Oxted

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 51°15′25″N 0°00′22″W / 51.257°N 0.006°W / 51.257; -0.006

Oxted
North side of Station Road, Oxted - geograph.org.uk - 272492.jpg
The timber-framed stucco façades of buildings on Oxted High Street
Oxted is located in Surrey
Oxted
Oxted
 Oxted shown within Surrey
Area  15.15 km2 (5.85 sq mi)
Population 11,314 (Civil Parish)[1]
    - Density  747 /km2 (1,930 /sq mi)
OS grid reference TQ3953
    - London 17.9 mi (28.8 km)  
Civil parish Oxted
District Tandridge
Shire county Surrey
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town OXTED
Postcode district RH8
Dialling code 01883
Police Surrey
Fire Surrey
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament East Surrey
List of places
UK
England
Surrey

Oxted is a town and civil parish in the Tandridge District of Surrey, England, at the foot of the North Downs north of East Grinstead and south-east of Croydon. Oxted is a commuter town which has a station with direct train services to London. Its main developed area is contiguous with the village of Limpsfield and Hurst Green There are sources of the River Eden, Kent, including its main source.

The settlements of Hurst Green and Holland are also within the civil parish.

History[edit]

Mills and manors[edit]

The town lay within the Anglo-Saxon Tandridge hundred. Oxted appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Acstede, meaning 'Place where oaks grew'. It was held by Eustace II of Boulogne. Its Domesday assets were: 5 hides; 1 church, 2 mills worth 12s 6d, 20 ploughs, 4 acres (16,000 m2) of meadow, pannage worth 100 hogs. It rendered £14 and 2d from a house in Southwark to its feudal overlords per year.[2]

Three mills are mentioned in the inquisition on Roland of Oxted, 1291–2. To a greater or lesser extent these were alienated from the main manor, which had become one of four, before 1689, when they were in the possession of Thomas Causton. In 1712 only one is mentioned as appertaining to the manor. The five manors were: Oxted, Barrow Green, Bursted/Bearsted, Broadham, Stocketts and Foyle.

The history of the first suggests wealthy tranche of the parish and is instructive as to social history; by marriage it became by agreed settlement a manor of Ralph Earl of Westmorland, with remainder to Thomas Cobham, his wife's uncle. Margaret died in 1460, leaving no children and her husband held the manor until his death in 1485, when it passed to Anne, only child and heir of Thomas Cobham, who had married Sir Edward Burgh. She died in 1526, and her husband, who 'became distracted of memorie,' died two years later, leaving a son and heir Thomas, afterwards created the Lord Burgh.[3]

Civil development and expansion from village into a commuter town[edit]

The original village of Oxted (now Old Oxted) is a small village centred around a short high street with four pubs (The Old Bell, The George Inn, The Crown Inn and The Wheatsheaf) just off the A25. Oxted's oldest church which still provides services, St Mary's, was built in a field, upstream from and north-east of the medieval heart of Oxted, near Master Park and the railway station. The Grade I listed church dates from at least Norman times and stands on a conspicuous mound.[4]

With the arrival of the railway in 1884 (after many years' delay caused by lack of funds) Oxted boomed in line with London's trade growth around its station, north-east of Old Oxted), and new buildings created "New Oxted". These new buildings were built in the Tudor style, particularly with stucco frontages. All Saints Catholic Church was built in 1913-1928 designed by prominent Arts & Crafts architect James L. Williams (died 1926, his other work includes Royal School of Needlework, St George’s in Sudbury, London (1926–27) and The Pound House in Totteridge (1907)).[5] The United Reformed Church's building followed in 1935, which is listed for its coloured glass and Byzantine design by architect Frederick Lawrence.[6]

In 2011 The Daily Telegraph listed Oxted as the twentieth richest town in Britain.[7]

Community events and status[edit]

Band and civic centre[edit]

Oxted is one of the few Surrey towns to retain its town brass band, Oxted Band, which has been a permanent fixture within the town since 1901 and the town became the administrative town of the Tandridge District when it was established in 1974.[8][9]

Pram race[edit]

Oxted is host to a charity pram race held annually. It was started in 1977 by Eric and Elsie Hallson, who ran it for nearly 20 years before retiring. Entrants wear fancy dress and must push a pram around the two thirds of a mile course, stopping at each of the seven licensed premises on the way to quaff a drink as quickly as they can. The race ends in Old Oxted high street where the road is closed for the evening and a street party is held.[10]

Events in Master Park[edit]

The park hosts annual events such as by the local cricket club.[11]

Geography[edit]

The Greenwich Meridian runs through Oxted, passing through Oxted School and the parish encompasses a long divide between the two ranges of hills, reaching up to their escarpments, the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge which is almost completely eroded at Hurst Green within the parish due to the action of the multiple headwaters of the River Eden, Kent which rise in the parish, including its main source.

Nonetheless this in terms of its long boundaries renders the north of the parish within the so-called Vale of Holmesdale, which is drained by four main, unconnected rivers. The other very near village (other than Limpsfield) is that of Tandridge which sits on an edge of the Greensand Ridge, where as at Redhill it has been eroded by the action of small, fast southward-flowing brooks over the course of many millennia. These ultimately flow into the Medway once they have reached mid-Kent.[3] Limpsfield is contiguous with Oxted; both have a main clustered community with the remainder of the land largely wooded or agricultural.

Notable residents[edit]

Education[edit]

Oxted's main school is Oxted School (Oxted County School until 2000), which is a large secondary school. Opened in 1929, it has over 2000 pupils and is one of the largest in the country. There are two other state schools in Oxted, Downs Way primary school and St Mary's C of E junior school.

There is one private school, Hazelwood School (co-education 2.5 to 13 years).

Governance[edit]

There is one representative on Surrey County Council, conservative Nick Skellett CBE.[14] There are a total of six representatives on Tandridge District Council with much of Oxted South being Hurst Green :

Member Since Member[15]

Ward

1994 David Courtenay Weightman Oxted North & Tandridge
1987 Gordon Charles Keymer Oxted North & Tandridge
2003 Martin Fisher Oxted North & Tandridge
2007 Simon Ainsworth Oxted South
2000 Barry Charles Chittenden Compton Oxted South
2004 Elizabeth Parker Oxted South

There is also a parish council with 11 members shared with Hurst Green, Surrey described as Oxted, it being in the same post town.[16]

Demography and housing[edit]

2011 Census Homes
Output area Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes shared between households[1]
(Civil Parish) 1,427 1,282 911 799 3 1

The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average that was apartments was 22.6%.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares[1]
(Civil Parish) 11,314 4,423 36.6% 36.5% 1,515

The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings (plus a negligible % of households living rent-free).

Nearest settlements[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Key Statistics; Quick Statistics: Population Density United Kingdom Census 2011 Office for National Statistics Retrieved 21 November 2013
  2. ^ Surrey Domesday Book
  3. ^ a b H.E. Malden (editor) (1912). "Parishes: Oxted". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 01 December 2013. 
  4. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1189608)". National Heritage List for England .
  5. ^ All Saints English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1245423)". National Heritage List for England .
  6. ^ The United Reformed Church, Oxted English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1388287)". National Heritage List for England .
  7. ^ "Britain's richest towns: 20 - 11". The Daily Telegraph (London). 18 April 2008. 
  8. ^ OxtedBand.co.uk
  9. ^ Tandridge District Council
  10. ^ Oxtedpramrace.co.uk
  11. ^ oxtedandlimpsfieldbeerfestival.co.uk
  12. ^ Bower, Tom (1998). Fayed: The Unauthorized Biography. Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-333-74554-0. 
  13. ^ Salmon, James. "Kim Woodburn: My Money". Daily Mail. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  14. ^ "List of Surrey CC Councillors". Surrey County Council. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  15. ^ "Council Members". Tandridge District Council. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  16. ^ "Parish Council Members". Oxted Parish Council. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  17. ^ Torode, John (29 June 1993). "BOOK REVIEW / The art of collective irresponsibility: Harold Laski - Isaac Kramnick and Barry Sheerman: Hamish Hamilton, pounds 25". The Independent (London). Retrieved 7 May 2013.