Oxyrhynchus Papyri

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Grenfell (left) and Hunt (right) in about 1896

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by archaeologists including Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (28°32′N 30°40′E / 28.533°N 30.667°E / 28.533; 30.667, modern el-Bahnasa). The manuscripts date from the 1st to the 6th century AD. They include thousands of Greek and Latin documents, letters and literary works. They also include a few vellum manuscripts, and more recent Arabic manuscripts on paper (for example, the medieval P. Oxy. VI 1006).

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are currently housed in many institutions all over the world. A substantial number are housed in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University.

Although the initial hope of finding many of the lost literary works of antiquity at Oxyrhynchus was not realized, many important Greek texts were found at the site. These include poems of Pindar, fragments of Sappho and Alcaeus, along with larger pieces of Alcman, Ibycus, and Corinna.

There were also extensive remains of the Hypsipyle of Euripides, fragments of the comedies of Menander, and a large part of the Ichneutae of Sophocles.[1] Also found were the oldest and most complete diagrams from Euclid's Elements. Fragments of Euclid discovered lead to a re-evaluation of the accuracy of ancient sources for The Elements, revealing that the version of Theon of Alexandria has more authority than previously believed; according to Thomas Little Heath. Another important find was the historical work known as the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, whose author is unknown but may be Ephorus or, as many currently think, Cratippus. A life of Euripides by Satyrus the Peripatetic was also unearthed, while an epitome of seven of the 107 lost books of Livy was the most important literary find in Latin.

The classical author who has most benefited from the finds at Oxyrhynchus is the Athenian playwright Menander (342–291 BC), whose comedies were very popular in Hellenistic times and whose works are frequently found in papyrus fragments. Menander's plays found in fragments at Oxyrhynchus include Misoumenos, Dis Exapaton, Epitrepontes, Karchedonios, Dyskolos and Kolax. The works found at Oxyrhynchus have greatly raised Menander's status among classicists and scholars of Greek theatre.

There is an on-line table of contents briefly listing the type of contents of each papyrus or fragment.[2]

Theological manuscripts[edit]

Main article: Biblical manuscript

Among the Christian texts found at Oxyrhynchus, were fragments of early non-canonical Gospels, Oxyrhynchus 840 (3rd century AD) and Oxyrhynchus 1224 (4th century AD). Other Oxyrhynchus texts preserve parts of Matthew 1 (3rd century: P2 and P401), 11–12 and 19 (3rd to 4th century: P2384, 2385); Mark 10–11 (5th to 6th century: P3); John 1 and 20 (3rd century: P208); Romans 1 (4th century: P209); the First Epistle of John (4th-5th century: P402); the Apocalypse of Baruch (chapters 12–14; 4th or 5th century: P403); the Gospel according to the Hebrews (3rd century AD: P655); The Shepherd of Hermas (3rd or 4th century: P404), and a work of Irenaeus, (3rd century: P405). There are many parts of other canonical books as well as many early Christian hymns, prayers, and letters also found among them.

All manuscripts classified as "theological" in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri are listed below. A few manuscripts that belong to multiple genres, or genres that are inconsistently treated in the volumes of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, are also included. For example, the quotation from Psalm 90 (P. Oxy. XVI 1928) associated with an amulet, is classified according to its primary genre as a magic text in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri; however, it is included here among witnesses to the Old Testament text. In each volume that contains theological manuscripts, they are listed first, according to an English tradition of academic precedence (see Doctor of Divinity).

Old Testament[edit]

Main article: Old Testament
P. Oxy. VI 846: Amos 2 (LXX)

The original Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC. This translation is called the Septuagint (or LXX, both 70 in Latin), because there is a tradition that seventy Jewish scribes compiled it in Alexandria. It was quoted in the New Testament and is found bound together with the New Testament in the 4th and 5th century Greek uncial codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus and Vaticanus. The Septuagint included books, called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanonical by Christians, which were later not accepted into the Jewish canon of sacred writings (see next section). Portions of Old Testament books of undisputed authority found among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri are listed in this section.

  • The first number (Vol) is the volume of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri in which the manuscript is published.
  • The second number (Oxy) is the overall publication sequence number in Oxyrhynchus Papyri.
  • Standard abbreviated citation of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri is:
P. Oxy. <volume in Roman numerals> <publication sequence number>.
  • Context will always make clear whether volume 70 of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri or the Septuagint is intended.
  • P. Oxy. VIII 1073 is an Old Latin version of Genesis, other manuscripts are probably copies of the Septuagint.
  • Dates are estimated to the nearest 50 year increment.
  • Content is given to the nearest verse where known.
Vol Oxy Date Content Institution City, State Country
IV 656 150 Gen 14:21–23; 15:5–9; 19:32–20:11;
24:28–47; 27:32–33, 40–41
Bodleian Library; MS.Gr.bib.d.5(P) Oxford UK
VI 845 400 Psalms 68; 70 Egyptian Museum; JE 41083 Cairo Egypt
VI 846 550 Amos 2 University of Pennsylvania; E 3074 Philadelphia
Pennsylvania
U.S.
VII 1007 400 Genesis 2–3 British Museum; Inv. 2047 London UK
VIII 1073 350 Gen 5–6 Old Latin British Museum; Inv. 2052 London UK
VIII 1074 250 Exodus 31–32 University of Illinois; GP 1074 Urbana, Illinois U.S.
VIII 1075 250 Exodus 11:26–32 British Library; Inv. 2053 (recto) London UK
IX 1166 250 Genesis 16:8–12 British Library; Inv. 2066 London UK
IX 1167 350 Genesis 31 Princeton Theological Seminary
Pap. 9
Princeton
New Jersey
U.S.
IX 1168 350 Joshua 4-5 vellum Princeton Theological Seminary
Pap. 10
Princeton
New Jersey
U.S.
X 1225 350 Leviticus 16 Princeton Theological Seminary
Pap. 12
Princeton
New Jersey
U.S.
X 1226 300 Psalms 7–8 Liverpool University
Class. Gr. Libr. 4241227
Liverpool UK
XI 1351 350 Lev 27 vellum Ambrose Swasey Library; 886.4

Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
(prior to private sale)

Rochester
New York
U.S.
XI 1352 325 Pss 82–83 vellum Egyptian Museum; JE 47472 Cairo Egypt
XV 1779 350 Psalm 1 United Theological Seminary Dayton, Ohio U.S.
XVI 1928 500 Ps 90 amulet Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XVII 2065 500 Psalm 90 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XVII 2066 500 Ecclesiastes 6–7 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXIV 2386 500 Psalms 83–84 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
L 3522 50 Job 42.11–12 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LX 4011 550 Ps 75 interlinear Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4442 225 Ex 20:10–17, 18–22 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4443 100 Esther 6–7 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK

Old Testament Deuterocanon (or, Apocrypha)[edit]

This name designates several, unique writings (e.g., the Book of Tobit) or different versions of pre-existing writings (e.g., the Book of Daniel) found in the canon of the Jewish scriptures (most notably, in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Tanakh). Although those writings were no longer viewed as having a canonical status amongst Jews by the beginning of the second century A.D., they retained that status for much of the Christian Church. They were and are accepted as part of the Old Testament canon by the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches. Protestant Christians, however, follow the example of the Jews and do not accept these writings as part of the Old Testament canon.

  • PP. Oxy. XIII 1594 and LXV 4444 are vellum ("vellum" noted in table).
  • Both copies of Tobit are different editions to the known Septuagint text ("not LXX" noted in table).
Vol Oxy Date Content Institution City, State Country
III 403 400 Apocalypse of Baruch 12–14 St. Mark's Library
General Theological Seminary
New York City U.S.
VII 1010 350 2 Esdras 16:57–59 Bodleian Library
MS.Gr.bib.g.3(P)
Oxford UK
VIII 1076 550 Tobit 2
not LXX
John Rylands University Library
448
Manchester UK
XIII 1594 275 Tobit 12
vellum, not LXX
Cambridge University Library
Add.MS. 6363
Cambridge UK
XIII 1595 550 Ecclesiasticus 1
Palestine Institute Museum
Pacific School of Religion
Berkeley
California
U.S.
XVII 2069 400 1 Enoch 85.10–86.2, 87.1–3 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XVII 2074 450 Apostrophe to Wisdom [?] Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4444 350 Wisdom 4:17–5:1
vellum
Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK

Other related papyri[edit]

Vol Oxy Date Content Institution City, State Country
IX 1173 250 Philo Bodleian Library Oxford UK
XI 1356 250 Philo Bodleian Library Oxford UK
XVIII 2158 250 Philo Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXXVI 2745 400 onomasticon of Hebrew names Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK

New Testament[edit]

Papyrus P1: Matthew 1
Main article: New Testament

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri have provided the most numerous sub-group of the earliest copies of the New Testament. These are surviving portions of codices (books) written in Greek uncial (capital) letters on papyrus. The first of these were excavated by Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt in Oxyrhynchus, at the turn of the 20th century. Of the 127 registered New Testament papyri, 52 (41%) are from Oxyrhynchus. The earliest of the papyri are dated to the middle of the 2nd century, so were copied within about a century of the writing of the original New Testament documents.[3]

Grenfell and Hunt discovered the first New Testament papyrus (P1), on only the second day of excavation, in the winter of 1896–7. This, together with the other early discoveries, was published in 1898, in the first volume of the now 70-volume work, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri.[4]

  • The third column (CRG) refers to the now standard sequences of Caspar René Gregory.
  • P indicates a papyrus manuscript, a number beginning with zero indicates vellum.
  • The CRG number is an adequate abbreviated citation for New Testament manuscripts.
  • Content is given to the nearest chapter; verses are sometimes listed.
Vol Oxy CRG Date Content Institution City, State Country
I 2 P1 250 Matthew 1 University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia
Pennsylvania
U.S.
I 3 069 500 Mark 10:50.51; 11:11.12 Frederick Haskell Oriental Institute
University of Chicago; 2057
Chicago
Illinois
U.S.
II 208=1781 P5 250 John 1, 16, 20 British Library London UK
II 209 P10 350 Romans 1 Houghton Library, Harvard Cambridge
Massachusetts
U.S.
III 401 071 500 Matthew 10–11 † Harvard Semitic Museum; 3735 Cambridge
Massachusetts
U.S.
III 402 P9 250 1 John 4 Houghton Library, Harvard Cambridge
Massachusetts
U.S.
IV 657 P13 250 Hebrews 2–5, 10–12 British Library London UK
VI 847 0162 300 John 2 Metropolitan Museum of Art New York U.S.
VI 848 0163 450 Revelation 16 Metropolitan Museum of Art New York U.S.
VII 1008 P15 250 1 Corinthians 7–8 Egyptian Museum Cairo Egypt
VII 1009 P16 300 Philippians 3–4 Egyptian Museum Cairo Egypt
VIII 1078 P17 350 Hebrews 9 Cambridge University Library, Cambridge Cambridge UK
VIII 1079 P18 300 Revelation 1 British Library London UK
VIII 1080 0169 350 Revelation 3–4 Robert Elliott Speer Library
Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton U.S.
IX 1169 0170 500 Matthew 6 Robert Elliott Speer Library
Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton U.S.
IX 1170 P19 400 Matthew 10–11 Bodleian Library Oxford UK
IX 1171 P20 250 James 2–3 Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library, Princeton Princeton
New Jersey
U.S.
X 1227 P21 400 Matthew 12 Muhlenberg College Allentown
Pennsylvania
U.S.
X 1228 P22 250 John 15–16 Glasgow University Library Glasgow UK
X 1229 P23 250 James 1 University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois U.S.
X 1230 P24 350 Revelation 5–6 Franklin Trask Library
Andover Newton Theological School
Newton
Massachusetts
U.S.
XI 1353 0206 350 1 Peter 5 United Theological Seminary Dayton, Ohio U.S.
XI 1354 P26 600 Romans 1 Joseph S. Bridwell Library
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, Texas U.S.
XI 1355 P27 250 Romans 8–9 Cambridge University Library Cambridge UK
XIII 1596 P28 250 John 6 Palestine Institute Museum
Pacific School of Religion
Berkeley
California
U.S.
XIII 1597 P29 250 Acts 26 Bodleian Library Oxford UK
XIII 1598 P30 250 1 Ths 4–5; 2 Ths 1 Ghent University Library Ghent Belgium
XV 1780 P39 250 John 8 Ambrose Swasey Library Rochester
New York
U.S.
XV 1781=208 P5 250 John 1, 16, 20 British Library London UK
XVIII 2157 P51 400 Galatians 1 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXIV 2383 P69 250 Luke 22 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXIV 2384 P70 250 Matthew 2–3, 11–12, 24 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXIV 2385 P71 350 Matthew 19 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXXIV/LXIV 2683/4405 P77 200 Matthew 23 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XXXIV 2684 P78 300 Jude Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
L 3523 P90 150 John 18–19 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4449 P100 300 James 3–5 Sackler Library
Papyrology Rooms
Oxford UK
LXIV 4401 P101 250 Matthew 3–4 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXIV 4402 P102 300 Matthew 4 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXIV 4403 P103 200 Matthew 13–14 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXIV 4404 P104 150 Matthew 21? Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXIV 4406 P105 500 Matthew 27–28 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4445 P106 250 John 1 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4446 P107 250 John 17 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4447 P108 250 John 17/18 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXV 4448 P109 250 John 21 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXVI 4494 P110 350 Matthew 10 Sackler Library
Papyrology Rooms
Oxford UK
LXVI 4495 P111 250 Luke 17 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXVI 4496 P112 450 Acts 26–27 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXVI 4497 P113 250 Romans 2 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXVI 4498 P114 250 Hebrews 1 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXVI 4499 P115 300 Revelation 2–3, 5–6, 8–15 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXVI 4500 0308 350 Revelation 11:15–18 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXI 4803 P119 250 John 1:21–28, 38–44 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXI 4804 P120 350 John 1:25–28, 33-38, 42–44 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXI 4805 P121 250 John 19:17–18, 25–26 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXI 4806 P122 4th/5th century John 21:11–14, 22–24 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXII 4844 P123 4th/5th century 1 Corinthians 14:31–34; 15:3–6 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXII 4845 P124 4th/5th century 2 Corinthians 11:1-4. 6-9 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXIII 4934 P125 3rd/4th century 1 Peter 1:23-2:5.7-12 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXXIV 4968 P127 5th century Acts 10–17 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK

New Testament Apocrypha[edit]

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri collection contains around twenty manuscripts of New Testament apocrypha, works from the early Christian period that presented themselves as biblical books, but were not eventually received as such by the orthodoxy. These works found at Oxyrhynchus include the gospels of Thomas, Mary, Peter, James, The Shepherd of Hermas, and the Didache. Among this collection are also a few manuscripts of unknown gospels. The three manuscripts of Thomas represent the only known Greek manuscripts of this work; the only other surviving manuscript of Thomas is a nearly complete Coptic manuscript from the Nag Hammadi find.[5] P. Oxy. 4706, a manuscript of The Shepherd of Hermas, is notable because two sections believed by scholars to have been often circulated independently, Visions and Commandments, were found on the same roll.[6]

  • P. Oxy. V 840 and P. Oxy. XV 1782 are vellum
  • 2949?, 3525, 3529? 4705, and 4706 are rolls, the rest codices.
Vol Oxy Date Content Institution City, State Country
Early Writings
LXIX 4705 250 Shepherd, Visions 1:1, 8–9 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LXIX 4706 200 The Shepherd of Hermas
Visions 3–4; Commandments 2; 4–9
Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
L 3526 350 Shepherd, Commandments 5–6

[same codex as 1172]

Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XV 1783 325 Shepherd, Commandments 9
IX 1172 350 Shepherd, Parables 2:4–10

[same codex as 3526]

British Library; Inv. 224 London UK
LXIX 4707 250 Shepherd, Parables 6:3–7:2 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
XIII 1599 350 Shepherd, Parables 8
L 3527 200 Shepherd, Parables 8:4–5 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
L 3528 200 Shepherd, Parables 9:20–22 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
III 404 300 Shepherd
XV 1782 350 Didache 1–3 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
Pseudepigrapha
I 1 200 Gospel of Thomas Bodleian Library
Ms. Gr. Th. e 7 (P)
Oxford UK
IV 654 200 Gospel of Thomas British Museum; Inv. 1531 London UK
IV 655 200 Gospel of Thomas Houghton Library, Harvard
SM Inv. 4367
Cambridge
Massachusetts
U.S.
XLI 2949 200 Gospel of Peter? Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
L 3524 550 Gospel of James 25:1 Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
L 3525 250 Gospel of Mary Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
LX 4009 150 Gospel of Peter? Ashmolean Museum Oxford UK
I 6 450 Acts of Paul and Thecla
VI 849 325 Acts of Peter
VI 850 350 Acts of John
VI 851 500 Apocryphal Acts
VIII 1081 Gnostic Gospel
II 210 250 Unknown gospel Cambridge University Library
Add. Ms. 4048
Cambridge UK
V 840 200 Unknown gospel Bodleian Library
Ms. Gr. Th. g 11
Oxford UK
X 1224 300 Unknown gospel Bodleian Library
Ms. Gr. Th. e 8 (P)
Oxford UK

Other related texts[edit]

  • Four exact dates are marked in bold type:
three libelli are dated: all to the year 250, two to the month, and one to the day;
a warrant to arrest a Christian is dated to 28 February 256.
Vol Oxy Date Content Institution City, State Country
biblical quotes
VIII 1077 550 Amulet: magic text
quotes Matthew 4:23–24
Trexler Library; Pap. Theol. 2
Muhlenberg College
Allentown
Pennsylvania
U.S.
LX 4010 350 "Our Father" (Matthew 6:9ff)
with introductory prayer
Papyrology Room
Ashmolean Museum
Oxford UK
creeds
XVII 2067 450 Nicene Creed (325) Papyrology Room
Ashmolean Museum
Oxford UK
XV 1784 450 Constantinopolitan Creed (381) Ambrose Swasey Library
Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
Rochester
New York
U.S.
church fathers
III 405 250 Irenaeus, Against Heresies Cambridge University Library
Add. Ms. 4413
Cambridge UK
XXXI 2531 550 Theophilus of Alexandria
Peri Katanuxeos [?]
Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
unknown theological works
XIII 1600 450 treatise on The Passion Bodleian Library
Ms. Gr. Th. d 4 (P)
Oxford UK
I 4 300 theological fragment Cambridge University Library Cambridge UK
III 406 250 theological fragment Library; BH 88470.1
McCormick Theological Seminary
Chicago
Illinois
U.S.
dialogues (theological discussions)
XVII 2070 275 anti-Jewish dialogue Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
XVII 2071 550 fragment of a dialogue Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
apologies (arguments in defence of Christianity)
XVII 2072 250 fragment of an apology Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
homilies (short sermons)
XIII 1601 400 homily about spiritual warfare Ambrose Swasey Library
Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
Rochester
New York
U.S.
XIII 1602 400 homily to monks (vellum) University Library
State University of Ghent
Ghent Belgium
XIII 1603 500 homily about women John Rylands University Library
Inv R. 55247
Manchester UK
XV 1785 450 collection of homilies [?] Payrology Room
Ashmolean Museum
Oxford UK
XVII 2073 375 fragment of a homily
and other text
Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
liturgical texts (protocols for Christian meetings)
XVII 2068 350 liturgical [?] fragments Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
III 407 300 Christian prayer Department of Manuscripts
British Museum
London UK
XV 1786 275 Christian hymn
with musical notation
Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
hagiographies (biographies of saints)
L 3529 350 martyrdom of Dioscorus Payrology Room
Ashmolean Museum
Oxford UK
libelli (certificates of pagan sacrifice)
LVIII 3929 250 libellus from between
25 June and 24 July 250
Payrology Room
Ashmolean Museum
Oxford UK
IV 658 250 libellus from the year 250 Beinecke Library
Yale University
New Haven
Connecticut
U.S.
XII 1464 250 libellus 27 June 250 Department of Manuscripts
British Museum
London UK
XLI 2990 250 libellus from the 3rd century Papyrology Rooms
Sackler Library
Oxford UK
other documentary texts
XLII 3035 256 warrant to arrest a Christian
28 February 256
Payrology Room
Ashmolean Museum
Oxford UK
other fragments
I 5 300 early Christian fragment Bodleian Library
Ms. Gr. Th. f 9 (P)
Oxford UK

Homer[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sophocles' Ichneutae was adapted, in 1988, into a play entitled The Trackers of Oxyrhynchus, by British poet and author Tony Harrison, featuring Grenfell and Hunt as main characters.
  2. ^ Search by table of contents; "Oxyrhynchus Online Image Database". Imaging Papyri Project. Retrieved 25 May 2007.  A listing of what each fragment contains.
  3. ^ Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 27th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001).
  4. ^ Philip W Comfort and David P Barrett. The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers Incorporated, 2001.
  5. ^ Kirby, Peter. "Gospel of Thomas" (2001-2006) earlychristianwritings.com Retrieved June 30, 2007.
  6. ^ Barbantani, Silvia. "Review: Gonis (N.), Obbink (D.) [et al.] (edd., trans.) The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Volume LXIX. (Graeco-Roman Memoirs 89.)" (2007) The Classical Review, 57:1 p.66 Cambridge University Press doi:10.1017/S0009840X06003209

External links[edit]