Oxenstierna, an ancient Swedish noble family, the origin of which can be traced up to the middle of the 14th century, which had vast estates in Södermanland and Uppland, and began to adopt its armorial designation of Oxenstierna ("Ox-forehead"; stierna, in modern spelling "stjärna", has the double meaning of "star") as a personal name towards the end of the 16th century. Its most notable members include the following:
- Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna, (1390s-1450), regent of Sweden
- Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna, (1390s-1450s)
- Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, (1417-1467)
- Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, (1583–1654), Powerful chancellor of the Realm, during Sweden's Age of Greatness
- Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, (1587–1640)
- Bengt Oxenstierna (1591–1643), Swedish Privy Councillor, Governor-General of Ingria and Livonia;
- Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna, (1611–1657)
- Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna of Korsholm and Vasa (1623–1702), President of the Royal Swedish Chancellery, Military Governor of Warsaw;
- Christiana Oxenstierna (1661-1701)
- Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna (1750–1818), member of the Swedish Academy;
- Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna, winner of the Olympic gold medal in modern pentathlon (1932).
The Oxenstierna brought the blood of Agnes Hákonardottir and Charles VIII of Sweden back into the throne of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the persons of Christian IX of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway, and Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, the current monarch. All three monarchs today descends from the Oxenstierna through their common ancestor, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, whose paternal grandmother was Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlobitten, great-great-granddaughter of Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna, 1st Count of Korsholma and Vaasa, himself father of Bengt Gabrielsson the aforementioned and first cousin of Axel and Bengt Gustafssöner, as well as great-great-great-great-grandson of regent Bengt Jönsson the aforementioned. Oxenstierna was also the distant descendant of the aforementioned Charles VIII of Sweden and Agnes Hákonardottir.