son William P. Hobby, Jr., served as Lieutenant Governor of Texas from 1973 to 1991. Her daughter Jessica was married to Henry E. Catto, Jr., the former United States Ambassador to Great Britain and was an activist for environmental causes and for the Democratic Party. Hobby’s grandson Paul Hobby narrowly lost the election for comptroller of Texas to Carole Strayhorn in the 1998 general election.

Colonel Hobby's portrait in military uniform at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.

Legacy[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Pando, Robert T. "Oveta Culp Hobby: A Study in Power and Control." Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 2008, 220 pages.
  • Treadwell, Mattie. The Woman's Army Corps (1954)
  • Walsh, Kelli Cardenas. "Oveta Culp Hobby: A transformational leader from the Texas legislature to Washington, D.C." Ph.D. diseertation, University of South Carolina, 2006, 199 pages; AAT in ProQuest

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, Jean Edward, Eisenhower in War and Peace (N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 2012 (ISBN 978-1-4000-6693-3)), p. 756.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Office established
United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
April 11, 1953 – July 31, 1955
Succeeded by
Marion Bayard Folsom
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Erich von Manstein
Cover of Time Magazine
17 January 1944
Succeeded by
Jimmy Durante