The Oxnard Plain is a large coastal plain in southwest Ventura County, California bounded by the Santa Monica Mountains, the Santa Susana Mountains, and Oak Ridge (beyond which lies the Conejo Valley) to the east, the Topatopa Mountains to the north, the Santa Clara River Valley to the northeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south and west. The Oxnard Plain is home to the cities of Oxnard, Camarillo, Port Hueneme and much of Ventura as well as the unincorporated communities of Channel Islands, El Rio, Saticoy and Somis which comprise a majority of the western half of the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura Metro Area.
This alluvial plain has been formed chiefly by the deposition of sediments from Calleguas Creek and Santa Clara River before they flow into the Pacific Ocean. The Santa Clara River is one of the largest river systems along the coast of Southern California and only one of two remaining river systems in the region that remain in their natural states and not channelized by concrete. The alluvial deposits from these rivers are generally a few hundred feet (30 metres) thick and lie over Pleistocene and Pliocene sedimentary rocks.
This portion of the Southern California Bight is among the longest stretches of continuous, linear beaches in the state; measured from the abrupt transition from a steep rocky shore just past Point Mugu on the south to the Ventura River on the north, the coastline is 16.5 miles (26.6 km) long. This coastal area contained a series of marshes, salt flats, sloughs, and lagoons prior to the agricultural expansion, drainage systems, and other disturbances.:xix Amidst the coastal beaches and sand dunes, is one of the most engineered coastlines in the state with the Port of Hueneme, Channel Islands Harbor, and Ventura Harbor along with a number of breakwaters, jetties and groins.(p56)
Ventura County is one of the principal agricultural counties in the state. The high quality soils, adequate water supply, favorable climate, long growing season, and level topography are characteristic of the Oxnard Plain where the top cash crops are strawberries, raspberries, nursery stock, celery, tomatoes, lima beans, and cut flowers. The acreage devoted to various Oriental vegetables such as Bok choi is also increasing.
In addition to agriculture, the Oxnard Plain contains a considerable petroleum reserve. Several active oil fields underlie the Plain – the Oxnard Oil Field, east of Oxnard, the West Montalvo Oil Field, along the coast south of the outlet of the Santa Clara River, and the Santa Clara Avenue Oil Field north of U.S. Highway 101 near El Rio. There are also several smaller abandoned oil fields. Oil facilities are interspersed with agricultural land uses both east and west of Oxnard.
Prehistory and indigenous peoples
Human settlement at over 5000 B.C.E. has been documented in nearby coastal sites. Calleguas Creek and the Santa Clara River were populated with many Native American villages as evidenced by archeological sites such as the Calleguas Creek Site that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Several sites have also been documented at Point Mugu. Archeological sites on the plain, found mainly along the water courses and shoreline, have been disturbed by erosion, farming, gophers, bulldozers, and other cultural and natural sources of disturbance.
After its founding in 1782, Chumash people were recruited to move to the Mission San Buenaventura. Although the mission was next to the Ventura River 10 miles (16 km) upcoast from the Santa Clara River, thousands of acres were needed for grazing herds of livestock. The introduction of these animals contributed to the traditional way of life becoming increasingly unstable and unsustainable on the Oxnard Plain south of the river. They also experienced further disruptive contacts through the increasing number of Europeans and Americans that visited the California coast looking for pelts from fur-bearing animals such as sea otters, and trade in hides and tallow beginning in the 1790s. The destruction wrought by the livestock and shortages of wild plants that they used for food may have made the missions appear to be the only viable alternative to a disintegrating way of life. At its peak in 1816, the mission had over 41,000 animals including 23,400 cattle, 12,144 sheep. The 4,493 horses constituted one of the largest stables of horses of the California mission sites. The Chumash culture, including political and social relationships between communities, trade, and inter-village marriage patterns, could not be sustained as more and more Chumash people abandoned their traditional way of life and entered the mission. The severe decrease in the Chumash population was in response to a complex set of social, economic, and demographic factors.
The secularization of the mission by the Mexican government in June 1836 opened the Oxnard Plain up to further settlement by Europeans. Most of the arable land was divided up into large ranchos by 1846. Many of the Spanish and Mexican rancho families benefited when the cattle market peaked between 1848 and 1855 due to the California Gold Rush. Cattle ranching declined drastically when a drought hit the area in 1863.
California state period
James Saviers bought property in Rancho Colonia in 1862. He was a blacksmith and farmer who grew and sold eucalyptus trees used to protect crops from the seasonal Santa Ana winds that originated inland and brought strong, hot, extremely dry winds to the treeless plain. Settlers Gottfried Maulhardt and Christian Borchard along with Christian's son, John Edward, and nephew, Caspar began farming with 30 acres (12 ha) of wheat and barley in 1867. New markets for the grain opened up when a shipping wharf was first constructed in 1871 at Hueneme. Irish Immigrant Dominick McGrath arrived in 1874 with his wife and children to begin farming on the plain. Johnnas Diedrich, with his bride, Matilda, began a new life of farming in 1882 having come from Hanover, Germany. Lima beans eventually became the dominant crop but farmers were actively growing trial fields of sugar beets in 1897. New Jerusalem was founded in 1875 along the south bank of the Santa Clara River. The community, eventually renamed El Rio, was along the route between Ventura and Hueneme.
Railroad and sugarbeet factory
In 1887, the railroad from Los Angeles established the Montalvo station nearby on the north side of the river. In 1898 the Montalvo Cutoff brought the railroad across the Santa Clara River at El Rio and then due south to where the town of Oxnard was being established. The Oxnard Brothers built the American Beet Sugar Company factory on land in the middle portion of the plain that they bought from James Saviers. He became a judge and an honorary justice of the peace: Saviers Road was named after him in the new city of Oxnard that arose around the factory. The railroad continued with tracks heading east out of Oxnard and eventually being extended to Santa Susana in Simi Valley. Traffic on the coast railroad line was rerouted through Oxnard in 1904 with the completion of the Santa Susana Tunnel as this became the most direct route between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
Agriculture as an industry, as differentiated from family farming, began with the access to the railroad network. In 1903, this transition in agriculture labor practices found Japanese and Mexican sugar beet workers and labor contractors united in protest as the growers, backed by financiers, slashed the wage rate by 50 percent and sought to eliminate independent labor agents. The workers formed the Japanese Mexican Labor Association to press their concerns. While one ethnic group can often be pitted against another to undermine labor solidarity, the Oxnard Strike of 1903 unified them, Their efforts has brought the industry to a standstill until their demands were met.
In 1911, J. Smeaton Chase noted the "prosperous fields of beans and beets" as he descended from the Santa Monica Mountains onto the Oxnard Plain during his 2,000-mile (3,200 km) horseback journey from Mexico to Oregon. In his book about the journey, he describes the "sleepy little coast village of Hueneme" as a "ghost of a once flourishing town" due to the establishment of a beet sugar factory. The once busy port had drastically declined as passenger and freight traffic shifted to the railroad.
While the vast fields of fertile soil were appreciated for the agricultural bounty that could be produced, the sand dunes and wetlands along the coast line were considered useless except as places to dispose of solid and liquid waste. This at least dates back to 1898 when the beet sugar factory sent the wastewater discharge through a pipe to Ormond Beach. Various other areas near the coast were used for dumping trash and oil-waste, much of the time with local government encouragement and supervision. The Halaco Engineering Co., a metal recycling facility at the Ormond Beach wetlands, deposited process wastes and wastewater from the smelter from 1965 until 2004 on what was allegedly a former open dump operated by the City of Oxnard until 1962. The waste pile contains an estimated 112,900 cubic yards (86,300 m3) and the facility has been designated a Superfund site. Other large, polluting industries were cited at Ormond Beach wetlands before environmental concerns highlighted the importance of restoring the area to serve as a dynamic habitat for a wide array of native plants and animals.
Municipal wastewater treatment facilities, industrial dischargers, and power generating stations are point source dischargers along the coast of the Oxnard plain. Two power generating stations were built in the 1960s to take advantage of the ocean for cooling. The Oxnard City council tried to prevent a third plant from being built in 2012. After years of legal tussles, the 45-megawatt McGrath Peaker Plant was built by Edison next to the existing power plant at Mandalay.
While agriculture was important to the economy on the Oxnard Plain, many felt there was an aggressive paving-over of agricultural land especially during the booming growth in the 1960s. Several methods were tried to encourage the building in compact, connected ways and reduce urban sprawl into the agricultural lands. "Guidelines for orderly development" were developed followed by the establishment of greenbelt agreements between cities and the voter approved "Save Open-space and Agricultural Resources" (SOAR) initiatives. In 1998, the Oxnard city council was pressured by "Save Open-space and Agricultural Resources" (SOAR) activists, such as Jean Harris, to consider a plan that would limit housing and commercial development on farmland surrounding the city. Later that same year, the County SOAR initiative was overwhelmingly approved by voters. Under SOAR, the farmland and open space outside each city's urban growth boundary could not be rezoned without voter approval through 2020. Ballot initiatives for 2016 have been proposed to extend them for another 30 years. As of 2014[update], farmland values in California were at historic highs and the agricultural industry was optimistic and even confident about the future.
Salt-water intrusion from the ocean has occurred in the southern Oxnard Plain due to the overdraft of groundwater. Early settlers began pumping to support farming activities but in the modern era much of the groundwater has been rendered useless for agricultural or potable uses. For nearly 100 years, United Water Conservation District has battled groundwater overdraft through a combination of aquifer recharge and alternative surface water supplies. Unlike coastal Los Angeles and Orange County, Ventura County has no salt-water intrusion barrier in place.
Several cities on the Oxnard plain receive some of their water supplies from the Calleguas, a wholesaler. Oxnard, Port Hueneme, and Camarillo along with Moorpark, Thousand Oaks, Simi Valley and unincorporated areas in the east county means they serve about 75 percent of Ventura County's population. Calleguas ships state water from the Delta to the local agencies. The Calleguas Regional Salinity Management Project, is a $220 million pipeline project started in 2003 that will stretch from the ocean through Camarillo and Moorpark and possibly into Simi Valley. Many local agencies have built or are putting in desalters to treat salty groundwater that will make the region less dependent on imported state water. The treated water can be used for drinking supplies and the remaining salt concentrate sent out to sea through the brine line.
- Thomas, H. E., and Others (1962) "Effects of Drought Along Pacific Coast in California: 1942-56" Geological Survey Professional Paper, Volume 372-G. United States Department of the Interior
- Hall Jr., Clarence A. Introduction to the Geology of Southern California and Its Native Plants. University of California Press. p. 254.
- "SUBSEQUENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT FOR FOCUSED GENERAL PLAN UPDATE and Related Amendments to the Non-Coastal Zoning Ordinance and Zone Change ZN05-0008" County of Ventura (June 22, 2005)
- Beller,, E.E.; Grossinger, R.M.; Salomon, M.N.; Dark, S.J.; Stein, E.D.; Orr, B.K.; Downs, P.W.; Longcore, T.R.; Coffman, G.C.; Whipple, A.A.; Askevold, R.A.; Stanford, B.; Beagle, J.R. (2011). Historical ecology of the lower Santa Clara River, Ventura River, and Oxnard Plain: An Analysis of Terrestrial, Riverine, and Coastal Habitats. Publication 641. San Francisco Estuarine Institute.
- Hapke, Cheryl J.; Reid, David; Richmond, Bruce M.; Ruggiero, Peter; and List, Jeff (2006) "National Assessment of Shoreline Change Part 3: Historical Shoreline Change and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along Sandy Shorelines of the California Coast" U.S. Geological Survey
- "Crop Report 2012" Ventura County Agricultural Commissioner
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- Gamble, Lynn H. (2008). The Chumash World at European Contact: Power, Trade, and Feasting Among Complex Hunter-Gatherers. University of California Press. ISBN 0520254414.
- Jackson, Robert H. with Gardzina, Anne (2012) "Agriculture, Drought, and Chumash Congregation in California Missions (1782-1834)" California Mission Studies Association
- Board of Supervisors (June 28, 2011) "General Plan Resources Appendix" Section 126.96.36.199 Historical Resource Description Ventura County
- California Coastal Commission (1987). California Coastal Resource Guide. University of California Press. ISBN 0520061853.
- "Putting Down Roots: Ventura County’s Immigrant Farmers, 1800-1910" Museum of Ventura County Website Agricultural Museum: History of Ventura County. Accessed 17 February 2014
- Maulhardt, Jeffrey Wayne (2001). Beans, Beets, & Babies.. Camarillo, CA: MOBOOKS. ISBN 0-9657515-2-X.
- "Historic Resources Report: 6135 N. Rose Avenue, Saticoy, CA" San Buenaventura Research Associates, Santa Paula, California 18 July 2011
- Murphy, Arnold L. Compiler (1979) "A Comprehensive Story of Ventura County, California" M & N Printing, Oxnard
- Obituaries (May 29, 1996) "Edwin Diedrich; Oxnard Farmer" Los Angeles Times
- Ventura County: Hueneme Los Angeles Herald 25 September 1897 Volume 26, Number 360, Page 7
- "CHATSWORTH PARK CUTOFF LINE OPENS TODAY" Los Angeles Herald 20 March 1904. Volume XXXI, Number 173, Page 2
- Barajas, Frank P. (26 January 2014) "Local 'farmers' buy trucks, too" Ventura County Star (subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries)
- Chase, J. Smeaton (1913). "California Coast Trails: a Horseback Ride from Mexico to Oregon" Chapter VI. Reprinted in The Double Cone Register, the online journal of the Ventana Wilderness Alliance, Volume VIII, No. 1, Fall 2005
- McCartney, Patrick (10 November 1991). "Flynn Calls for Mandalay Bay Investigation : Oxnard: At issue is whether all traces of a landfill and oil-waste dump were removed before the waterfront housing was built". Los Angeles Times.
- (November 27, 2012) "National Priorities List: Site Narrative for Halaco Engineering Company" US Environmental Protection Agency
- Wenner, Gretchen (November 21, 2014) "Ormond Beach loses key planner, but vision remains" Ventura County Star
- Wenner, Gretchen (November 6, 2014) "NRG, emboldened by winning bid, wants Oxnard's support for new plant" Ventura County Star (subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries)
- Wenner, Gretchen (June 30, 2014) "Power plant battle to rattle Oxnard council chambers" Ventura County Star
- Kelley, Daryl (April 29, 2001) "Illness Forces Environmental Crusader to Sidelines." Los Angeles Times
- Harris, Mike (June 12, 2014) "Ventura County corridor ranked in top third of least sprawling areas" Ventura County Star (subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries)
- Murillo, Cathy (March 9, 1998) "Oxnard to Consider Growth Limit" Los Angeles Times
- Bustillo, Miguel (November 5, 1998). "In Victory, SOAR Seeks Sense of Permanence". Los Angeles Times.
- Boyd-Barrett, Claudia (June 20, 2014) "County supervisor urges renewal of open-space preservation laws" Ventura County Star[dead link]
- Brumback, Elijah (November 14, 2014) "Virginia REIT targets Central Coast ag land" Pacific Coast Business Times
- Hoops, Stephanie (October 21, 2014) "Virginia company buys up Ventura County farmland" Ventura County Star (subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries)
- Carollo Engineers (August 2014) "SOUTH OXNARD PLAIN BRACKISH WATER TREATMENT FEASIBILITY STUDY: TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM" United Water Conservation District
- Wenner, Gretchen (October 17, 2011) "Pipeline construction in south Oxnard expected to wrap up in spring" Ventura County Star
- Maulhardt, Jeffrey Wayne (1999). The First Farmers of the Oxnard Plain: A biographical history of the Borchard and Maulhardt families.. Camarillo, CA: MOBOOKS. ISBN 0965751511.